Visible to the public Biblio

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2019-09-11
Moyne, J., Mashiro, S., Gross, D..  2018.  Determining a Security Roadmap for the Microelectronics Industry. 2018 29th Annual SEMI Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing Conference (ASMC). :291–294.

The evolution of the microelectronics manufacturing industry is characterized by increased complexity, analysis, integration, distribution, data sharing and collaboration, all of which is enabled by the big data explosion. This evolution affords a number of opportunities in improved productivity and quality, and reduced cost, however it also brings with it a number of risks associated with maintaining security of data systems. The International Roadmap for Devices and System Factory Integration International Focus Team (IRDS FI IFT) determined that a security technology roadmap for the industry is needed to better understand the needs, challenges and potential solutions for security in the microelectronics industry and its supply chain. As a first step in providing this roadmap, the IFT conducted a security survey, soliciting input from users, suppliers and OEMs. Preliminary results indicate that data partitioning with IP protection is the number one topic of concern, with the need for industry-wide standards as the second most important topic. Further, the "fear" of security breach is considered to be a significant hindrance to Advanced Process Control efforts as well as use of cloud-based solutions. The IRDS FI IFT will endeavor to provide components of a security roadmap for the industry in the 2018 FI chapter, leveraging the output of the survey effort combined with follow-up discussions with users and consultations with experts.

2019-04-01
Xu, L., Chen, L., Gao, Z., Chang, Y., Iakovou, E., Shi, W..  2018.  Binding the Physical and Cyber Worlds: A Blockchain Approach for Cargo Supply Chain Security Enhancement. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1–5.

Maritime transportation plays a critical role for the U.S. and global economies, and has evolved into a complex system that involves a plethora of supply chain stakeholders spread around the globe. The inherent complexity brings huge security challenges including cargo loss and high burdens in cargo inspection against illicit activities and potential terrorist attacks. The emerging blockchain technology provides a promising tool to build a unified maritime cargo tracking system critical for cargo security. However, most existing efforts focus on transportation data itself, while ignoring how to bind the physical cargo movements and information managed by the system consistently. This can severely undermine the effectiveness of securing cargo transportation. To fulfill this gap, we propose a binding scheme leveraging a novel digital identity management mechanism. The digital identity management mechanism maps the best practice in the physical world to the cyber world and can be seamlessly integrated with a blockchain-based cargo management system.

