# Biblio

The numerical analysis of transient quantum effects in heterostructure devices with conventional numerical methods tends to pose problems. To overcome these limitations, a novel numerical scheme for the transient non-equilibrium solution of the quantum Liouville equation utilizing a finite volume discretization technique is proposed. Additionally, the solution with regard to the stationary regime, which can serve as a reference solution, is inherently included within the discretization scheme for the transient regime. Resulting in a highly oscillating interference pattern of the statistical density matrix as well in the stationary as in the transient regime, the reflecting nature of the conventional boundary conditions can be an additional source of error. Avoiding these non-physical reflections, the concept of a complex absorbing potential used for the Schrödinger equation is utilized to redefine the drift operator in order to render open boundary conditions for quantum transport equations. Furthermore, the method allows the application of the commonly used concept of inflow boundary conditions.

Interior permanent magnet (IPM)-type linear oscillating actuators (LOAs) have a higher output power density than typical LOAs. Their mover consists of a permanent magnet (PM) and an iron core, however, this configuration generates significant side forces. The device can malfunction due to eccentricity in the electromagnetic behavior. Thus, here an electromagnetic design was developed to minimize this side force. In addition, dynamic analysis was performed considering the mechanical systems of LOAs. To perform a more accurate analysis, instantaneous inductance was considered according to the mover's position.

Extended interaction oscillators (EIOs) are high-frequency vacuum-electronic sources, capable to generate millimeter-wave to terahertz (THz) radiations. They are considered to be potential sources of high-power submillimeter wavelengths. Different slow-wave structures and beam geometries are used for EIOs. This paper presents a quantitative figure of merit, the critical unloaded oscillating frequency (fcr) for any specific geometry of EIO. This figure is calculated and tested for 2π standing-wave modes (a common mode for EIOs) of two different slowwave structures (SWSs), one double-ridge SWS driven by a sheet electron beam and one ring-loaded waveguide driven by a cylindrical beam. The calculated fcrs are compared with particle-in-cell (PIC) results, showing an acceptable agreement. The derived fcr is calculated three to four orders of magnitude faster than the PIC solver. Generality of the method, its clear physical interpretation and computational rapidity, makes it a convenient approach to evaluate the high-frequency behavior of any specified EIO geometry. This allows to investigate the changes in geometry to attain higher frequencies at THz spectrum.

The aim of this paper is to explore the performance of two well-known wave energy converters (WECs) namely Floating Buoy Point Absorber (FBPA) and Oscillating Surge (OS) in onshore and offshore locations. To achieve clean energy targets by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, integration of renewable energy resources is continuously increasing all around the world. In addition to widespread renewable energy source such as wind and solar photovoltaic (PV), wave energy extracted from ocean is becoming more tangible day by day. In the literature, a number of WEC devices are reported. However, further investigations are still needed to better understand the behaviors of FBPA WEC and OS WEC under irregular wave conditions in onshore and offshore locations. Note that being surrounded by Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh has huge scope of utilizing wave power. To this end, FBPA WEC and OS WEC are simulated using the typical onshore and offshore wave height and wave period of the coastal area of Bangladesh. Afterwards, performances of the aforementioned two WECs are compared by analyzing their power output.

Linear oscillating actuators are emerging electrical motors applied to direct-drive electromechanical systems. They merit high efficiency and quick dynamical property due to the unique structure of spring oscillator. Resonant principle is the base of their high performance, which however, is easily influenced by various load, complex environment and mechanical failure. This paper studies the modeling of linear oscillating actuators in multi-work condition. Three kinds of load are considered in performance evaluation model. Simulations are conducted at different frequencies to obtain the actuator behavior, especially at non-resonance frequencies. A method of constant impedance angle is proposed to search the best working points in sorts of conditions. Eventually, analytical results reflect that the resonant parameter would drift with load, while linear oscillating actuators exhibits robustness in efficiency performance. Several evaluating parameters are concluded to assess the actuator health status.

