Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-09-21
Vurdelja, Igor, Blažić, Ivan, Bojić, Dragan, Drašković, Dražen.  2020.  A framework for automated dynamic malware analysis for Linux. 2020 28th Telecommunications Forum (℡FOR). :1–4.
Development of malware protection tools requires a more advanced test environment comparing to safe software. This kind of development includes a safe execution of many malware samples in order to evaluate the protective power of the tool. The host machine needs to be protected from the harmful effects of malware samples and provide a realistic simulation of the execution environment. In this paper, a framework for automated malware analysis on Linux is presented. Different types of malware analysis methods are discussed, as well as the properties of a good framework for dynamic malware analysis.
2021-09-07
Zebari, Rizgar R., Zeebaree, Subhi R. M., Sallow, Amira Bibo, Shukur, Hanan M., Ahmad, Omar M., Jacksi, Karwan.  2020.  Distributed Denial of Service Attack Mitigation Using High Availability Proxy and Network Load Balancing. 2020 International Conference on Advanced Science and Engineering (ICOASE). :174–179.
Nowadays, cybersecurity threat is a big challenge to all organizations that present their services over the Internet. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is the most effective and used attack and seriously affects the quality of service of each E-organization. Hence, mitigation this type of attack is considered a persistent need. In this paper, we used Network Load Balancing (NLB) and High Availability Proxy (HAProxy) as mitigation techniques. The NLB is used in the Windows platform and HAProxy in the Linux platform. Moreover, Internet Information Service (IIS) 10.0 is implemented on Windows server 2016 and Apache 2 on Linux Ubuntu 16.04 as web servers. We evaluated each load balancer efficiency in mitigating synchronize (SYN) DDoS attack on each platform separately. The evaluation process is accomplished in a real network and average response time and average CPU are utilized as metrics. The results illustrated that the NLB in the Windows platform achieved better performance in mitigation SYN DDOS compared to HAProxy in the Linux platform. Whereas, the average response time of the Window webservers is reduced with NLB. However, the impact of the SYN DDoS on the average CPU usage of the IIS 10.0 webservers was more than those of the Apache 2 webservers.
2021-08-17
Abranches, Marcelo, Keller, Eric.  2020.  A Userspace Transport Stack Doesn't Have to Mean Losing Linux Processing. 2020 IEEE Conference on Network Function Virtualization and Software Defined Networks (NFV-SDN). :84—90.
While we cannot question the high performance capabilities of the kernel bypass approach in the network functions world, we recognize that the Linux kernel provides a rich ecosystem with an efficient resource management and an effective resource sharing ability that cannot be ignored. In this work we argue that by mixing kernel-bypass and in kernel processing can benefit applications and network function middleboxes. We leverage a high-performance user space TCP stack and recent additions to the Linux kernel to propose a hybrid approach (kernel-user space) to accelerate SDN/NFV deployments leveraging services of the reliable transport layer (i.e., stateful middleboxes, Layer 7 network functions and applications). Our results show that this approach enables highperformance, high CPU efficiency, and enhanced integration with the kernel ecosystem. We build our solution by extending mTCP which is the basis of some state-of-the-art L4-L7 NFV frameworks. By having more efficient CPU usage, NFV applications can have more CPU cycles available to run the network functions and applications logic. We show that for a CPU intense workload, mTCP/AF\_XDP can have up to 64% more throughput than the previous implementation. We also show that by receiving cooperation from the kernel, mTCP/AF\_XDP enables the creation of protection mechanisms for mTCP. We create a simulated DDoS attack and show that mTCP/AF\_XDP can maintain up to 287% more throughput than the unprotected system during the attack.
Monakhov, Yuri, Kuznetsova, Anna, Monakhov, Mikhail, Telny, Andrey, Bednyatsky, Ilya.  2020.  Performance Evaluation of the Modified HTB Algorithm. 2020 Dynamics of Systems, Mechanisms and Machines (Dynamics). :1—5.
