Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is supply chain management  [Clear All Filters]
2020-03-12
Salmani, Hassan, Hoque, Tamzidul, Bhunia, Swarup, Yasin, Muhammad, Rajendran, Jeyavijayan JV, Karimi, Naghmeh.  2019.  Special Session: Countering IP Security Threats in Supply Chain. 2019 IEEE 37th VLSI Test Symposium (VTS). :1–9.

The continuing decrease in feature size of integrated circuits, and the increase of the complexity and cost of design and fabrication has led to outsourcing the design and fabrication of integrated circuits to third parties across the globe, and in turn has introduced several security vulnerabilities. The adversaries in the supply chain can pirate integrated circuits, overproduce these circuits, perform reverse engineering, and/or insert hardware Trojans in these circuits. Developing countermeasures against such security threats is highly crucial. Accordingly, this paper first develops a learning-based trust verification framework to detect hardware Trojans. To tackle Trojan insertion, IP piracy and overproduction, logic locking schemes and in particular stripped functionality logic locking is discussed and its resiliency against the state-of-the-art attacks is investigated.

Gorodnichev, Mikhail G., Nazarova, Anastasia N., Moseva, Marina S..  2019.  Development of Platform for Confirming and Storing Supply Data Using Blockchain Technology. 2019 International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT QM IS). :182–185.

This article is devoted to the development of a platform for reliable storage of information on supplies based on blockchain technology. The article discusses the main approaches to the work of decentralized applications, as well as the main problems.

Yousuf, Soha, Svetinovic, Davor.  2019.  Blockchain Technology in Supply Chain Management: Preliminary Study. 2019 Sixth International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IOTSMS). :537–538.

Despite significant research, the supply chain management challenges still have a long way to go with respect to solving the issues such as management of product supply information, product lifecycle, transport history, etc. Given the recent rise of blockchain technology in various industrial sectors, our work explores the issues prevalent in each stage of the supply chain and checks their candidacy for the implementation using blockchain technology. The analysis is performed in terms of the characteristics of trust and decentralization with respect to forming a generalized framework. The main contribution of this work is to create a conceptual overview of the areas where blockchain integrates with supply chain management in order to benefit further research and development.

Kumar, Randhir, Tripathi, Rakesh.  2019.  Traceability of Counterfeit Medicine Supply Chain through Blockchain. 2019 11th International Conference on Communication Systems Networks (COMSNETS). :568–570.

The main issues with drug safety in the counterfeit medicine supply chain, are to do with how the drugs are initially manufactured. The traceability of right and active pharmaceutical ingredients during actual manufacture is a difficult process, so detecting drugs that do not contain the intended active ingredients can ultimately lead to end-consumer patient harm or even death. Blockchain's advanced features make it capable of providing a basis for complete traceability of drugs, from manufacturer to end consumer, and the ability to identify counterfeit-drug. This paper aims to address the issue of drug safety using Blockchain and encrypted QR(quick response) code security.

Zhang, Haibo, Nakamura, Toru, Sakurai, Kouichi.  2019.  Security and Trust Issues on Digital Supply Chain. 2019 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :338–343.

This exploratory investigation aims to discuss current status and challenges, especially in aspect of security and trust problems, of digital supply chain management system with applying some advanced information technologies, such as Internet of Things, cloud computing and blockchain, for improving various system performance and properties, i.e. transparency, visibility, accountability, traceability and reliability. This paper introduces the general histories and definitions, in terms of information science, of the supply chain and relevant technologies which have been applied or are potential to be applied on supply chain with purpose of lowering cost, facilitating its security and convenience. It provides a comprehensive review of current relative research work and industrial cases from several famous companies. It also illustrates requirements or performance of digital supply chain system, security management and trust issues. Finally, this paper concludes several potential or existing security issues and challenges which supply chain management is facing.

Wu, Hanqing, Cao, Jiannong, Yang, Yanni, Tung, Cheung Leong, Jiang, Shan, Tang, Bin, Liu, Yang, Wang, Xiaoqing, Deng, Yuming.  2019.  Data Management in Supply Chain Using Blockchain: Challenges and a Case Study. 2019 28th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN). :1–8.