This paper deals with the modeling and control of the NEREIDA wave generation power plant installed in Mutriku, Spain. This kind of Oscillating Water Column (OWC) plants usually employ a Wells turbine coupled to a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). The stalling behavior of the Wells turbine limits the generated power. In this context, a sliding mode rotational speed control is proposed to help avoiding this phenomenon. This will regulate the speed by means of the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) of the Back-to-Back converter governing the generator. The results of the comparative study show that the proposed control provides a higher generated power compared to the uncontrolled case.

The NEREIDA wave generation power plant installed in Mutriku, Spain is a multiple Oscillating Water Column (OWC) plant. The power takeoff consists of a Wells turbine coupled to a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). The stalling behavior present in the Wells turbine limits the generated power. This paper presents the modeling and a Harmony Search Algorithm-based airflow control of the OWC. The Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) is proposed to help overcome the limitations of a traditionally tuned PID. An investigation between HSA-tuned controller and the traditionally tuned controller has been performed. Results of the controlled and uncontrolled plant prove the effectiveness of the airflow control and the superiority of the HSA-tuned controller.

The class φ2 is a single transistor, fast transient inverter topology often associated with power conversion at very high frequency (VHF: 30MHz-300MHz). At VHF, gate drivers available on the market fail to provide the adequate transistor switching signal. Hence, there is a need for new power topologies that do no make use of gate drivers but are still suitable for power conversion at VHF. In This paper, we introduce a new class φ;2 topology that incorporates an oscillator, which takes the drain signal through a feedback circuit in order to force the transistor switching. A design methodology is provided and a 1MHz 20V input prototype is built in order to validate the topology behaviour.

Mutriku wave farm is the first commercial plant all around the world. Since July 2011 it has been continuously selling electricity to the grid. It operates with the OWC technology and has 14 operating Wells-type turbines. In the plant there is a SCADA data recording system that collects the most important parameters of the turbines; among them, the pressure in the inlet chamber, the position of the security valve (from fully open to fully closed) and the generated power in the last 5 minutes. There is also an electricity meter which provides information about the amount of electric energy sold to the grid. The 2014 winter (January, February and March), and especially the first fortnight of February, was a stormy winter with rough sea state conditions. This was reflected both in the performance of the turbines (high pressure values, up to 9234.2 Pa; low opening degrees of the security valve, down to 49.4°; and high power generation of about 7681.6 W, all these data being average values) and in the calculated capacity factor (CF = 0.265 in winter and CF = 0.294 in February 2014). This capacity factor is a good tool for the comparison of different WEC technologies or different locations and shows an important seasonal behavior.

Inductive contactless energy transfer (CET) systems show a certain oscillating transient behavior of inrush currents on both system sides. This causes current overshoots in the electrical components and has to be considered for the system dimensioning. This paper presents a simple and yet very accurate model, which describes the dynamic behavior of series-series compensated inductive CET systems. This model precisely qualifies the systems current courses for both sides in time domain. Additionally, an analysis in frequency domain allows further knowledge for parameter estimation. Since this model is applicable for purely resistive loads and constant voltage loads with bridge rectifiers, it is very practicable and can be useful for control techniques and narameter estimation.

In this paper we consider connected and autonomous vehicles (CAV) in a traffic network as moving waves defined by their frequency and phase. This outlook allows us to develop a multi-layer decentralized control strategy that achieves the following desirable behaviors: (1) safe spacing between vehicles traveling down the same road, (2) coordinated safe crossing at intersections of conflicting flows, (3) smooth velocity profiles when traversing adjacent intersections. The approach consist of using the Kuramoto equation to synchronize the phase and frequency of agents in the network. The output of this layer serves as the reference trajectory for a back-stepping controller that interfaces the first-order dynamics of the phase-domain layer and the second order dynamics of the vehicle. We show the performance of the strategy for a single intersection and a small urban grid network. The literature has focused on solving the intersection coordination problem in both a centralized and decentralized manner. Some authors have even used the Kuramoto equation to achieve synchronization of traffic lights. Our proposed strategy falls in the rubric of a decentralized approach, but unlike previous work, it defines the vehicles as the oscillating agents, and leverages their inter-connectivity to achieve network-wide synchronization. In this way, it combines the benefits of coordinating the crossing of vehicles at individual intersections and synchronizing flow from adjacent junctions.

