Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is CPS modeling  [Clear All Filters]
2022-04-20
Qingxue, Meng, Jiajun, Lin.  2014.  The Modeling and Simulation of Vehicle Distance Control Based on Cyber-Physical System. 2014 IEEE 7th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference. :341–345.
With the advent of motorization, result in traffic system more congested, how to make the traffic system more effective and also take safety into account, namely build a intelligent transportation system, has become a hot spot of society. The vehicle distance control system studied in this paper is an important function in intelligent transportation system, through introducing cyber-physical systems (CPS) technology into it, set up system model, make the vehicles maintain a preset safety distance, thereby not only help improve the effective utilization of traffic system, but also help avoid the collision due to the speed change. Finally, use Simulink software to simulate and analyze the performance of the system, the result shows that the model can effectively cope with the distance change which is due to speed change, and ensure the vehicles maintain a preset safety distance within a short period of time.
Junjie, Tang, Jianjun, Zhao, Jianwan, Ding, Liping, Chen, Gang, Xie, Bin, Gu, Mengfei, Yang.  2012.  Cyber-Physical Systems Modeling Method Based on Modelica. 2012 IEEE Sixth International Conference on Software Security and Reliability Companion. :188–191.
Cyber-physical systems (CPS) is an integration of computation with physical systems and physical processes. It is widely used in energy, health and other industrial areas. Modeling and simulation is of the greatest challenges in CPS research. Modelica has a great potentiality in the modeling and simulation of CPS. We analyze the characteristics and requirements of CPS modeling, and also the features of Modelica in the paper. In respect of information model, physical model and model interface, this paper introduces a unified modeling method for CPS, based on Modelica. The method provides a reliable foundation for the design, analysis and verification of CPS.
Jun, Shen, Cuibo, Yu.  2013.  The Study on the Self-Similarity and Simulation of CPS Traffic. 2013 IEEE 11th International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing. :215–219.
CPS traffic characteristics is one of key techniques of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). A deep research of CPS network traffic characteristics can help to better plan and design CPS networks. A brief overview of the key concepts of CPS is firstly presented. Then CPS application scenarios are analyzed in details and classified. The characteristics of CPS traffic is analyzed theoretically for different CPS application scenarios. At last, the characteristics of CPS traffic is verified using NS-2 simulation.
Falcone, Alberto, Garro, Alfredo.  2020.  Pitfalls and Remedies in Modeling and Simulation of Cyber Physical Systems. 2020 IEEE/ACM 24th International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications (DS-RT). :1–5.
The ever-growing advances in science and technology have led to a rapid increase in the complexity of most engineered systems. Cyber-physical Systems (CPSs) are the result of this technology advancement that involves new paradigms, architectures and functionalities derived from different engineering domains. Due to the nature of CPSs, which are composed of many heterogeneous components that constantly interact one another and with the environment, it is difficult to study, explain hypothesis and evaluate design alternatives without using Modeling and Simulation (M&S) approaches. M&S is increasingly used in the CPS domain with different objectives; however, its adoption is not easy and straightforward but can lead to pitfalls that need to be recognized and addressed. This paper identifies some important pitfalls deriving from the application of M&S approaches to the CPS study and presents remedies, which are already available in the literature, to prevent and face them.
Wang, Yuying, Zhou, Xingshe, Liang, Dongfang.  2012.  Study on Integrated Modeling Methods toward Co-Simulation of Cyber-Physical System. 2012 IEEE 14th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communication 2012 IEEE 9th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems. :1736–1740.
Cyber-physical systems are particularly difficult to model and simulate because their components mix many different system modalities. In this paper we address the main technical challenges on system simulation taking into account by new characters of CPS, and provide a comprehensive view of the simulation modeling methods for integration of continuous-discrete model. Regards to UML and Simulink, two most widely accepted modeling methods in industrial designs, we study on three methods to perform the cooperation of these two kinds of heterogeneous models for co-simulation. The solution of an implementation of co-simulation method for CPS was designed under three levels architecture.