Supply chain management (SCM) is fundamental for gaining financial, environmental and social benefits in the supply chain industry. However, traditional SCM mechanisms usually suffer from a wide scope of issues such as lack of information sharing, long delays for data retrieval, and unreliability in product tracing. Recent advances in blockchain technology show great potential to tackle these issues due to its salient features including immutability, transparency, and decentralization. Although there are some proof-of-concept studies and surveys on blockchain-based SCM from the perspective of logistics, the underlying technical challenges are not clearly identified. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive analysis of potential opportunities, new requirements, and principles of designing blockchain-based SCM systems. We summarize and discuss four crucial technical challenges in terms of scalability, throughput, access control, data retrieval and review the promising solutions. Finally, a case study of designing blockchain-based food traceability system is reported to provide more insights on how to tackle these technical challenges in practice.

Gawanmeh, Amjad, Parvin, Sazia, Venkatraman, Sitalakshmi, de Souza-Daw, Tony, Kang, James, Kaspi, Samuel, Jackson, Joanna.  2019.  A Framework for Integrating Big Data Security Into Agricultural Supply Chain. 2019 IEEE Fifth International Conference on Big Data Computing Service and Applications (BigDataService). :191–194.

In the era of mass agriculture to keep up with the increasing demand for food production, advanced monitoring systems are required in order to handle several challenges such as perishable products, food waste, unpredictable supply variations and stringent food safety and sustainability requirements. The evolution of Internet of Things have provided means for collecting, processing, and communicating data associated with agricultural processes. This have opened several opportunities to sustain, improve productivity and reduce waste in every step in the food supply chain system. On the hand, this resulted in several new challenges, such as, the security of the data, recording and representation of data, providing real time control, reliability of the system, and dealing with big data. This paper proposes an architecture for security of big data in the agricultural supply chain management system. This can help in reducing food waste, increasing the reliability of the supply chain, and enhance the performance of the food supply chain system.

2020-03-02
Swathi, P, Modi, Chirag, Patel, Dhiren.  2019.  Preventing Sybil Attack in Blockchain Using Distributed Behavior Monitoring of Miners. 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–6.

Blockchain technology is useful with the record keeping of digital transactions, IoT, supply chain management etc. However, we have observed that the traditional attacks are possible on blockchain due to lack of robust identity management. We found that Sybil attack can cause severe impact in public/permissionless blockchain, in which an attacker can subvert the blockchain by creating a large number of pseudonymous identities (i.e. Fake user accounts) and push legitimate entities in the minority. Such virtual nodes can act like genuine nodes to create disproportionately large influence on the network. This may lead to several other attacks like DoS, DDoS etc. In this paper, a Sybil attack is demonstrated on a blockchain test bed with its impact on the throughput of the system. We propose a solution directive, in which each node monitors the behavior of other nodes and checks for the nodes which are forwarding the blocks of only particular user. Such nodes are quickly identified, blacklisted and notified to other nodes, and thus the Sybil attack can be restricted. We analyze experimental results of the proposed solution.

2020-01-27
Xuefeng, He, Chi, Zhang, Yuewu, Jing, Xingzheng, Ai.  2019.  Risk Evaluation of Agricultural Product Supply Chain Based on BP Neural Network. 2019 16th International Conference on Service Systems and Service Management (ICSSSM). :1–8.

The potential risk of agricultural product supply chain is huge because of the complex attributes specific to it. Actually the safety incidents of edible agricultural product emerge frequently in recent years, which expose the fragility of the agricultural product supply chain. In this paper the possible risk factors in agricultural product supply chain is analyzed in detail, the agricultural product supply chain risk evaluation index system and evaluation model are established, and an empirical analysis is made using BP neural network method. The results show that the risk ranking of the simulated evaluation is consistent with the target value ranking, and the risk assessment model has a good generalization and extension ability, and the model has a good reference value for preventing agricultural product supply chain risk.

Salamai, Abdullah, Hussain, Omar, Saberi, Morteza.  2019.  Decision Support System for Risk Assessment Using Fuzzy Inference in Supply Chain Big Data. 2019 International Conference on High Performance Big Data and Intelligent Systems (HPBD IS). :248–253.