2019-02-25
Setyono, R. Puji, Sarno, R..  2018.  Vendor Track Record Selection Using Best Worst Method. 2018 International Seminar on Application for Technology of Information and Communication. :41–48.
Every company will largely depend on other companies. This will help unite a large business process. Risks that arise from other companies will affect the business performance of a company. Because of this, the right choice for suppliers is crucial. Each vendor has different characteristics. Everything is not always suitable basically the selection process is quite complex and risky. This has led to a new case study which has been studied for years by researchers known as Supplier Selection Problems. Selection of vendors with multi-criteria decision making has been widely studied over years ago. The Best Worst Method is a new science in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) determination. In this research, taking case study at XYZ company is in Indonesia which is engaged in mining and industry. The research utilized the transaction data that have been recorded by the XYZ company and analyzed vendor valuation. The weighting of Best Worst Method is calculated based on vendor assessment result. The results show that XYZ company still focuses on Price as its key criteria.
Lesisa, T. G., Marnewick, A., Nel, H..  2018.  The Identification of Supplier Selection Criteria Within a Risk Management Framework Towards Consistent Supplier Selection. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM). :913–917.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the consistency of supplier risk assessment performed during the supplier selection process. Existing literature indicates that current supplier selection processes yield inconsistent results. Consistent supplier selection cannot be accomplished without stable risk assessment performed during the process. A case study was conducted in a train manufacturer in South Africa, and document analysis, interviews and questionnaires were employed to source information and data. Triangulation and pattern matching enabled a comparative study between literature and practice from which findings were derived. The study suggests selection criteria that may be considered when performing supplier risk assessment during the selection process. The findings indicate that structured supplier risk assessment with predefined supplier selection criteria may eliminate inconsistencies in supplier assessment and selection.
Winter, A., Deniaud, I., Marmier, F., Caillaud, E..  2018.  A risk assessment model for supply chain design. Implementation at Kuehne amp;\#x002B; Nagel Luxembourg. 2018 4th International Conference on Logistics Operations Management (GOL). :1–8.
Every company may be located at the junction of several Supply Chains (SCs) to meet the requirements of many different end customers. To achieve a sustainable competitive advantage over its business rivals, a company needs to continuously improve its relations to its different stakeholders as well as its performance in terms of integrating its decision processes and hence, its communication and information systems. Furthermore, customers' growing awareness of green and sustainable matters and new national and international regulations force enterprises to rethink their whole system. In this paper we propose a model to quantify the identified potential risks to assist in designing or re-designing a supply chain. So that managers may take adequate decisions to have the continuing ability of satisfying customers' requirements. A case study, developed at kuehne + nagel Luxembourg is provided.
2019-02-18
Imeri, Adnan, Feltus, Christophe, Khadraoui, Djamel, Agoulmine, Nazim, Nicolas, Damien.  2018.  Solving the Trust Issues in the Process of Transportation of Dangerous Goods by Using Blockchain Technology. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Security of Information and Networks. :25:1–25:2.
The issues of trust in the area of supply chain management are an immense concern among the stakeholders cooperating in the supply chain. For a sustainable process of transportation, efficient information sharing is considered crucial. The models that serve as a base for the current operations have several drawbacks in terms of data security and trust among stakeholders, who share information as part of their cooperation. Information is shared in a paper-based or semi-digitalized way due to the lack of trust or risk of competitive disadvantages in the current systems. This paper aims to analyze the trust issues in supply chain management and propose new ways of improving trust by considering these issues at the design level.
2018-12-03
Molka-Danielsen, J., Engelseth, P., Olešnaníková, V., Šarafín, P., Žalman, R..  2017.  Big Data Analytics for Air Quality Monitoring at a Logistics Shipping Base via Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network Technologies. 2017 5th International Conference on Enterprise Systems (ES). :38–45.
The indoor air quality in industrial workplace buildings, e.g. air temperature, humidity and levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), play a critical role in the perceived levels of workers' comfort and in reported medical health. CO2 can act as an oxygen displacer, and in confined spaces humans can have, for example, reactions of dizziness, increased heart rate and blood pressure, headaches, and in more serious cases loss of consciousness. Specialized organizations can be brought in to monitor the work environment for limited periods. However, new low cost wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies offer potential for more continuous and autonomous assessment of industrial workplace air quality. Central to effective decision making is the data analytics approach and visualization of what is potentially, big data (BD) in monitoring the air quality in industrial workplaces. This paper presents a case study that monitors air quality that is collected with WSN technologies. We discuss the potential BD problems. The case trials are from two workshops that are part of a large on-shore logistics base a regional shipping industry in Norway. This small case study demonstrates a monitoring and visualization approach for facilitating BD in decision making for health and safety in the shipping industry. We also identify other potential applications of WSN technologies and visualization of BD in the workplace environments; for example, for monitoring of other substances for worker safety in high risk industries and for quality of goods in supply chain management.
Matta, R. de, Miller, T..  2018.  A Strategic Manufacturing Capacity and Supply Chain Network Design Contingency Planning Approach. 2018 IEEE Technology and Engineering Management Conference (TEMSCON). :1–6.
We develop a contingency planning methodology for how a firm would build a global supply chain network with reserve manufacturing capacity which can be strategically deployed by the firm in the event actual demand exceeds forecast. The contingency planning approach is comprised of: (1) a strategic network design model for finding the profit maximizing plant locations, manufacturing capacity and inventory investments, and production level and product distribution; and (2) a scenario planning and risk assessment scheme to analyze the costs and benefits of alternative levels of manufacturing capacity and inventory investments. We develop an efficient heuristic procedure to solve the model. We show numerically how a firm would use our approach to explore and weigh the potential upside benefits and downside risks of alternative strategies.
Shearon, C. E..  2018.  IPC-1782 standard for traceability of critical items based on risk. 2018 Pan Pacific Microelectronics Symposium (Pan Pacific). :1–3.
