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Chiariotti, Federico, Signori, Alberto, Campagnaro, Filippo, Zorzi, Michele.  2020.  Underwater Jamming Attacks as Incomplete Information Games. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :1033—1038.
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) have several fundamental civilian and military applications, and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks against their communications are a serious threat. In this work, we analyze such an attack using game theory in an asymmetric scenario, in which the node under attack does not know the position of the jammer that blocks its signals. The jammer has a dual objective, namely, disrupting communications and forcing the legitimate transmitter to spend more energy protecting its own transmissions. Our model shows that, if both nodes act rationally, the transmitter is able to quickly reduce its disadvantage, estimating the location of the jammer and responding optimally to the attack.
Soderi, Simone.  2020.  Enhancing Security in 6G Visible Light Communications. 2020 2nd 6G Wireless Summit (6G SUMMIT). :1–5.
This paper considers improving the confidentiality of the next generation of wireless communications by using the watermark-based blind physical layer security (WBPLSec) in Visible Light Communications (VLCs). Since the growth of wireless applications and service, the demand for a secure and fast data transfer connection requires new technology solutions capable to ensure the best countermeasure against security attacks. VLC is one of the most promising new wireless communication technology, due to the possibility of using environmental artificial lights as data transfer channel in free-space. On the other hand, VLCs are even inherently susceptible to eavesdropping attacks. This work proposes an innovative scheme in which red, green, blue (RGB) light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) and three color-tuned photo-diodes (PDs) are used to secure a VLC by using a jamming receiver in conjunction with the spread spectrum watermarking technique. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first work that deals with physical layer security on VLC by using RGB LEDs.
Hachimi, Marouane, Kaddoum, Georges, Gagnon, Ghyslain, Illy, Poulmanogo.  2020.  Multi-stage Jamming Attacks Detection using Deep Learning Combined with Kernelized Support Vector Machine in 5G Cloud Radio Access Networks. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1—5.

In 5G networks, the Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) is considered a promising future architecture in terms of minimizing energy consumption and allocating resources efficiently by providing real-time cloud infrastructures, cooperative radio, and centralized data processing. Recently, given their vulnerability to malicious attacks, the security of C-RAN networks has attracted significant attention. Among various anomaly-based intrusion detection techniques, the most promising one is the machine learning-based intrusion detection as it learns without human assistance and adjusts actions accordingly. In this direction, many solutions have been proposed, but they show either low accuracy in terms of attack classification or they offer just a single layer of attack detection. This research focuses on deploying a multi-stage machine learning-based intrusion detection (ML-IDS) in 5G C-RAN that can detect and classify four types of jamming attacks: constant jamming, random jamming, deceptive jamming, and reactive jamming. This deployment enhances security by minimizing the false negatives in C-RAN architectures. The experimental evaluation of the proposed solution is carried out using WSN-DS (Wireless Sensor Networks DataSet), which is a dedicated wireless dataset for intrusion detection. The final classification accuracy of attacks is 94.51% with a 7.84% false negative rate.

Bloch, M., Laneman, J. N..  2009.  Information-spectrum methods for information-theoretic security. 2009 Information Theory and Applications Workshop. :23–28.
We investigate the potential of an information-spectrum approach to information-theoretic security. We show how this approach provides conceptually simple yet powerful results that can be used to investigate complex communication scenarios. In particular, we illustrate the usefulness of information-spectrum methods by analyzing the effect of channel state information (CSI) on the secure rates achievable over wiretap channels. We establish a formula for secrecy capacity, which we then specialize to compute achievable rates for ergodic fading channels in the presence of imperfect CSI. Our results confirm the importance of having some knowledge about the eavesdropper's channel, but also show that imperfect CSI does not necessarily preclude security.
Babu, S. A., Ameer, P. M..  2020.  Physical Adversarial Attacks Against Deep Learning Based Channel Decoding Systems. 2020 IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP). :1511–1514.