Currently, organisations find it difficult to design a Decision Support System (DSS) that can predict various operational risks, such as financial and quality issues, with operational risks responsible for significant economic losses and damage to an organisation's reputation in the market. This paper proposes a new DSS for risk assessment, called the Fuzzy Inference DSS (FIDSS) mechanism, which uses fuzzy inference methods based on an organisation's big data collection. It includes the Emerging Association Patterns (EAP) technique that identifies the important features of each risk event. Then, the Mamdani fuzzy inference technique and several membership functions are evaluated using the firm's data sources. The FIDSS mechanism can enhance an organisation's decision-making processes by quantifying the severity of a risk as low, medium or high. When it automatically predicts a medium or high level, it assists organisations in taking further actions that reduce this severity level.

2020-01-21
Hou, Ye, Such, Jose, Rashid, Awais.  2019.  Understanding Security Requirements for Industrial Control System Supply Chains. 2019 IEEE/ACM 5th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Smart Cyber-Physical Systems (SEsCPS). :50–53.

We address the need for security requirements to take into account risks arising from complex supply chains underpinning cyber-physical infrastructures such as industrial control systems (ICS). We present SEISMiC (SEcurity Industrial control SysteM supply Chains), a framework that takes into account the whole spectrum of security risks - from technical aspects through to human and organizational issues - across an ICS supply chain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of SEISMiC through a supply chain risk assessment of Natanz, Iran's nuclear facility that was the subject of the Stuxnet attack.

2019-09-11
Moyne, J., Mashiro, S., Gross, D..  2018.  Determining a Security Roadmap for the Microelectronics Industry. 2018 29th Annual SEMI Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing Conference (ASMC). :291–294.

The evolution of the microelectronics manufacturing industry is characterized by increased complexity, analysis, integration, distribution, data sharing and collaboration, all of which is enabled by the big data explosion. This evolution affords a number of opportunities in improved productivity and quality, and reduced cost, however it also brings with it a number of risks associated with maintaining security of data systems. The International Roadmap for Devices and System Factory Integration International Focus Team (IRDS FI IFT) determined that a security technology roadmap for the industry is needed to better understand the needs, challenges and potential solutions for security in the microelectronics industry and its supply chain. As a first step in providing this roadmap, the IFT conducted a security survey, soliciting input from users, suppliers and OEMs. Preliminary results indicate that data partitioning with IP protection is the number one topic of concern, with the need for industry-wide standards as the second most important topic. Further, the "fear" of security breach is considered to be a significant hindrance to Advanced Process Control efforts as well as use of cloud-based solutions. The IRDS FI IFT will endeavor to provide components of a security roadmap for the industry in the 2018 FI chapter, leveraging the output of the survey effort combined with follow-up discussions with users and consultations with experts.

2019-04-01
Xu, L., Chen, L., Gao, Z., Chang, Y., Iakovou, E., Shi, W..  2018.  Binding the Physical and Cyber Worlds: A Blockchain Approach for Cargo Supply Chain Security Enhancement. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1–5.

Maritime transportation plays a critical role for the U.S. and global economies, and has evolved into a complex system that involves a plethora of supply chain stakeholders spread around the globe. The inherent complexity brings huge security challenges including cargo loss and high burdens in cargo inspection against illicit activities and potential terrorist attacks. The emerging blockchain technology provides a promising tool to build a unified maritime cargo tracking system critical for cargo security. However, most existing efforts focus on transportation data itself, while ignoring how to bind the physical cargo movements and information managed by the system consistently. This can severely undermine the effectiveness of securing cargo transportation. To fulfill this gap, we propose a binding scheme leveraging a novel digital identity management mechanism. The digital identity management mechanism maps the best practice in the physical world to the cyber world and can be seamlessly integrated with a blockchain-based cargo management system.