In this article, authors present the results of testing the modified HTB traffic control algorithm in an experimental setup. The algorithm is implemented as a Linux kernel module. An analysis of the experimental results revealed the effect of uneven packet loss in priority classes. In the second part of the article, the authors propose a solution to this problem by applying a distribution scheme for the excess of tokens, according to which excess class tokens are given to the leaf with the highest priority. The new modification of the algorithm was simulated in the AnyLogic environment. The results of an experimental study demonstrated that dividing the excess tokens of the parent class between daughter classes is less effective in terms of network performance than allocating the excess tokens to a high-priority class during the competition for tokens between classes. In general, a modification of the HTB algorithm that implements the proposed token surplus distribution scheme yields more consistent delay times for the high-priority class.
Alenezi, Freeh, Tsokos, Chris P..  2020.  Machine Learning Approach to Predict Computer Operating Systems Vulnerabilities. 2020 3rd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1—6.
Information security is everyone's concern. Computer systems are used to store sensitive data. Any weakness in their reliability and security makes them vulnerable. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is a commonly used scoring system, which helps in knowing the severity of a software vulnerability. In this research, we show the effectiveness of common machine learning algorithms in predicting the computer operating systems security using the published vulnerability data in Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures and National Vulnerability Database repositories. The Random Forest algorithm has the best performance, compared to other algorithms, in predicting the computer operating system vulnerability severity levels based on precision, recall, and F-measure evaluation metrics. In addition, a predictive model was developed to predict whether a newly discovered computer operating system vulnerability would allow attackers to cause denial of service to the subject system.
Krasov, A. V., Shterenberg, S. I..  2020.  Methods for building a trusted environment in Unix operating systems based on the implementation of a digital watermark. 2020 12th International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT). :253—257.
As a problematic, this article discusses the construction of a trusted computing environment (TCE) based on the introduction of digital watermarks (DW) into the modules of the software product of a Unix-like operating / Linux system (Linux OS). One of the threats faced by an information security operator is the illegal use of a program or its components by unscrupulous competitors as part of "foreign" programs. Thus, we are talking about the joint use of the license key and the DW, which can act as a comprehensive solution for protecting the Linux OS. The above confirms the relevance of creating a methodology for building a trusted environment in Unix-like based on the implementation of a digital watermark. In this paper, the parameters of using the digital watermark, the admissible memory of Unix-like systems are considered.
Wang, Zhuoyao, Guo, Changguo, Fu, Zhipeng, Yang, Shazhou.  2020.  Identifying the Development Trend of ARM-based Server Ecosystem Using Linux Kernels. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Progress in Informatics and Computing (PIC). :284—288.
In the last couple of years ARM-based servers have been gradually adopted by cloud service providers and utilized in the data centers. Such tendency may provide great business opportunities for various companies in the industry. Hence, the ability to timely track the development trend of the ARM-based server ecosystem (ASE) from technical perspective is of great importance. In this paper the level of development of the ASE is quantitatively assessed based on open-source data analysis. In particular, statistical data is extracted from 42 Linux kernels to analyze the development process of the ASE. Furthermore, an estimate of the development trend of the ASE in the next 10 years is made based on the statistical data. The estimated results provide insight on when the ASE may become as mature as today's x86-based server ecosystem.
2021-08-12
Shin, Sanggyu, Seto, Yoichi.  2020.  Development of IoT Security Exercise Contents for Cyber Security Exercise System. 2020 13th International Conference on Human System Interaction (HSI). :1—6.
In this paper, we discuss the development of the IoT security exercise content and the implementation of it to the CyExec. While the Internet of Things (IoT) devices are becoming more popular, vulnerability countermeasures are insufficient, and many incidents have occurred. It is because there is insufficient protection against vulnerabilities specific to IoT equipment. Also, the developers and users have low awareness of IoT devices against vulnerabilities from the past. Therefore, the importance of security education on IoT devices is increasing. However, the enormous burden of introduction and operation costs limited the use of commercial cybersecurity exercise systems. CyExec (Cyber Security Exercise System), consisting of a virtual environment using VirtualBox and Docker, is a low-cost and flexible cybersecurity exercise system, which we have proposed for the dissemination of security education. And the content of the exercises for CyExec is composed of the Basic exercises and Applied exercises.