Zhang, Kailong, Li, Jiwei, Lu, Zhou, Luo, Mei, Wu, Xiao.  2013.  A Scene-Driven Modeling Reconfigurable Hardware-in-Loop Simulation Environment for the Verification of an Autonomous CPS. 2013 5th International Conference on Intelligent Human-Machine Systems and Cybernetics. 1:446–451.
Cyber-Physical System(CPS) is now a new evolutional morphology of embedded systems. With features of merging computation and physical processes together, the traditional verification and simulation methods have being challenged recently. After analyzed the state-of-art of related research, a new simulation environment is studied according to the characters of a special autonomous cyber-physical system-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, and designed to be scene-driven, modeling and reconfigurable. In this environment, a novel CPS-in-loop architecture, which can support simulations under different customized scenes, is studied firstly to ensure its opening and flexibility. And as another foundation, some dynamics models of CPS and atmospheric ones of relative sensors are introduced to simulate the motion of CPS and the change of its posture. On the basis above, the reconfigurable scene-driven mechanisms that are Based on hybrid events are mainly excogitated. Then, different scenes can be configured in terms of special verification requirements, and then each scene will be decomposed into a spatio-temporal event sequence and scheduled by a scene executor. With this environment, not only the posture of CPS, but also the autonomy of its behavior can be verified and observed. It will be meaningful for the design of such autonomous CPS.
Deschamps, Henrick, Cappello, Gerlando, Cardoso, Janette, Siron, Pierre.  2017.  Toward a Formalism to Study the Scheduling of Cyber-Physical Systems Simulations. 2017 IEEE/ACM 21st International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications (DS-RT). :1–8.
This paper presents ongoing work on the formalism of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) simulations. These systems are distributed real-time systems, and their simulations might be distributed or not. In this paper, we propose a model to describe the modular components forming a simulation of a CPS. The main goal is to introduce a model of generic simulation distributed architecture, on which we are able to execute a logical architecture of simulation. This architecture of simulation allows the expression of structural and behavioural constraints on the simulation, abstracting its execution. We will propose two implementations of the execution architecture based on generic architectures of distributed simulation: $\cdot$ The High Level Architecture (HLA), an IEEE standard for distributed simulation, and one of its open-source implementation of RunTime Infrastructure (RTI): CERTI. $\cdot$ The Distributed Simulation Scheduler (DSS), an Airbus framework scheduling predefined models. Finally, we present the initial results obtained applying our formalism to the open-source case study from the ROSACE case study.
Cambeiro, João, Deantoni, Julien, Amaral, Vasco.  2021.  Supporting the Engineering of Multi-Fidelity Simulation Units With Simulation Goals. 2021 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems Companion (MODELS-C). :317–321.
To conceive a CPS is a complex and multidisciplinary endeavour involving different stakeholders, potentially using a plethora of different languages to describe their views of the system at different levels of abstraction. Model-Driven Engineering comes, precisely, as a methodological approach to tackle the complexity of systems development with models as first-class citizens in the development process. The measure of realism of these models with respect to the real (sub)system is called fidelity. Usually, different models with different fidelity are then developed during the development process. Additionally, it is very common that the development process of CPS includes an incremental (and collaborative) use of simulations to study the behaviour emerging from the heterogeneous models of the system. Currently, the different models, with different fidelity, are managed in an ad hoc manner. Consequently, when a (Co)simulation is used to study a specific property of the system, the choice of the different models and their setup is made manually in a non-tractable way. In this paper we propose a structured new vision to CPS development, where the notion of simulation goal and multi-fidelity simulation unit are first-class citizens. The goal is to make a clear link between the system requirements, the system properties, the simulation goal and the multi-fidelity simulation unit. The outcome of this framework is a way to automatically determine the model at an adequate fidelity level suitable for answering a specific simulation goal.
2021-05-25
Anubi, Olugbenga Moses, Konstantinou, Charalambos, Wong, Carlos A., Vedula, Satish.  2020.  Multi-Model Resilient Observer under False Data Injection Attacks. 2020 IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications (CCTA). :1–8.