2019-02-25
Setyono, R. Puji, Sarno, R..  2018.  Vendor Track Record Selection Using Best Worst Method. 2018 International Seminar on Application for Technology of Information and Communication. :41–48.
Every company will largely depend on other companies. This will help unite a large business process. Risks that arise from other companies will affect the business performance of a company. Because of this, the right choice for suppliers is crucial. Each vendor has different characteristics. Everything is not always suitable basically the selection process is quite complex and risky. This has led to a new case study which has been studied for years by researchers known as Supplier Selection Problems. Selection of vendors with multi-criteria decision making has been widely studied over years ago. The Best Worst Method is a new science in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) determination. In this research, taking case study at XYZ company is in Indonesia which is engaged in mining and industry. The research utilized the transaction data that have been recorded by the XYZ company and analyzed vendor valuation. The weighting of Best Worst Method is calculated based on vendor assessment result. The results show that XYZ company still focuses on Price as its key criteria.
Lesisa, T. G., Marnewick, A., Nel, H..  2018.  The Identification of Supplier Selection Criteria Within a Risk Management Framework Towards Consistent Supplier Selection. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM). :913–917.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the consistency of supplier risk assessment performed during the supplier selection process. Existing literature indicates that current supplier selection processes yield inconsistent results. Consistent supplier selection cannot be accomplished without stable risk assessment performed during the process. A case study was conducted in a train manufacturer in South Africa, and document analysis, interviews and questionnaires were employed to source information and data. Triangulation and pattern matching enabled a comparative study between literature and practice from which findings were derived. The study suggests selection criteria that may be considered when performing supplier risk assessment during the selection process. The findings indicate that structured supplier risk assessment with predefined supplier selection criteria may eliminate inconsistencies in supplier assessment and selection.
Winter, A., Deniaud, I., Marmier, F., Caillaud, E..  2018.  A risk assessment model for supply chain design. Implementation at Kuehne amp;\#x002B; Nagel Luxembourg. 2018 4th International Conference on Logistics Operations Management (GOL). :1–8.
Every company may be located at the junction of several Supply Chains (SCs) to meet the requirements of many different end customers. To achieve a sustainable competitive advantage over its business rivals, a company needs to continuously improve its relations to its different stakeholders as well as its performance in terms of integrating its decision processes and hence, its communication and information systems. Furthermore, customers' growing awareness of green and sustainable matters and new national and international regulations force enterprises to rethink their whole system. In this paper we propose a model to quantify the identified potential risks to assist in designing or re-designing a supply chain. So that managers may take adequate decisions to have the continuing ability of satisfying customers' requirements. A case study, developed at kuehne + nagel Luxembourg is provided.
2019-02-18
Imeri, Adnan, Feltus, Christophe, Khadraoui, Djamel, Agoulmine, Nazim, Nicolas, Damien.  2018.  Solving the Trust Issues in the Process of Transportation of Dangerous Goods by Using Blockchain Technology. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Security of Information and Networks. :25:1–25:2.
The issues of trust in the area of supply chain management are an immense concern among the stakeholders cooperating in the supply chain. For a sustainable process of transportation, efficient information sharing is considered crucial. The models that serve as a base for the current operations have several drawbacks in terms of data security and trust among stakeholders, who share information as part of their cooperation. Information is shared in a paper-based or semi-digitalized way due to the lack of trust or risk of competitive disadvantages in the current systems. This paper aims to analyze the trust issues in supply chain management and propose new ways of improving trust by considering these issues at the design level.
2018-12-03
Molka-Danielsen, J., Engelseth, P., Olešnaníková, V., Šarafín, P., Žalman, R..  2017.  Big Data Analytics for Air Quality Monitoring at a Logistics Shipping Base via Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network Technologies. 2017 5th International Conference on Enterprise Systems (ES). :38–45.
The indoor air quality in industrial workplace buildings, e.g. air temperature, humidity and levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), play a critical role in the perceived levels of workers' comfort and in reported medical health. CO2 can act as an oxygen displacer, and in confined spaces humans can have, for example, reactions of dizziness, increased heart rate and blood pressure, headaches, and in more serious cases loss of consciousness. Specialized organizations can be brought in to monitor the work environment for limited periods. However, new low cost wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies offer potential for more continuous and autonomous assessment of industrial workplace air quality. Central to effective decision making is the data analytics approach and visualization of what is potentially, big data (BD) in monitoring the air quality in industrial workplaces. This paper presents a case study that monitors air quality that is collected with WSN technologies. We discuss the potential BD problems. The case trials are from two workshops that are part of a large on-shore logistics base a regional shipping industry in Norway. This small case study demonstrates a monitoring and visualization approach for facilitating BD in decision making for health and safety in the shipping industry. We also identify other potential applications of WSN technologies and visualization of BD in the workplace environments; for example, for monitoring of other substances for worker safety in high risk industries and for quality of goods in supply chain management.
Matta, R. de, Miller, T..  2018.  A Strategic Manufacturing Capacity and Supply Chain Network Design Contingency Planning Approach. 2018 IEEE Technology and Engineering Management Conference (TEMSCON). :1–6.