Traceability has grown from being a specialized need for certain safety critical segments of the industry, to now being a recognized value-add tool for the industry as a whole that can be utilized for manual to automated processes End to End throughout the supply chain. The perception of traceability data collection persists as being a burden that provides value only when the most rare and disastrous of events take place. Disparate standards have evolved in the industry, mainly dictated by large OEM companies in the market create confusion, as a multitude of requirements and definitions proliferate. The intent of the IPC-1782 project is to bring the whole principle of traceability up to date and enable business to move faster, increase revenue, increase productivity, and decrease costs as a result of increased trust. Traceability, as defined in this standard will represent the most effective quality tool available, becoming an intrinsic part of best practice operations, with the encouragement of automated data collection from existing manufacturing systems which works well with Industry 4.0, integrating quality, reliability, product safety, predictive (routine, preventative, and corrective) maintenance, throughput, manufacturing, engineering and supply-chain data, reducing cost of ownership as well as ensuring timeliness and accuracy all the way from a finished product back through to the initial materials and granular attributes about the processes along the way. The goal of this standard is to create a single expandable and extendable data structure that can be adopted for all levels of traceability and enable easily exchanged information, as appropriate, across many industries. The scope includes support for the most demanding instances for detail and integrity such as those required by critical safety systems, all the way through to situations where only basic traceability, such as for simple consumer products, are required. A key driver for the adoption of the standard is the ability to find a relevant and achievable level of traceability that exactly meets the requirement following risk assessment of the business. The wealth of data accessible from traceability for analysis (e.g.; Big Data, etc.) can easily and quickly yield information that can raise expectations of very significant quality and performance improvements, as well as providing the necessary protection against the costs of issues in the market and providing very timely information to regulatory bodies along with consumers/customers as appropriate. This information can also be used to quickly raise yields, drive product innovation that resonates with consumers, and help drive development tests & design requirements that are meaningful to the Marketplace. Leveraging IPC 1782 to create the best value of Component Traceability for your business.
Palmer, D., Fazzari, S., Wartenberg, S..  2017.  A virtual laboratory approach for risk assessment of aerospace electronics trust techniques. 2017 IEEE Aerospace Conference. :1–8.
This paper describes a novel aerospace electronic component risk assessment methodology and supporting virtual laboratory structure designed to augment existing supply chain management practices and aid in Microelectronics Trust Assurance. This toolkit and methodology applies structure to the unclear and evolving risk assessment problem, allowing quantification of key risks affecting both advanced and obsolete systems that rely on semiconductor technologies. The impacts of logistics & supply chain risk, technology & counterfeit risk, and faulty component risk on trusted and non-trusted procurement options are quantified. The benefits of component testing on part reliability are assessed and incorporated into counterfeit mitigation calculations. This toolkit and methodology seek to assist acquisition staff by providing actionable decision data regarding the increasing threat of counterfeit components by assessing the risks faced by systems, identifying mitigation strategies to reduce this risk, and resolving these risks through the optimal test and procurement path based on the component criticality risk tolerance of the program.
Schlüter, F., Hetterscheid, E..  2017.  A Simulation Based Evaluation Approach for Supply Chain Risk Management Digitalization Scenarios. 2017 International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Management Science and Application (ICIMSA). :1–5.
Supply Chain wide proactive risk management based on real-time risk related information transparency is required to increase the security of modern, volatile supply chains. At this time, none or only limited empirical/objective information about digitalization benefits for supply chain risk management is available. A method is needed, which draws conclusion on the estimation of costs and benefits of digitalization initiatives. The paper presents a flexible simulation based approach for assessing digitalization scenarios prior to realization. The assessment approach is integrated into a framework and its applicability will be shown in a case study of a German steel producer, evaluating digitalization effects on the Mean Lead time-at-risk.
Khayyam, Y. E., Herrou, B..  2017.  Risk assessment of the supply chain: Approach based on analytic hierarchy process and group decision-making. 2017 International Colloquium on Logistics and Supply Chain Management (LOGISTIQUA). :135–141.
Faced with a turbulent economic, political and social environment, Companies need to build effective risk management systems in their supply chains. Risk management can only be effective when the risks identification and analysis are enough accurate. In this perspective, this paper proposes a risk assessment approach based on the analytic hierarchy process and group decision making. In this study, a new method is introduced that will reduce the impact of incoherent judgments on group decision-making, It is, the “reduced weight function” that decreases the weight associated to a member of the expert panel based on the consistency of its judgments.
2018-05-01
Jin, Chenglu, Ren, Lingyu, Liu, Xubin, Zhang, Peng, van Dijk, Marten.  2017.  Mitigating Synchronized Hardware Trojan Attacks in Smart Grids. Proceedings of the 2Nd Workshop on Cyber-Physical Security and Resilience in Smart Grids. :35–40.
A hardware Trojan is a malicious circuit inserted into a device by a malicious designer or manufacturer in the circuit design or fabrication phase. With the globalization of semiconductor industry, more and more chips and devices are designed, integrated and fabricated by untrusted manufacturers, who can potentially insert hardware Trojans for launching attacks after the devices are deployed. Moreover, the most damaging attack in a smart grid is a large scale electricity failure, which can cause very serious consequences that are worse than any disaster. Unfortunately, this attack can be implemented very easily by synchronized hardware Trojans acting as a collective offline time bomb; the Trojans do not need to interact with one another and can affect a large fraction of nodes in a power grid. More sophisticatedly, this attack can also be realized by online hardware Trojans which keep listening to the communication channel and wait for a trigger event to trigger their malicious payloads; here, a broadcast message triggers all the Trojans at the same time. In this paper, we address the offline synchronized hardware Trojan attack, as it does not require the adversary to penetrate the power grid network for sending triggers. We classify two types of offline synchronized hardware Trojan attacks as type A and B: type B requires communication between different nodes, and type A does not. The hardware Trojans needed for type B turn out to be much more complex (and therefore larger in area size) than those for type A. In order to prevent type A attacks we suggest to enforce each power grid node to work in an unique time domain which has a random time offset to Universal Coordinated Time (UTC). This isolation principle can mitigate type A offline synchronized hardware Trojan attacks in a smart grid, such that even if hardware Trojans are implanted in functional units, e.g. Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) and Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), they can only cause a minimal damage, i.e. sporadic single node failures. The proposed solution only needs a trusted Global Positioning System (GPS) module which provides the correct UTC together with small additional interface circuitry. This means that our solution can be used to protect the current power grid infrastructure against type A offline attacks without replacing any untrusted functional unit, which may already have embedded hardware Trojans.
Arafin, M. T., Stanley, A., Sharma, P..  2017.  Hardware-Based Anti-Counterfeiting Techniques for Safeguarding Supply Chain Integrity. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–4.
Counterfeit integrated circuits (ICs) and systems have emerged as a menace to the supply chain of electronic goods and products. Simple physical inspection for counterfeit detection, basic intellectual property (IP) laws, and simple protection measures are becoming ineffective against advanced reverse engineering and counterfeiting practices. As a result, hardware security-based techniques have emerged as promising solutions for combating counterfeiting, reverse engineering, and IP theft. However, these solutions have their own merits and shortcomings, and therefore, these options must be carefully studied. In this work, we present a comparative overview of available hardware security solutions to fight against IC counterfeiting. We provide a detailed comparison of the techniques in terms of integration effort, deployability, and security matrices that would assist a system designer to adopt any one of these security measures for safeguarding the product supply chain against counterfeiting and IP theft.
Benthall, S..  2017.  Assessing Software Supply Chain Risk Using Public Data. 2017 IEEE 28th Annual Software Technology Conference (STC). :1–5.