2021-08-11
Gallenmüller, Sebastian, Naab, Johannes, Adam, Iris, Carle, Georg.  2020.  5G QoS: Impact of Security Functions on Latency. NOMS 2020 - 2020 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. :1—9.
Network slicing is considered a key enabler to 5th Generation (5G) communication networks. Mobile network operators may deploy network slices-complete logical networks customized for specific services expecting a certain Quality of Service (QoS). New business models like Network Slice-as-a-Service offerings to customers from vertical industries require negotiated Service Level Agreements (SLA), and network providers need automated enforcement mechanisms to assure QoS during instantiation and operation of slices. In this paper, we focus on ultra-reliable low-latency communication (URLLC). We propose a software architecture for security functions based on off-the-shelf hardware and open-source software and demonstrate, through a series of measurements, that the strict requirements of URLLC services can be achieved. As a real-world example, we perform our experiments using the intrusion prevention system (IPS) Snort to demonstrate the impact of security functions on latency. Our findings lead to the creation of a model predicting the system load that still meets the URLLC latency requirement. We fully disclose the artifacts presented in this paper including pcap traces, measurement tools, and plotting scripts at https://gallenmu.github.io/low-latency.
2021-08-02
Kong, Tong, Wang, Liming, Ma, Duohe, Chen, Kai, Xu, Zhen, Lu, Yijun.  2020.  ConfigRand: A Moving Target Defense Framework against the Shared Kernel Information Leakages for Container-based Cloud. 2020 IEEE 22nd International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 18th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 6th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :794—801.
Lightweight virtualization represented by container technology provides a virtual environment for cloud services with more flexibility and efficiency due to the kernel-sharing property. However, the shared kernel also means that the system isolation mechanisms are incomplete. Attackers can scan the shared system configuration files to explore vulnerabilities for launching attacks. Previous works mainly eliminate the problem by fixing operating systems or using access control policies, but these methods require significant modifications and cannot meet the security needs of individual containers accurately. In this paper, we present ConfigRand, a moving target defense framework to prevent the information leakages due to the shared kernel in the container-based cloud. The ConfigRand deploys deceptive system configurations for each container, bounding the scan of attackers aimed at the shared kernel. In design of ConfigRand, we (1) propose a framework applying the moving target defense philosophy to periodically generate, distribute, and deploy the deceptive system configurations in the container-based cloud; (2) establish a model to formalize these configurations and quantify their heterogeneity; (3) present a configuration movement strategy to evaluate and optimize the variation of configurations. The results show that ConfigRand can effectively prevent the information leakages due to the shared kernel and apply to typical container applications with minimal system modification and performance degradation.
2021-07-27
Wang, X., Shen, Q., Luo, W., Wu, P..  2020.  RSDS: Getting System Call Whitelist for Container Through Dynamic and Static Analysis. 2020 IEEE 13th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). :600—608.
Container technology has been used for running multiple isolated operating system distros on a host or deploying large scale microservice-based applications. In most cases, containers share the same kernel with the host and other containers on the same host, and the application in the container can make system calls of the host kernel like a normal process on the host. Seccomp is a security mechanism for the Linux kernel, through which we can prohibit certain system calls from being executed by the program. Docker began to support the seccomp mechanism from version 1.10 and disables around 44 system calls out of 300+ by default. However, for a particular container, there are still many system calls that are unnecessary for running it allowed to be executed, and the abuse of system calls by a compromised container can trigger the security vulnerabilities of a host kernel. Unfortunately, Docker does not provide a way to get the necessary system calls for a particular container. In this paper, we propose RSDS, a method combining dynamic analysis and static analysis to get the necessary system calls for a particular container. Our experiments show that our solution can reduce system calls by 69.27%-85.89% compared to the default configuration on an x86-64 PC with Ubuntu 16.04 host OS and does not affect the functionalities of these containers.