Deep Learning (DL), in spite of its huge success in many new fields, is extremely vulnerable to adversarial attacks. We demonstrate how an attacker applies physical white-box and black-box adversarial attacks to Channel decoding systems based on DL. We show that these attacks can affect the systems and decrease performance. We uncover that these attacks are more effective than conventional jamming attacks. Additionally, we show that classical decoding schemes are more robust than the deep learning channel decoding systems in the presence of both adversarial and jamming attacks.

Shang, F., Li, X., Zhai, D., Lu, Y., Zhang, D., Qian, Y..  2020.  On the Distributed Jamming System of Covert Timing Channels in 5G Networks. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Applications (ICAICA). :1107—1111.
To build the fifth generation (5G) mobile network, the sharing structure in the 5G network adopted in industries has gained great research interesting. However, in this structure data are shared among diversity networks, which introduces the threaten of network security, such as covert timing channels. To eliminate the covert timing channel, we propose to inject noise into the covert timing channel. By analyzing the modulation method of covert timing channels, we design the jamming strategy on the covert channel. According to the strategy, the interference algorithm of the covert timing channel is designed. Since the interference algorithm depends heavily on the memory, we construct a distributing jammer. Experiments results show that these covert time channel can be blocked under the distributing jammer.
Borio, D., Gioia, C..  2020.  Mitigation of Frequency-Hopped Tick Jamming Signals. 2020 IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS). :624—630.

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) jamming is an evolving technology where new modulations are progressively introduced in order to reduce the impact of interference mitigation techniques such as Adaptive Notch Filters (ANFs). The Standardisation of GNSS Threat reporting and Receiver testing through International Knowledge Exchange, Experimentation and Exploitation (STRIKE3) project recently described a new class of jamming signals, called tick signals, where a basic frequency tick is hopped over a large frequency range. In this way, discontinuities are introduced in the instantaneous frequency of the jamming signals. These discontinuities reduce the effectiveness of ANFs, which unable to track the jamming signal. This paper analyses the effectiveness of interference mitigation techniques with respect to frequency-hopped tick jamming signals. ANFs and Robust Interference Mitigation (RIM) techniques are analysed. From the analysis, it emerges that, despite the presence of frequency discontinuities, ANFs provide some margin against tick signals. However, frequency discontinuities prevent ANFs to remove all the jamming components and receiver operations are denied for moderate Jamming to Noise power ratio (J/N) values, RIM techniques are not affected by the presence of frequency discontinuities and significantly higher jamming power are sustained by the receiver when this type of techniques is adopted.

Arjoune, Y., Salahdine, F., Islam, M. S., Ghribi, E., Kaabouch, N..  2020.  A Novel Jamming Attacks Detection Approach Based on Machine Learning for Wireless Communication. 2020 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :459–464.
Jamming attacks target a wireless network creating an unwanted denial of service. 5G is vulnerable to these attacks despite its resilience prompted by the use of millimeter wave bands. Over the last decade, several types of jamming detection techniques have been proposed, including fuzzy logic, game theory, channel surfing, and time series. Most of these techniques are inefficient in detecting smart jammers. Thus, there is a great need for efficient and fast jamming detection techniques with high accuracy. In this paper, we compare the efficiency of several machine learning models in detecting jamming signals. We investigated the types of signal features that identify jamming signals, and generated a large dataset using these parameters. Using this dataset, the machine learning algorithms were trained, evaluated, and tested. These algorithms are random forest, support vector machine, and neural network. The performance of these algorithms was evaluated and compared using the probability of detection, probability of false alarm, probability of miss detection, and accuracy. The simulation results show that jamming detection based random forest algorithm can detect jammers with a high accuracy, high detection probability and low probability of false alarm.
Kousri, M. R., Deniau, V., Gransart, C., Villain, J..  2019.  Optimized Time-Frequency Processing Dedicated to the Detection of Jamming Attacks on Wi-Fi Communications. 2019 URSI Asia-Pacific Radio Science Conference (AP-RASC). :1—4.