In this paper, we present the concept of boosting the resiliency of optimization-based observers for cyber-physical systems (CPS) using auxiliary sources of information. Due to the tight coupling of physics, communication and computation, a malicious agent can exploit multiple inherent vulnerabilities in order to inject stealthy signals into the measurement process. The problem setting considers the scenario in which an attacker strategically corrupts portions of the data in order to force wrong state estimates which could have catastrophic consequences. The goal of the proposed observer is to compute the true states in-spite of the adversarial corruption. In the formulation, we use a measurement prior distribution generated by the auxiliary model to refine the feasible region of a traditional compressive sensing-based regression problem. A constrained optimization-based observer is developed using l1-minimization scheme. Numerical experiments show that the solution of the resulting problem recovers the true states of the system. The developed algorithm is evaluated through a numerical simulation example of the IEEE 14-bus system.

Cai, Feiyang, Li, Jiani, Koutsoukos, Xenofon.  2020.  Detecting Adversarial Examples in Learning-Enabled Cyber-Physical Systems using Variational Autoencoder for Regression. 2020 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :208–214.

Learning-enabled components (LECs) are widely used in cyber-physical systems (CPS) since they can handle the uncertainty and variability of the environment and increase the level of autonomy. However, it has been shown that LECs such as deep neural networks (DNN) are not robust and adversarial examples can cause the model to make a false prediction. The paper considers the problem of efficiently detecting adversarial examples in LECs used for regression in CPS. The proposed approach is based on inductive conformal prediction and uses a regression model based on variational autoencoder. The architecture allows to take into consideration both the input and the neural network prediction for detecting adversarial, and more generally, out-of-distribution examples. We demonstrate the method using an advanced emergency braking system implemented in an open source simulator for self-driving cars where a DNN is used to estimate the distance to an obstacle. The simulation results show that the method can effectively detect adversarial examples with a short detection delay.

Siritoglou, Petros, Oriti, Giovanna.  2020.  Distributed Energy Resources Design Method to Improve Energy Security in Critical Facilities. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2020 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I CPS Europe). :1–6.

This paper presents a user-friendly design method for accurately sizing the distributed energy resources of a stand-alone microgrid to meet the critical load demands of a military, commercial, industrial, or residential facility when the utility power is not available. The microgrid combines renewable resources such as photovoltaics (PV) with an energy storage system to increase energy security for facilities with critical loads. The design tool's novelty includes compliance with IEEE standards 1562 and 1013 and addresses resilience, which is not taken into account in existing design methods. Several case studies, simulated with a physics-based model, validate the proposed design method. Additionally, the design and the simulations were validated by 24-hour laboratory experiments conducted on a microgrid assembled using commercial off the shelf components.

Zhu, Hong, Xia, Bing, Zhou, Dongxu, Zhang, Ming, Ma, Zhoujun.  2020.  Research on Integrated Model and Interactive Influence of Energy Internet Cyber Physical System. 2020 IEEE Sustainable Power and Energy Conference (iSPEC). :1667–1671.

Energy Internet is a typical cyber-physical system (CPS), in which the disturbance on cyber part may result in the operation risks on the physical part. In order to perform CPS assessment and research the interactive influence between cyber part and physical part, an integrated energy internet CPS model which adopts information flow matrix, energy control flow matrix and information energy hybrid flow matrix is proposed in this paper. The proposed model has a higher computational efficacy compared with simulation based approaches. Then, based on the proposed model, the influence of cyber disturbances such as data dislocation, data delay and data error on the physical part are studied. Finally, a 3 MW PET based energy internet CPS is built using PSCAD/EMTDC software. The simulation results prove the validity of the proposed model and the correctness of the interactive influence analysis.

Bogosyan, Seta, Gokasan, Metin.  2020.  Novel Strategies for Security-hardened BMS for Extremely Fast Charging of BEVs. 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC). :1–7.

The increased power capacity and networking requirements in Extremely Fast Charging (XFC) systems for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and the resulting increase in the adversarial attack surface call for security measures to be taken in the involved cyber-physical system (CPS). Within this system, the security of the BEV's battery management system (BMS) is of critical importance as the BMS is the first line of defense between the vehicle and the charge station. This study proposes an optimal control and moving-target defense (MTD) based novel approach for the security of the vehicle BMS) focusing on the charging process, during which a compromised vehicle may contaminate the XFC station and the whole grid. This paper is part of our ongoing research, which is one of the few, if not the first, reported studies in the literature on security-hardened BMS, aiming to increase the security and performance of operations between the charging station, the BMS and the battery system of electric vehicles. The developed MTD based switching strategy makes use of redundancies in the controller and feedback design. The performed simulations demonstrate an increased unpredictability and acceptable charging performance under adversarial attacks.

Ravikumar, Gelli, Hyder, Burhan, Govindarasu, Manimaran.  2020.  Efficient Modeling of IEC-61850 Logical Nodes in IEDs for Scalability in CPS Security Testbed. 2020 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (T D). :1–5.