We develop a contingency planning methodology for how a firm would build a global supply chain network with reserve manufacturing capacity which can be strategically deployed by the firm in the event actual demand exceeds forecast. The contingency planning approach is comprised of: (1) a strategic network design model for finding the profit maximizing plant locations, manufacturing capacity and inventory investments, and production level and product distribution; and (2) a scenario planning and risk assessment scheme to analyze the costs and benefits of alternative levels of manufacturing capacity and inventory investments. We develop an efficient heuristic procedure to solve the model. We show numerically how a firm would use our approach to explore and weigh the potential upside benefits and downside risks of alternative strategies.

Shearon, C. E..  2018.  IPC-1782 standard for traceability of critical items based on risk. 2018 Pan Pacific Microelectronics Symposium (Pan Pacific). :1–3.

Traceability has grown from being a specialized need for certain safety critical segments of the industry, to now being a recognized value-add tool for the industry as a whole that can be utilized for manual to automated processes End to End throughout the supply chain. The perception of traceability data collection persists as being a burden that provides value only when the most rare and disastrous of events take place. Disparate standards have evolved in the industry, mainly dictated by large OEM companies in the market create confusion, as a multitude of requirements and definitions proliferate. The intent of the IPC-1782 project is to bring the whole principle of traceability up to date and enable business to move faster, increase revenue, increase productivity, and decrease costs as a result of increased trust. Traceability, as defined in this standard will represent the most effective quality tool available, becoming an intrinsic part of best practice operations, with the encouragement of automated data collection from existing manufacturing systems which works well with Industry 4.0, integrating quality, reliability, product safety, predictive (routine, preventative, and corrective) maintenance, throughput, manufacturing, engineering and supply-chain data, reducing cost of ownership as well as ensuring timeliness and accuracy all the way from a finished product back through to the initial materials and granular attributes about the processes along the way. The goal of this standard is to create a single expandable and extendable data structure that can be adopted for all levels of traceability and enable easily exchanged information, as appropriate, across many industries. The scope includes support for the most demanding instances for detail and integrity such as those required by critical safety systems, all the way through to situations where only basic traceability, such as for simple consumer products, are required. A key driver for the adoption of the standard is the ability to find a relevant and achievable level of traceability that exactly meets the requirement following risk assessment of the business. The wealth of data accessible from traceability for analysis (e.g.; Big Data, etc.) can easily and quickly yield information that can raise expectations of very significant quality and performance improvements, as well as providing the necessary protection against the costs of issues in the market and providing very timely information to regulatory bodies along with consumers/customers as appropriate. This information can also be used to quickly raise yields, drive product innovation that resonates with consumers, and help drive development tests & design requirements that are meaningful to the Marketplace. Leveraging IPC 1782 to create the best value of Component Traceability for your business.

Palmer, D., Fazzari, S., Wartenberg, S..  2017.  A virtual laboratory approach for risk assessment of aerospace electronics trust techniques. 2017 IEEE Aerospace Conference. :1–8.

This paper describes a novel aerospace electronic component risk assessment methodology and supporting virtual laboratory structure designed to augment existing supply chain management practices and aid in Microelectronics Trust Assurance. This toolkit and methodology applies structure to the unclear and evolving risk assessment problem, allowing quantification of key risks affecting both advanced and obsolete systems that rely on semiconductor technologies. The impacts of logistics & supply chain risk, technology & counterfeit risk, and faulty component risk on trusted and non-trusted procurement options are quantified. The benefits of component testing on part reliability are assessed and incorporated into counterfeit mitigation calculations. This toolkit and methodology seek to assist acquisition staff by providing actionable decision data regarding the increasing threat of counterfeit components by assessing the risks faced by systems, identifying mitigation strategies to reduce this risk, and resolving these risks through the optimal test and procurement path based on the component criticality risk tolerance of the program.

Schlüter, F., Hetterscheid, E..  2017.  A Simulation Based Evaluation Approach for Supply Chain Risk Management Digitalization Scenarios. 2017 International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Management Science and Application (ICIMSA). :1–5.