Attacks by Jamming on wireless communication network can provoke Denial of Services. According to the communication system which is affected, the consequences can be more or less critical. In this paper, we propose to develop an algorithm which could be implemented at the reception stage of a communication terminal in order to detect the presence of jamming signals. The work is performed on Wi-Fi communication signals and demonstrates the necessity to have a specific signal processing at the reception stage to be able to detect the presence of jamming signals.

Hu, Y., Sanjab, A., Saad, W..  2019.  Dynamic Psychological Game Theory for Secure Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) Systems. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. 6:3712—3726.

In this paper, a novel anti-jamming mechanism is proposed to analyze and enhance the security of adversarial Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) systems. In particular, the problem is formulated as a dynamic psychological game between a soldier and an attacker. In this game, the soldier seeks to accomplish a time-critical mission by traversing a battlefield within a certain amount of time, while maintaining its connectivity with an IoBT network. The attacker, on the other hand, seeks to find the optimal opportunity to compromise the IoBT network and maximize the delay of the soldier's IoBT transmission link. The soldier and the attacker's psychological behavior are captured using tools from psychological game theory, with which the soldier's and attacker's intentions to harm one another are considered in their utilities. To solve this game, a novel learning algorithm based on Bayesian updating is proposed to find an ∈ -like psychological self-confirming equilibrium of the game.

Kumar, Sushil, Mann, Kulwinder Singh.  2019.  Prevention of DoS Attacks by Detection of Multiple Malicious Nodes in VANETs. 2019 International Conference on Automation, Computational and Technology Management (ICACTM). :89—94.

Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET), a specialized form of MANET in which safety is the major concern as critical information related to driver's safety and assistance need to be disseminated between the vehicle nodes. The security of the nodes can be increased, if the network availability is increased. The availability of the network is decreased, if there is Denial of Service Attacks (DoS) in the network. In this paper, a packet detection algorithm for the prevention of DoS attacks is proposed. This algorithm will be able to detect the multiple malicious nodes in the network which are sending irrelevant packets to jam the network and that will eventually stop the network to send the safety messages. The proposed algorithm was simulated in NS-2 and the quantitative values of packet delivery ratio, packet loss ratio, network throughput proves that the proposed algorithm enhance the security of the network by detecting the DoS attack well in time.

Tomić, Ivana, Breza, Michael J., Jackson, Greg, Bhatia, Laksh, McCann, Julie A..  2018.  Design and Evaluation of Jamming Resilient Cyber-Physical Systems. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData). :687—694.

There is a growing movement to retrofit ageing, large scale infrastructures, such as water networks, with wireless sensors and actuators. Next generation Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) are a tight integration of sensing, control, communication, computation and physical processes. The failure of any one of these components can cause a failure of the entire CPS. This represents a system design challenge to address these interdependencies. Wireless communication is unreliable and prone to cyber-attacks. An attack upon the wireless communication of CPS would prevent the communication of up-to-date information from the physical process to the controller. A controller without up-to-date information is unable to meet system's stability and performance guarantees. We focus on design approach to make CPSs secure and we evaluate their resilience to jamming attacks aimed at disrupting the system's wireless communication. We consider classic time-triggered control scheme and various resource-aware event-triggered control schemes. We evaluate these on a water network test-bed against three jamming strategies: constant, random, and protocol aware. Our test-bed results show that all schemes are very susceptible to constant and random jamming. We find that time-triggered control schemes are just as susceptible to protocol aware jamming, where some event-triggered control schemes are completely resilient to protocol aware jamming. Finally, we further enhance the resilience of an event-triggered control scheme through the addition of a dynamical estimator that estimates lost or corrupted data.

Nguyen, Lan K., Tringe, Joseph W., Bosler, Clayton, Brunnenmeyer, David.  2019.  An Algorithmic Approach to Highly Resilient SATCOM. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :89–94.

This paper proposes a generic SATCOM control loop in a generic multivector structure to facilitate predictive analysis for achieving resiliency under time varying circumstances. The control loop provides strategies and actions in the context of game theory to optimize the resources for SATCOM networks. Details of the theoretic game and resources optimization approaches are discussed in the paper.