The software supply chain is a source of cybersecurity risk for many commercial and government organizations. Public data may be used to inform automated tools for detecting software supply chain risk during continuous integration and deployment. We link data from the National Vulnerability Database (NVD) with open version control data for the open source project OpenSSL, a widely used secure networking library that made the news when a significant vulnerability, Heartbleed, was discovered in 2014. We apply the Alhazmi-Malaiya Logistic (AML) model for software vulnerability discovery to this case. This model predicts a sigmoid cumulative vulnerability discovery function over time. Some versions of OpenSSL do not conform to the predictions of the model because they contain a temporary plateau in the cumulative vulnerability discovery plot. This temporary plateau feature is an empirical signature of a security failure mode that may be useful in future studies of software supply chain risk.

Woo, S., Ha, J., Byun, J., Kwon, K., Tolcha, Y., Kang, D., Nguyen, H. M., Kim, M., Kim, D..  2017.  Secure-EPCIS: Addressing Security Issues in EPCIS for IoT Applications. 2017 IEEE World Congress on Services (SERVICES). :40–43.
In the EPCglobal standards for RFID architecture frameworks and interfaces, the Electronic Product Code Information System (EPCIS) acts as a standard repository storing event and master data that are well suited to Supply Chain Management (SCM) applications. Oliot-EPCIS broadens its scope to a wider range of IoT applications in a scalable and flexible way to store a large amount of heterogeneous data from a variety of sources. However, this expansion poses data security challenge for IoT applications including patients' ownership of events generated in mobile healthcare services. Thus, in this paper we propose Secure-EPCIS to deal with security issues of EPCIS for IoT applications. We have analyzed the requirements for Secure-EPCIS based on real-world scenarios and designed access control model accordingly. Moreover, we have conducted extensive performance comparisons between EPCIS and Secure-EPCIS in terms of response time and throughput, and provide the solution for performance degradation problem in Secure-EPCIS.
2017-03-08
Cao, B., Wang, Z., Shi, H., Yin, Y..  2015.  Research and practice on Aluminum Industry 4.0. 2015 Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Control and Information Processing (ICICIP). :517–521.