Supply Chain wide proactive risk management based on real-time risk related information transparency is required to increase the security of modern, volatile supply chains. At this time, none or only limited empirical/objective information about digitalization benefits for supply chain risk management is available. A method is needed, which draws conclusion on the estimation of costs and benefits of digitalization initiatives. The paper presents a flexible simulation based approach for assessing digitalization scenarios prior to realization. The assessment approach is integrated into a framework and its applicability will be shown in a case study of a German steel producer, evaluating digitalization effects on the Mean Lead time-at-risk.

Khayyam, Y. E., Herrou, B..  2017.  Risk assessment of the supply chain: Approach based on analytic hierarchy process and group decision-making. 2017 International Colloquium on Logistics and Supply Chain Management (LOGISTIQUA). :135–141.

Faced with a turbulent economic, political and social environment, Companies need to build effective risk management systems in their supply chains. Risk management can only be effective when the risks identification and analysis are enough accurate. In this perspective, this paper proposes a risk assessment approach based on the analytic hierarchy process and group decision making. In this study, a new method is introduced that will reduce the impact of incoherent judgments on group decision-making, It is, the “reduced weight function” that decreases the weight associated to a member of the expert panel based on the consistency of its judgments.

2018-05-01
Jin, Chenglu, Ren, Lingyu, Liu, Xubin, Zhang, Peng, van Dijk, Marten.  2017.  Mitigating Synchronized Hardware Trojan Attacks in Smart Grids. Proceedings of the 2Nd Workshop on Cyber-Physical Security and Resilience in Smart Grids. :35–40.
A hardware Trojan is a malicious circuit inserted into a device by a malicious designer or manufacturer in the circuit design or fabrication phase. With the globalization of semiconductor industry, more and more chips and devices are designed, integrated and fabricated by untrusted manufacturers, who can potentially insert hardware Trojans for launching attacks after the devices are deployed. Moreover, the most damaging attack in a smart grid is a large scale electricity failure, which can cause very serious consequences that are worse than any disaster. Unfortunately, this attack can be implemented very easily by synchronized hardware Trojans acting as a collective offline time bomb; the Trojans do not need to interact with one another and can affect a large fraction of nodes in a power grid. More sophisticatedly, this attack can also be realized by online hardware Trojans which keep listening to the communication channel and wait for a trigger event to trigger their malicious payloads; here, a broadcast message triggers all the Trojans at the same time. In this paper, we address the offline synchronized hardware Trojan attack, as it does not require the adversary to penetrate the power grid network for sending triggers. We classify two types of offline synchronized hardware Trojan attacks as type A and B: type B requires communication between different nodes, and type A does not. The hardware Trojans needed for type B turn out to be much more complex (and therefore larger in area size) than those for type A. In order to prevent type A attacks we suggest to enforce each power grid node to work in an unique time domain which has a random time offset to Universal Coordinated Time (UTC). This isolation principle can mitigate type A offline synchronized hardware Trojan attacks in a smart grid, such that even if hardware Trojans are implanted in functional units, e.g. Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) and Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), they can only cause a minimal damage, i.e. sporadic single node failures. The proposed solution only needs a trusted Global Positioning System (GPS) module which provides the correct UTC together with small additional interface circuitry. This means that our solution can be used to protect the current power grid infrastructure against type A offline attacks without replacing any untrusted functional unit, which may already have embedded hardware Trojans.
Arafin, M. T., Stanley, A., Sharma, P..  2017.  Hardware-Based Anti-Counterfeiting Techniques for Safeguarding Supply Chain Integrity. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–4.
Counterfeit integrated circuits (ICs) and systems have emerged as a menace to the supply chain of electronic goods and products. Simple physical inspection for counterfeit detection, basic intellectual property (IP) laws, and simple protection measures are becoming ineffective against advanced reverse engineering and counterfeiting practices. As a result, hardware security-based techniques have emerged as promising solutions for combating counterfeiting, reverse engineering, and IP theft. However, these solutions have their own merits and shortcomings, and therefore, these options must be carefully studied. In this work, we present a comparative overview of available hardware security solutions to fight against IC counterfeiting. We provide a detailed comparison of the techniques in terms of integration effort, deployability, and security matrices that would assist a system designer to adopt any one of these security measures for safeguarding the product supply chain against counterfeiting and IP theft.