Gariano, John, Djordjevic, Ivan B..  2019.  Covert Communications-Based Information Reconciliation for Quantum Key Distribution Protocols. 2019 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1—5.

The rate at which a secure key can be generated in a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol is limited by the channel loss and the quantum bit-error rate (QBER). Increases to the QBER can stem from detector noise, channel noise, or the presence of an eavesdropper, Eve. Eve is capable of obtaining information of the unsecure key by performing an attack on the quantum channel or by listening to all discussion performed via a noiseless public channel. Conventionally a QKD protocol will perform the information reconciliation over the authenticated public channel, revealing the parity bits used to correct for any quantum bit errors. In this invited paper, the possibility of limiting the information revealed to Eve during the information reconciliation is considered. Using a covert communication channel for the transmission of the parity bits, secure key rates are possible at much higher QBERs. This is demonstrated through the simulation of a polarization based QKD system implementing the BB84 protocol, showing significant improvement of the SKRs over the conventional QKD protocols.

Guirguis, Mina, Tahsini, Alireza, Siddique, Khan, Novoa, Clara, Moore, Justin, Julien, Christine, Dunstatter, Noah.  2018.  BLOC: A Game-Theoretic Approach to Orchestrate CPS against Cyber Attacks. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—9.

Securing Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) against cyber-attacks is challenging due to the wide range of possible attacks - from stealthy ones that seek to manipulate/drop/delay control and measurement signals to malware that infects host machines that control the physical process. This has prompted the research community to address this problem through developing targeted methods that protect and check the run-time operation of the CPS. Since protecting signals and checking for errors result in performance penalties, they must be performed within the delay bounds dictated by the control loop. Due to the large number of potential checks that can be performed, coupled with various degrees of their effectiveness to detect a wide range of attacks, strategic assignment of these checks in the control loop is a critical endeavor. To that end, this paper presents a coherent runtime framework - which we coin BLOC - for orchestrating the CPS with check blocks to secure them against cyber attacks. BLOC capitalizes on game theoretical techniques to enable the defender to find an optimal randomized use of check blocks to secure the CPS while respecting the control-loop constraints. We develop a Stackelberg game model for stateless blocks and a Markov game model for stateful ones and derive optimal policies that minimize the worst-case damage from rational adversaries. We validate our models through extensive simulations as well as a real implementation for a HVAC system.

Tian, Dinghui, Zhang, Wensheng, Sun, Jian, Wang, Cheng-Xiang.  2019.  Physical-Layer Security of Visible Light Communications with Jamming. 2019 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :512–517.
Visible light communication (VLC) is a burgeoning field in wireless communications as it considers illumination and communication simultaneously. The broadcast nature of VLC makes it necessary to consider the security of underlying transmissions. A physical-layer security (PLS) scheme by introducing jamming LEDs is considered in this paper. The secrecy rate of an indoor VLC system with multiple LEDs, one legitimate receiver, and multiple eavesdroppers is investigated. Three distributions of input signal are assumed, i.e., truncated generalized normal distribution (TGN), uniform distribution, and exponential distribution. The results show that jamming can improve the secrecy performance efficiently. This paper also demonstrates that when the numbers of LEDs transmitting information-bearing signal and jamming signal are equal, the average secrecy rate can be maximized.
Arif, Syed Waqas, Coskun, Adem, Kale, Izzet.  2019.  A Fully Adaptive Lattice-based Notch Filter for Mitigation of Interference in GPS. 2019 15th Conference on Ph.D Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME). :217—220.