This paper presents a six-layer Aluminum Industry 4.0 architecture for the aluminum production and full lifecycle supply chain management. It integrates a series of innovative technologies, including the IoT sensing physical system, industrial cloud platform for data management, model-driven and big data driven analysis & decision making, standardization & securitization intelligent control and management, as well as visual monitoring and backtracking process etc. The main relevant control models are studied. The applications of real-time accurate perception & intelligent decision technology in the aluminum electrolytic industry are introduced.

Bertino, E., Hartman, N. W..  2015.  Cybersecurity for product lifecycle management a research roadmap. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :114–119.

This paper introduces a research agenda focusing on cybersecurity in the context of product lifecycle management. The paper discusses research directions on critical protection techniques, including protection techniques from insider threat, access control systems, secure supply chains and remote 3D printing, compliance techniques, and secure collaboration techniques. The paper then presents an overview of DBSAFE, a system for protecting data from insider threat.

Ma, T., Zhang, H., Qian, J., Liu, S., Zhang, X., Ma, X..  2015.  The Design of Brand Cosmetics Anti-counterfeiting System Based on RFID Technology. 2015 International Conference on Network and Information Systems for Computers. :184–189.

The digital authentication security technology is widely used in the current brand cosmetics as key anti-counterfeiting technology, yet this technology is prone to "false security", "hard security" and "non-security" phenomena. This paper researches the current cosmetics brand distribution channels and sales methods also analyses the cosmetics brands' demand for RFID technology anti-counterfeiting security system, then proposes a security system based on RFID technology for brand cosmetics. The system is based on a typical distributed RFID tracking and tracing system which is the most widely used system-EPC system. This security system based on RFID technology for brand cosmetics in the paper is a visual information management system for luxury cosmetics brand. It can determine the source of the product timely and effectively, track and trace products' logistics information and prevent fake goods and gray goods getting into the normal supply chain channels.

Nasir, M. A., Sultan, S., Nefti-Meziani, S., Manzoor, U..  2015.  Potential cyber-attacks against global oil supply chain. 2015 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA). :1–7.

The energy sector has been actively looking into cyber risk assessment at a global level, as it has a ripple effect; risk taken at one step in supply chain has an impact on all the other nodes. Cyber-attacks not only hinder functional operations in an organization but also waves damaging effects to the reputation and confidence among shareholders resulting in financial losses. Organizations that are open to the idea of protecting their assets and information flow and are equipped; enough to respond quickly to any cyber incident are the ones who prevail longer in global market. As a contribution we put forward a modular plan to mitigate or reduce cyber risks in global supply chain by identifying potential cyber threats at each step and identifying their immediate counterm easures.

Jilcott, S..  2015.  Securing the supply chain for commodity IT devices by automated scenario generation. 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1–6.