2021-07-07
Al-hamouri, Rahaf, Al-Jarrah, Heba, Al-Sharif, Ziad A., Jararweh, Yaser.  2020.  Measuring the Impacts of Virtualization on the Performance of Thread-Based Applications. 2020 Seventh International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS). :131–138.
The following topics are dealt with: cloud computing; software defined networking; cryptography; telecommunication traffic; Internet of Things; authorisation; software radio; cryptocurrencies; data privacy; learning (artificial intelligence).
Moustafa, Nour, Ahmed, Mohiuddin, Ahmed, Sherif.  2020.  Data Analytics-Enabled Intrusion Detection: Evaluations of ToNİoT Linux Datasets. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :727–735.
With the widespread of Artificial Intelligence (AI)-enabled security applications, there is a need for collecting heterogeneous and scalable data sources for effectively evaluating the performances of security applications. This paper presents the description of new datasets, named ToNİoT datasets that include distributed data sources collected from Telemetry datasets of Internet of Things (IoT) services, Operating systems datasets of Windows and Linux, and datasets of Network traffic. The paper aims to describe the new testbed architecture used to collect Linux datasets from audit traces of hard disk, memory and process. The architecture was designed in three distributed layers of edge, fog, and cloud. The edge layer comprises IoT and network systems, the fog layer includes virtual machines and gateways, and the cloud layer includes data analytics and visualization tools connected with the other two layers. The layers were programmatically controlled using Software-Defined Network (SDN) and Network-Function Virtualization (NFV) using the VMware NSX and vCloud NFV platform. The Linux ToNİoT datasets would be used to train and validate various new federated and distributed AI-enabled security solutions such as intrusion detection, threat intelligence, privacy preservation and digital forensics. Various Data analytical and machine learning methods are employed to determine the fidelity of the datasets in terms of examining feature engineering, statistics of legitimate and security events, and reliability of security events. The datasets can be publicly accessed from [1].
2021-06-24
Teplyuk, P.A., Yakunin, A.G., Sharlaev, E.V..  2020.  Study of Security Flaws in the Linux Kernel by Fuzzing. 2020 International Multi-Conference on Industrial Engineering and Modern Technologies (FarEastCon). :1–5.
An exceptional feature of the development of modern operating systems based on the Linux kernel is their leading use in cloud technologies, mobile devices and the Internet of things, which is accompanied by the emergence of more and more security threats at the kernel level. In order to improve the security of existing and future Linux distributions, it is necessary to analyze the existing approaches and tools for automated vulnerability detection and to conduct experimental security testing of some current versions of the kernel. The research is based on fuzzing - a software testing technique, which consists in the automated detection of implementation errors by sending deliberately incorrect data to the input of the fuzzer and analyzing the program's response at its output. Using the Syzkaller software tool, which implements a code coverage approach, vulnerabilities of the Linux kernel level were identified in stable versions used in modern distributions. The direction of this research is relevant and requires further development in order to detect zero-day vulnerabilities in new versions of the kernel, which is an important and necessary link in increasing the security of the Linux operating system family.
2021-05-18
Zhang, Chi, Chen, Jinfu, Cai, Saihua, Liu, Bo, Wu, Yiming, Geng, Ye.  2020.  iTES: Integrated Testing and Evaluation System for Software Vulnerability Detection Methods. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1455–1460.