Intentional interference presents a major threat to the operation of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems. Adaptive notch filtering provides an excellent countermeasure and deterrence against narrowband interference. This paper presents a comparative performance analysis of two adaptive notch filtering algorithms for GPS specific applications which are based on Direct form Second Order and Lattice-Based notch filter structures. Performance of each algorithm is evaluated considering the ratio of jamming to noise density against the effective signal to noise ratio at the output of the correlator. A fully adaptive lattice notch filter is proposed, which is able to simultaneously adapt its coefficients to alter the notch frequency along with the bandwidth of the notch filter. The filter demonstrated a superior tracking performance and convergence rate in comparison to an existing algorithm taken from the literature. Moreover, this paper describes the complete GPS modelling platform implemented in Simulink too.

Maria Verzegnassi, Enrico Giulio, Tountas, Konstantinos, Pados, Dimitris A., Cuomo, Francesca.  2019.  Data Conformity Evaluation: A Novel Approach for IoT Security. 2019 IEEE 5th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). :842—846.

We consider the problem of attack detection for IoT networks based only on passively collected network parameters. For the first time in the literature, we develop a blind attack detection method based on data conformity evaluation. Network parameters collected passively, are converted to their conformity values through iterative projections on refined L1-norm tensor subspaces. We demonstrate our algorithmic development in a case study for a simulated star topology network. Type of attack, affected devices, as well as, attack time frame can be easily identified.

Vashist, Abhishek, Keats, Andrew, Pudukotai Dinakarrao, Sai Manoj, Ganguly, Amlan.  2019.  Securing a Wireless Network-on-Chip Against Jamming Based Denial-of-Service Attacks. 2019 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI). :320–325.
Wireless Networks-on-Chips (NoCs) have emerged as a panacea to the non-scalable multi-hop data transmission paths in traditional wired NoC architectures. Using low-power transceivers in NoC switches, novel Wireless NoC (WiNoC) architectures have been shown to achieve higher energy efficiency with improved peak bandwidth and reduced on-chip data transfer latency. However, using wireless interconnects for data transfer within a chip makes the on-chip communications vulnerable to various security threats from either external attackers or internal hardware Trojans (HTs). In this work, we propose a mechanism to make the wireless communication in a WiNoC secure against persistent jamming based Denial-of-Service attacks from both external and internal attackers. Persistent jamming attacks on the on-chip wireless medium will cause interference in data transfer over the duration of the attack resulting in errors in contiguous bits, known as burst errors. Therefore, we use a burst error correction code to monitor the rate of burst errors received over the wireless medium and deploy a Machine Learning (ML) classifier to detect the persistent jamming attack and distinguish it from random burst errors. In the event of jamming attack, alternate routing strategies are proposed to avoid the DoS attack over the wireless medium, so that a secure data transfer can be sustained even in the presence of jamming. We evaluate the proposed technique on a secure WiNoC in the presence of DoS attacks. It has been observed that with the proposed defense mechanisms, WiNoC can outperform a wired NoC even in presence of attacks in terms of performance and security. On an average, 99.87% attack detection was achieved with the chosen ML Classifiers. A bandwidth degradation of \textbackslashtextless;3% is experienced in the event of internal attack, while the wireless interconnects are disabled in the presence of an external attacker.
Chen, Jiaojiao, Liang, Xiangyang.  2019.  L2 Control for Networked Control Systems Subject to Denial-of-Service Attacks. 2019 International Conference on Computer Network, Electronic and Automation (ICCNEA). :502–505.
This paper focuses on the issue of designing L2 state feedback controller for networked control systems subject to unknown periodic denial-of-service (DoS) jamming attacks. Primarily, a resilient event-triggering mechanism is introduced to counteract the influence of DoS jamming attacks. Secondly, a switching system model of NCSs is set up. Then, the criteria of the exponential stability analysis is obtained by the piecewise Lyapunov functional approach based on the model. Thirdly, a co-design approach of the trigger parameters and L2 controller is developed. Lastly, a practical system is used for proving the efficiency of the proposed approach.
Schaefer, Rafael F., Boche, Holger, Poor, H. Vincent.  2019.  Turing Meets Shannon: On the Algorithmic Computability of the Capacities of Secure Communication Systems (Invited Paper). 2019 IEEE 20th International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC). :1–5.