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are vulnerable to various modelling attacks. The chaotic behaviour of oscillating systems can be leveraged to improve their security against these attacks. We have integrated an Arbiter PUF implemented on a FPGA with Chua's oscillator circuit to obtain robust final responses. These responses are tested against conventional Machine Learning and Deep Learning attacks for verifying security of the design. It has been found that such a design is robust with prediction accuracy of nearly 50%. Moreover, the quality of the PUF architecture is evaluated for uniformity and uniqueness metrics and Monte Carlo analysis at varying temperatures is performed for determining reliability.

A spin-Hall nano-oscillator (SHNO) is a type of spintronic oscillator that shows promising performance as a nanoscale microwave source and for neuromorphic computing applications. Within such nanodevices, a non-ferromagnetic layer in the presence of an external magnetic field and a DC bias current generates an oscillating microwave voltage. For developing optimal nano-oscillators, accurate simulations of the device's complex behaviour are required before fabrication. This work simulates the key behaviour of a nanoconstriction SHNO as the applied DC bias current is varied. The current density and Oersted field of the device have been presented, the magnetisation oscillations have been clearly visualised in three dimensions and the spatial distribution of the active mode determined. These simulations allow designers a greater understanding and characterisation of the device's behaviour while also providing a means of comparison when experimental resultsO are generated.

This paper considers the complex of models for the description, analysis, and modeling of group behavior by user actions in complex social systems. In particular, electoral processes can be considered in which preferences are selected from several possible ones. For example, for two candidates, the choice is made from three states: for the candidate A, for candidate B and undecided (candidate C). Thus, any of the voters can be in one of the three states, and the interaction between them leads to the transition between the states with some delay time intervals, which are one of the parameters of the proposed models. The dynamics of changes in the preferences of voters can be described graphically on diagram of possible transitions between states, on the basis of which is possible to write a system of differential kinetic equations that describes the process. The analysis of the obtained solutions shows the possibility of existence within the model, different modes of changing the preferences of voters. In the developed model of stochastic cellular automata with variable memory at each step of the interaction process between its cells, a new network of random links is established, the minimum and the maximum number of which is selected from a given range. At the initial time, a cell of each type is assigned a numeric parameter that specifies the number of steps during which will retain its type (cell memory). The transition of cells between states is determined by the total number of cells of different types with which there was interaction at the given number of memory steps. After the number of steps equal to the depth of memory, transition to the type that had the maximum value of its sum occurs. The effect of external factors (such as media) on changes in node types can set for each step using a transition probability matrix. Processing of the electoral campaign's sociological data of 2015-2016 at the choice of the President of the United States using the method of almost-periodic functions allowed to estimate the parameters of a set of models and use them to describe, analyze and model the group behavior of voters. The studies show a good correspondence between the data observed in sociology and calculations using a set of developed models. Under some sets of values of the coefficients in the differential equations and models of cellular automata are observed the oscillating and almost-periodic character of changes in the preferences of the electorate, which largely coincides with the real observations.

Untethered microrobots actuated by external magnetic fields have drawn extensive attention recently, due to their potential advantages in real-time tracking and targeted delivery in vivo. To control a swarm of microrobots with external fields, however, is still one of the major challenges in this field. In this work, we present new methods to generate ribbon-like and vortex-like microrobotic swarms using oscillating and rotating magnetic fields, respectively. Paramagnetic nanoparticles with a diameter of 400 nm serve as the agents. These two types of swarms exhibits out-of-equilibrium structure, in which the nanoparticles perform synchronised motions. By tuning the magnetic fields, the swarming patterns can be reversibly transformed. Moreover, by increasing the pitch angle of the applied fields, the swarms are capable of performing navigated locomotion with a controlled velocity. This work sheds light on a better understanding for microrobotic swarm behaviours and paves the way for potential biomedical applications.