To find software vulnerabilities using software vulnerability detection technology is an important way to ensure the system security. Existing software vulnerability detection methods have some limitations as they can only play a certain role in some specific situations. To accurately analyze and evaluate the existing vulnerability detection methods, an integrated testing and evaluation system (iTES) is designed and implemented in this paper. The main functions of the iTES are:(1) Vulnerability cases with source codes covering common vulnerability types are collected automatically to form a vulnerability cases library; (2) Fourteen methods including static and dynamic vulnerability detection are evaluated in iTES, involving the Windows and Linux platforms; (3) Furthermore, a set of evaluation metrics is designed, including accuracy, false positive rate, utilization efficiency, time cost and resource cost. The final evaluation and test results of iTES have a good guiding significance for the selection of appropriate software vulnerability detection methods or tools according to the actual situation in practice.
2021-05-13
Niu, Yingjiao, Lei, Lingguang, Wang, Yuewu, Chang, Jiang, Jia, Shijie, Kou, Chunjing.  2020.  SASAK: Shrinking the Attack Surface for Android Kernel with Stricter “seccomp” Restrictions. 2020 16th International Conference on Mobility, Sensing and Networking (MSN). :387–394.
The increasing vulnerabilities in Android kernel make it an attractive target to the attackers. Most kernel-targeted attacks are initiated through system calls. For security purpose, Google has introduced a Linux kernel security mechanism named “seccomp” since Android O to constrain the system calls accessible to the Android apps. Unfortunately, existing Android seccomp mechanism provides a fairly coarse-grained restriction by enforcing a unified seccomp policy containing more than 250 system calls for Android apps, which greatly reduces the effectiveness of seccomp. Also, it lacks an approach to profile the unnecessary system calls for a given Android app. In this paper we present a two-level control scheme named SASAK, which can shrink the attack surface of Android kernel by strictly constraining the system calls available to the Android apps with seccomp mechanism. First, instead of leveraging a unified seccomp policy for all Android apps, SASAK introduces an architecture- dedicated system call constraining by enforcing two separate and refined seccomp policies for the 32-bit Android apps and 64-bit Android apps, respectively. Second, we provide a tool to profile the necessary system calls for a given Android app and enforce an app-dedicated seccomp policy to further reduce the allowed system calls for the apps selected by the users. The app-dedicated control could dynamically change the seccomp policy for an app according to its actual needs. We implement a prototype of SASAK and the experiment results show that the architecture-dedicated constraining reduces 39.6% system calls for the 64-bit apps and 42.5% system calls for the 32-bit apps. 33% of the removed system calls for the 64-bit apps are vulnerable, and the number for the 32-bit apps is 18.8%. The app-dedicated restriction reduces about 66.9% and 62.5% system calls on average for the 64-bit apps and 32-bit apps, respectively. In addition, SASAK introduces negligible performance overhead.
2021-05-05
Block, Matthew, Barcaskey, Benjamin, Nimmo, Andrew, Alnaeli, Saleh, Gilbert, Ian, Altahat, Zaid.  2020.  Scalable Cloud-Based Tool to Empirically Detect Vulnerable Code Patterns in Large-Scale System. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Electro Information Technology (EIT). :588—592.
Open-source development is a well-accepted model by software development communities from both academia and industry. Many companies and corporations adopt and use open source systems daily as a core component in their business activities. One of the most important factors that will determine the success of this model is security. The security of software systems is a combination of source code quality, stability, and vulnerabilities. Software vulnerabilities can be introduced by many factors, some of which are the way that programmers write their programs, their background on security standards, and safe programming practices. This paper describes a cloud-based software tool developed by the authors that can help our computing communities in both academia and research to evaluate their software systems on the source code level to help them identify and detect some of the well-known source code vulnerability patterns that can cause security issues if maliciously exploited. The paper also presents an empirical study on the prevalence of vulnerable C/C++ coding patterns inside three large-scale open-source systems comprising more than 42 million lines of source code. The historical data for the studied systems is presented over five years to uncover some historical trends to highlight the changes in the system analyzed over time concerning the presence of some of the source code vulnerabilities patterns. The majority of results show the continued usage of known unsafe functions.