Almost all commodity IT devices include firmware and software components from non-US suppliers, potentially introducing grave vulnerabilities to homeland security by enabling cyber-attacks via flaws injected into these devices through the supply chain. However, determining that a given device is free of any and all implementation flaws is computationally infeasible in the general case; hence a critical part of any vetting process is prioritizing what kinds of flaws are likely to enable potential adversary goals. We present Theseus, a four-year research project sponsored by the DARPA VET program. Theseus will provide technology to automatically map and explore the firmware/software (FW/SW) architecture of a commodity IT device and then generate attack scenarios for the device. From these device attack scenarios, Theseus then creates a prioritized checklist of FW/SW components to check for potential vulnerabilities. Theseus combines static program analysis, attack graph generation algorithms, and a Boolean satisfiability solver to automate the checklist generation workflow. We describe how Theseus exploits analogies between the commodity IT device problem and attack graph generation for networks. We also present a novel approach called Component Interaction Mapping to recover a formal model of a device's FW/SW architecture from which attack scenarios can be generated.

Yao, X., Zhou, X., Ma, J..  2015.  Object event visibility for anti-counterfeiting in RFID-enabled product supply chains. 2015 Science and Information Conference (SAI). :141–150.

RFID-enabled product supply chain visibility is usually implemented by building up a view of the product history of its activities starting from manufacturing or even earlier with a dynamically updated e-pedigree for track-and-trace, which is examined and authenticated at each node of the supply chain for data consistence with the pre-defined one. However, while effectively reducing the risk of fakes, this visibility can't guarantee that the product is authentic without taking further security measures. To the best of our knowledge, this requires deeper understandings on associations of object events with the counterfeiting activities, which is unfortunately left blank. In this paper, the taxonomy of counterfeiting possibilities is initially developed and analyzed, the structure of EPC-based events is then re-examined, and an object-centric coding mechanism is proposed to construct the object-based event “pedigree” for such event exception detection and inference. On this basis, the system architecture framework to achieve the objectivity of object event visibility for anti-counterfeiting is presented, which is also applicable to other aspects of supply chain management.

Herrera, A., Janczewski, L..  2015.  Cloud supply chain resilience. 2015 Information Security for South Africa (ISSA). :1–9.

Cloud computing is a service-based computing resources sourcing model that is changing the way in which companies deploy and operate information and communication technologies (ICT). This model introduces several advantages compared with traditional environments along with typical outsourcing benefits reshaping the ICT services supply chain by creating a more dynamic ICT environment plus a broader variety of service offerings. This leads to higher risk of disruption and brings additional challenges for organisational resilience, defined herein as the ability of organisations to survive and also to thrive when exposed to disruptive incidents. This paper draws on supply chain theory and supply chain resilience concepts in order to identify a set of coordination mechanisms that positively impact ICT operational resilience processes within cloud supply chains and packages them into a conceptual model.

Yang, K., Forte, D., Tehranipoor, M. M..  2015.  Protecting endpoint devices in IoT supply chain. 2015 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD). :351–356.

The Internet of Things (IoT), an emerging global network of uniquely identifiable embedded computing devices within the existing Internet infrastructure, is transforming how we live and work by increasing the connectedness of people and things on a scale that was once unimaginable. In addition to increased communication efficiency between connected objects, the IoT also brings new security and privacy challenges. Comprehensive measures that enable IoT device authentication and secure access control need to be established. Existing hardware, software, and network protection methods, however, are designed against fraction of real security issues and lack the capability to trace the provenance and history information of IoT devices. To mitigate this shortcoming, we propose an RFID-enabled solution that aims at protecting endpoint devices in IoT supply chain. We take advantage of the connection between RFID tag and control chip in an IoT device to enable data transfer from tag memory to centralized database for authentication once deployed. Finally, we evaluate the security of our proposed scheme against various attacks.

Xin, Wei, Wang, M., Shao, Shuai, Wang, Z., Zhang, Tao.  2015.  A variant of schnorr signature scheme for path-checking in RFID-based supply chains. 2015 12th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD). :2608–2613.

The RFID technology has attracted considerable attention in recent years, and brings convenience to supply chain management. In this paper, we concentrate on designing path-checking protocols to check the valid paths in supply chains. By entering a valid path, the check reader can distinguish whether the tags have gone through the path or not. Based on modified schnorr signature scheme, we provide a path-checking method to achieve multi-signatures and final verification. In the end, we conduct security and privacy analysis to the scheme.