This paper deals with effects of current sensor bandwidth and time delays in a system controlled by a Phase-Shift Self-Oscillating Current Controller (PSSOCC). The robustness of this current controller has been proved in former works showing its good performances in a large range of applications including AC/DC and DC/AC converters, power factor correction, active filters, isolation amplifiers and motor control. As switching frequencies can be upper than 30kHz, time delays and bandwidth limitations cannot be neglected in comparison with former works on this robust current controller. Thus, several models are proposed in this paper to analyze system behaviours. Those models permit to find analytical expressions binding maximum oscillation frequency with time delay and/or additional filter parameters. Through current spectrums analysis, quality of analytical expressions is proved for each model presented in this work. An experimental approach shows that every element of the electronic board having a low-pass effect or delaying command signals need to be included in the model in order to have a perfect match between calculations, simulations and practical results.

The relative permittivity (also known as dielectric constant) is one of the physical properties that characterize a substance. The measurement of its magnitude can be useful in the analysis of several fluids, playing an important role in many industrial processes. This paper presents a method for measuring the relative permittivity of fluids, with the possibility of real-time monitoring. The method comprises the immersion of a capacitive sensor inside a tank or duct, in order to have the inspected substance as its dielectric. An electronic circuit is responsible for exciting this sensor, which will have its capacitance measured through a quick analysis of two analog signals outputted by the circuit. The developed capacitance meter presents a novel topology derived from the well-known Howland current source. One of its main advantages is the capacitance-selective behavior, which allows the system to overcome the effects of parasitic resistive and inductive elements on its readings. In addition to an adjustable current output that suits different impedance magnitudes, it exhibits a steady oscillating behavior, thus allowing continuous operation without any form of external control. This paper presents experimental results obtained from the proposed system and compares them to measurements made with proven and calibrated equipment. Two initial capacitance measurements performed with the system for evaluating the sensor's characteristics exhibited relative errors of approximately 0.07% and 0.53% in comparison to an accurate workbench LCR meter.

This article is dedicated to the study of an innovative architecture for the conversion of renewable marine energy into electrical energy. It consists of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) combined with a three-phase Vienna rectifier. This last converter is not reversible but has the advantage of minimizing the number of active switches. This improves the operational reliability of the chain, which is necessary in the context of marine energy exploitation where access to the installations is not easy. The study focuses on the behavior analysis of electrical chain conversion, and the study of phase and neutral current according to the conduction’s states of the switches of the Vienna rectifier is being investigated. Despite the high non-linearity of this architecture, this control is made possible through to the dynamic performance and control of the maximum switching frequency of the self-oscillating controller called the Phase-Shift Self-Oscillating Current Controller (PSSOCC).

This paper develops a model for Wells turbine using Xilinx system generator (XSG)toolbox of Matlab. The Wells turbine is very popular in oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converters. Mostly, the turbine behavior is emulated in a controlled DC or AC motor coupled with a generator. Therefore, it is required to model the OWC and Wells turbine in real time software like XSG. It generates the OWC turbine behavior in real time. Next, a PI control scheme is suggested for controlling the DC motor so as to emulate the Wells turbine efficiently. The overall performance of the system is tested with asquirrel cage induction generator (SCIG). The Pierson-Moskowitz and JONSWAP irregular wave models have been applied to validate the OWC model. Finally, the simulation results for Wells turbine and PI controller have beendiscussed.