2021-05-03
Xu, Shenglin, Xie, Peidai, Wang, Yongjun.  2020.  AT-ROP: Using static analysis and binary patch technology to defend against ROP attacks based on return instruction. 2020 International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering (TASE). :209–216.
Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) is one of the most common techniques to exploit software vulnerabilities. Although many solutions to defend against ROP attacks have been proposed, they still have various drawbacks, such as requiring additional information (source code, debug symbols, etc.), increasing program running cost, and causing program instability. In this paper, we propose a method: using static analysis and binary patch technology to defend against ROP attacks based on return instruction. According to this method, we implemented the AT- ROP tool in a Linux 64-bit system environment. Compared to existing tools, it clears the parameter registers when the function returns. As a result, it makes the binary to defend against ROP attacks based on return instruction without having to obtain the source code of the binary. We use the binary challenges in the CTF competition and the binary programs commonly used in the Linux environment to experiment. It turns out that AT-ROP can make the binary program have the ability to defend against ROP attacks based on return instruction with a small increase in the size of the binary program and without affecting its normal execution.
2021-03-01
Chakravarty, S., Hopkins, A..  2020.  LoRa Mesh Network with BeagleBone Black. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :306–311.
This paper investigates the use of BeagleBone Black Wireless single-board Linux computers with Long Range (LoRa) transceivers to send and receive information in a mesh network while one of the transmitting/receiving nodes is acting as a relay in the system. An experiment is conducted to examine how long each LoRa node needed to learn the transmission intervals of any other transmitting nodes on the network and to synchronize with the other nodes prior to transmission. The spread factor, bandwidth, and coding rate are all varied for a total of 18 different combinations. A link to the Python code used on the BeagleBone Black is provided at the end of this paper. The best parameter combinations for each individual node and for the system as a whole is investigated. Additional experiments and applications of this technology are explored in the conclusions.
2021-02-10
Ivanov, P., Baklanov, V., Dymova, E..  2020.  Covert Channels of Data Communication. 2020 Ural Symposium on Biomedical Engineering, Radioelectronics and Information Technology (USBEREIT). :0557—0558.
The article is dedicated to covert channels of data communication in the protected operating system based on the Linux kernel with mandatory access control. The channel which is not intended by developers violates security policy and can lead to disclosure of confidential information. In this paper the covert storage channels are considered. Authors show opportunities to violate the secrecy policy in the protected operating system based on the Linux kernel experimentally. The first scenario uses time stamps of the last access to the files (“atime” stamp), the second scenario uses unreliable mechanism of the automatic login to the user session with another level of secrecy. Then, there are some recommendations to prevent these violations. The goal of this work is to analyze the methods of using covert channels, both previously known and new. The result of the article is recommendations allowing to eliminate security threats which can be embodied through covert channels.
2021-01-25
Mazlisham, M. H., Adnan, S. F. Syed, Isa, M. A. Mat, Mahad, Z., Asbullah, M. A..  2020.  Analysis of Rabin-P and RSA-OAEP Encryption Scheme on Microprocessor Platform. 2020 IEEE 10th Symposium on Computer Applications Industrial Electronics (ISCAIE). :292–296.

This paper presents an analysis of Rabin-P encryption scheme on microprocessor platform in term of runtime and energy consumption. A microprocessor is one of the devices utilized in the Internet of Things (IoT) structure. Therefore, in this work, the microprocessor selected is the Raspberry Pi that is powered with a smaller version of the Linux operating system for embedded devices, the Raspbian OS. A comparative analysis is then conducted for Rabin-p and RSA-OAEP cryptosystem in the Raspberry Pi setup. A conclusion can be made that Rabin-p performs faster in comparison to the RSA-OAEP cryptosystem in the microprocessor platform. Rabin-p can improve decryption efficiency by using only one modular exponentiation while produces a unique message after the decryption process.

2020-11-23
Wang, X., Li, J..  2018.  Design of Intelligent Home Security Monitoring System Based on Android. 2018 2nd IEEE Advanced Information Management,Communicates,Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IMCEC). :2621–2624.