This paper presents the recent progress in studying the algorithmic computability of capacity expressions of secure communication systems. Several communication scenarios are discussed and reviewed including the classical wiretap channel, the wiretap channel with an active jammer, and the problem of secret key generation.

Chao, Chih-Min, Lee, Wei-Che, Wang, Cong-Xiang, Huang, Shin-Chung, Yang, Yu-Chich.  2018.  A Flexible Anti-Jamming Channel Hopping for Cognitive Radio Networks. 2018 Sixth International Symposium on Computing and Networking Workshops (CANDARW). :549-551.

In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), secondary users (SUs) are vulnerable to malicious attacks because an SU node's opportunistic access cannot be protected from adversaries. How to design a channel hopping scheme to protect SU nodes from jamming attacks is thus an important issue in CRNs. Existing anti-jamming channel hopping schemes have some limitations: Some require SU nodes to exchange secrets in advance; some require an SU node to be either a receiver or a sender, and some are not flexible enough. Another issue for existing anti-jamming channel hopping schemes is that they do not consider different nodes may have different traffic loads. In this paper, we propose an anti-jamming channel hopping protocol, Load Awareness Anti-jamming channel hopping (LAA) scheme. Nodes running LAA are able to change their channel hopping sequences based on their sending and receiving traffic. Simulation results verify that LAA outperforms existing anti-jamming schemes.

Sohu, Izhar Ahmed, Ahmed Rahimoon, Asif, Junejo, Amjad Ali, Ahmed Sohu, Arsalan, Junejo, Sadam Hussain.  2019.  Analogous Study of Security Threats in Cognitive Radio. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computing, Mathematics and Engineering Technologies (iCoMET). :1-4.

Utilization of Wireless sensor network is growing with the development in modern technologies. On other side electromagnetic spectrum is limited resources. Application of wireless communication is expanding day by day which directly threaten electromagnetic spectrum band to become congested. Cognitive Radio solves this issue by implementation of unused frequency bands as "White Space". There is another important factor that gets attention in cognitive model i.e: Wireless Security. One of the famous causes of security threat is malicious node in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks (CRWSN). The goal of this paper is to focus on security issues which are related to CRWSN as Fusion techniques, Co-operative Spectrum sensing along with two dangerous attacks in CR: Primary User Emulation (PUE) and Spectrum Sensing Data Falsification (SSDF).

MirhoseiniNejad, S. Mohamad, Rahmanpour, Ali, Razavizadeh, S. Mohammad.  2018.  Phase Jamming Attack: A Practical Attack on Physical Layer-Based Key Derivation. 2018 15th International ISC (Iranian Society of Cryptology) Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :1–4.

Key derivation from the physical layer features of the communication channels is a promising approach which can help the key management and security enhancement in communication networks. In this paper, we consider a key generation technique that quantizes the received signal phase to obtain the secret keys. We then study the effect of a jamming attack on this system. The jammer is an active attacker that tries to make a disturbance in the key derivation procedure and changes the phase of the received signal by transmitting an adversary signal. We evaluate the effect of jamming on the security performance of the system and show the ways to improve this performance. Our numerical results show that more phase quantization regions limit the probability of successful attacks.

Shinde, P., Karve, A., Mandaliya, P., Patil, S..  2018.  Wireless Security Audit Penetration Test Using Raspberry Pi. 2018 International Conference on Smart City and Emerging Technology (ICSCET). :1-4.

With the advancement in the wireless technology there are more and more devices connected over WiFi network. Security is one of the major concerns about WiFi other than performance, range, usability, etc. WiFi Auditor is a collection of WiFi testing tools and services packed together inside Raspberry Pi 3 module. The WiFi auditor allows the penetration tester to conduct WiFi attacks and reconnaissance on the selected client or on the complete network. WiFi auditor is portable and stealth hence allowing the attacker to simulate the attacks without anyone noticing them. WiFi auditor provides services such as deliberate jamming, blocking or interference with authorized wireless communications which can be done to the whole network or just a particular node.