The study of spin waves (SW) excitation in magnetic devices is one of the most important topics in modern magnetism due to the applications of the information carrier and the signal processing. We experimentally realize a spin-wave generator, capable of frequency modulation, in a magnonic waveguide. The emission of spin waves was produced by the reversal or oscillation of nanoscale magnetic vortex cores in a NiFe disk array. The vortex cores in the disk array were excited by an out of plane radio frequency (rf) magnetic field. The dynamic behaviors of the magnetization of NiFe were studied using a micro-focused Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy (BLS) setup.

Microcavity polaritons are a hybrid photonic system that arises from the strong coupling of confined photons to quantum-well excitons. Due to their light-matter nature, polaritons possess a Kerr-like nonlinearity while being easily accessible by standard optical means. The ability to engineer confinement potentials in microcavities makes polaritons a very convenient system to study spatially localized bosonic populations, which might have great potential for the creation of novel photonic devices. Careful engineering of this system is predicted to induce Gaussian squeezing, a phenomenon that lies at a heart of the so-called unconventional photon blockade associated with single photon emission. This paper reveals a manifestation of the predicted squeezing by measuring the ultrafast time-dependent second-order correlation function g(2)(0) by means of a streak-camera acting as a single photon detector. The light emitted by the microcavity oscillates between Poissonian and super-Poissonian in phase with the Josephson dynamics. This behavior is remarkably well explained by quantum simulations, which predict such dynamical evolution of the squeezing parameters. The paper shows that a crucial prerequisite for squeezing is presence of a weak, but non-zero nonlinearity. Results open the way towards generation of nonclassical light in solid-state systems possessing a single particle nonlinearity like microwave Josephson junctions or silicon-on-chip resonators.

Mimicking the collaborative behavior of biological swarms, such as bird flocks and ant colonies, Swarm Intelligence algorithms provide efficient solutions for various optimization problems. On the other hand, a computational model of the human brain, spiking neural networks, has been showing great promise in recognition, inference, and learning, due to recent emergence of neuromorphic hardware for high-efficient and low-power computing. Through bridging these two distinct research fields, we propose a novel computing paradigm that implements the swarm intelligence with a population of coupled spiking neural oscillators in basic leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model. Our model behaves as a meta-heuristic searching conducted by multiple collaborative agents. In this design, the oscillating neurons serve as agents in the swarm, search for solutions in frequency coding and communicate with each other through spikes. The firing rate of each agent is adaptive to other agents with better solutions and the optimal solution is rendered as the swarm synchronization is reached. We apply the proposed method to the parameter optimization in several test objective functions and demonstrate its effectiveness and efficiency. Our new computing paradigm expands the computational power of coupled spiking neurons in the field of solving optimization problem and brings opportunities for the connection between individual intelligence and swarm intelligence.

Interconnect opens are known to be one of the predominant defects in nanoscale technologies. Automatic test pattern generation for open faults is challenging, because of their rather unstable behavior and the numerous electrical parameters which need to be considered. Thus, most approaches try to avoid accurate modeling of all constraints like the influence of the aggressors on the open net and use simplified fault models in order to detect as many faults as possible or make assumptions which decrease both complexity and accuracy. Yet, this leads to the problem that not only generated tests may be invalidated but also the localization of a specific fault may fail - in case such a model is used as basis for diagnosis. Furthermore, most of the models do not consider the problem of oscillating behavior, caused by feedback introduced by coupling capacitances, which occurs in almost all designs. In [1], the Robust Enhanced Aggressor Victim Model (REAV) and in [2] an extension to address the problem of oscillating behavior were introduced. The resulting model does not only consider the influence of all aggressors accurately but also guarantees robustness against oscillating behavior as well as process variations affecting the thresholds of gates driven by an open interconnect. In this work we present the first diagnostic classification algorithm for this model. This algorithm considers all constraints enforced by the REAV model accurately - and hence handles unknown values as well as oscillating behavior. In addition, it allows to distinguish faults at the same interconnect and thus reducing the area that has to be considered for physical failure analysis. Experimental results show the high efficiency of the new method handling circuits with up to 500,000 non-equivalent faults and considerably increasing the diagnostic resolution.