In view of the problem that the health status and safety monitoring of the traditional intelligent home are mainly dependent on the manual inspection, this paper introduces the intelligent home-based remote monitoring system by introducing the Internet-based Internet of Things technology into the intelligent home condition monitoring and safety assessment. The system's Android remote operation based on the MVP model to develop applications, the use of neural networks to deal with users daily use of operational data to establish the network data model, combined with S3C2440A microcontrollers in the gateway to the embedded Linux to facilitate different intelligent home drivers development. Finally, the power line communication network is used to connect the intelligent electrical appliances to the gateway. By calculating the success rate of the routing nodes, the success rate of the network nodes of 15 intelligent devices is 98.33%. The system can intelligent home many electrical appliances at the same time monitoring, to solve the system data and network congestion caused by the problem can not he security monitoring.
2020-10-30
Jeong, Yeonjeong, Kim, Jinmee, Jeon, Seunghyub, Cha, Seung-Jun, Ramneek, Jung, Sungin.  2019.  Design and Implementation of Azalea unikernel file IO offload. 2019 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :398—401.

{Unikernel is smaller in size than existing operating systems and can be started and shut down much more quickly and safely, resulting in greater flexibility and security. Since unikernel does not include large modules like the file system in its library to reduce its size, it is common to choose offloading to handle file IO. However, the processing of IO offload of unikernel transfers the file IO command to the proxy of the file server and copies the file IO result of the proxy. This can result in a trade-off of rapid processing, an advantage of unikernel. In this paper, we propose a method to offload file IO and to perform file IO with direct copy from file server to unikernel}.

Xu, Lai, Yu, Rongwei, Wang, Lina, Liu, Weijie.  2019.  Memway: in-memorywaylaying acceleration for practical rowhammer attacks against binaries. Tsinghua Science and Technology. 24:535—545.

The Rowhammer bug is a novel micro-architectural security threat, enabling powerful privilege-escalation attacks on various mainstream platforms. It works by actively flipping bits in Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) cells with unprivileged instructions. In order to set up Rowhammer against binaries in the Linux page cache, the Waylaying algorithm has previously been proposed. The Waylaying method stealthily relocates binaries onto exploitable physical addresses without exhausting system memory. However, the proof-of-concept Waylaying algorithm can be easily detected during page cache eviction because of its high disk I/O overhead and long running time. This paper proposes the more advanced Memway algorithm, which improves on Waylaying in terms of both I/O overhead and speed. Running time and disk I/O overhead are reduced by 90% by utilizing Linux tmpfs and inmemory swapping to manage eviction files. Furthermore, by combining Memway with the unprivileged posix fadvise API, the binary relocation step is made 100 times faster. Equipped with our Memway+fadvise relocation scheme, we demonstrate practical Rowhammer attacks that take only 15-200 minutes to covertly relocate a victim binary, and less than 3 seconds to flip the target instruction bit.

2020-10-26
Changazi, Sabir Ali, Shafi, Imran, Saleh, Khaled, Islam, M Hasan, Hussainn, Syed Muzammil, Ali, Atif.  2019.  Performance Enhancement of Snort IDS through Kernel Modification. 2019 8th International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies (ICICT). :155–161.
Performance and improved packet handling capacity against high traffic load are important requirements for an effective intrusion detection system (IDS). Snort is one of the most popular open-source intrusion detection system which runs on Linux. This research article discusses ways of enhancing the performance of Snort by modifying Linux key parameters related to NAPI packet reception mechanism within the Linux kernel networking subsystem. Our enhancement overcomes the current limitations related to NAPI throughput. We experimentally demonstrate that current default budget B value of 300 does not yield the best performance of Snort throughput. We show that a small budget value of 14 gives the best Snort performance in terms of packet loss both at Kernel subsystem and at the application level. Furthermore, we compare our results to those reported in the literature, and we show that our enhancement through tuning certain parameters yield superior performance.