Though the deep penetration of cyber systems across the smart grid sub-domains enrich the operation of the wide-area protection, control, and smart grid applications, the stochastic nature of cyber-attacks by adversaries inflict their performance and the system operation. Various hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) cyber-physical system (CPS) testbeds have attempted to evaluate the cyberattack dynamics and power system perturbations for robust wide-area protection algorithms. However, physical resource constraints and modular integration designs have been significant barriers while modeling large-scale grid models (scalability) and have limited many of the CPS testbeds to either small-scale HIL environment or complete simulation environments. This paper proposes a meticulous design and efficient modeling of IEC-61850 logical nodes in physical relays to simulate large-scale grid models in a HIL real-time digital simulator environment integrated with industry-grade hardware and software systems for wide-area power system applications. The proposed meticulous design includes multi-breaker emulation in the physical relays, which extends the capacity of a physical relay to accommodate more number of CPS interfaces in the HIL CPS security testbed environment. We have used our existing HIL CPS security testbed to demonstrate scalability by the real-time performance of ten simultaneous IEEE-39 CPS grid models. The experiments demonstrated significant results by 100% real-time performance with zero overruns, and low latency while receiving and executing control signals from physical SEL relays via IEC-61850 and DNP-3 protocols to real-time digital simulator, substation remote terminal unit (RTU) software and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software at control center.

2020-07-16
Guirguis, Mina, Tahsini, Alireza, Siddique, Khan, Novoa, Clara, Moore, Justin, Julien, Christine, Dunstatter, Noah.  2018.  BLOC: A Game-Theoretic Approach to Orchestrate CPS against Cyber Attacks. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—9.

Securing Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) against cyber-attacks is challenging due to the wide range of possible attacks - from stealthy ones that seek to manipulate/drop/delay control and measurement signals to malware that infects host machines that control the physical process. This has prompted the research community to address this problem through developing targeted methods that protect and check the run-time operation of the CPS. Since protecting signals and checking for errors result in performance penalties, they must be performed within the delay bounds dictated by the control loop. Due to the large number of potential checks that can be performed, coupled with various degrees of their effectiveness to detect a wide range of attacks, strategic assignment of these checks in the control loop is a critical endeavor. To that end, this paper presents a coherent runtime framework - which we coin BLOC - for orchestrating the CPS with check blocks to secure them against cyber attacks. BLOC capitalizes on game theoretical techniques to enable the defender to find an optimal randomized use of check blocks to secure the CPS while respecting the control-loop constraints. We develop a Stackelberg game model for stateless blocks and a Markov game model for stateful ones and derive optimal policies that minimize the worst-case damage from rational adversaries. We validate our models through extensive simulations as well as a real implementation for a HVAC system.

Mace, J.C., Morisset, C., Pierce, K., Gamble, C., Maple, C., Fitzgerald, J..  2018.  A multi-modelling based approach to assessing the security of smart buildings. Living in the Internet of Things: Cybersecurity of the IoT – 2018. :1—10.

Smart buildings are controlled by multiple cyber-physical systems that provide critical services such as heating, ventilation, lighting and access control. These building systems are becoming increasingly vulnerable to both cyber and physical attacks. We introduce a multi-model methodology for assessing the security of these systems, which utilises INTO-CPS, a suite of modelling, simulation, and analysis tools for designing cyber-physical systems. Using a fan coil unit case study we show how its security can be systematically assessed when subjected to Man-in-the-Middle attacks on the data connections between system components. We suggest our methodology would enable building managers and security engineers to design attack countermeasures and refine their effectiveness.

Xiao, Jiaping, Jiang, Jianchun.  2018.  Real-time Security Evaluation for Unmanned Aircraft Systems under Data-driven Attacks*. 2018 13th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation (WCICA). :842—847.

With rapid advances in the fields of the Internet of Things and autonomous systems, the network security of cyber-physical systems(CPS) becomes more and more important. This paper focuses on the real-time security evaluation for unmanned aircraft systems which are cyber-physical systems relying on information communication and control system to achieve autonomous decision making. Our problem formulation is motivated by scenarios involving autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs) working continuously under data-driven attacks when in an open, uncertain, and even hostile environment. Firstly, we investigated the state estimation method in CPS integrated with data-driven attacks model, and then proposed a real-time security scoring algorithm to evaluate the security condition of unmanned aircraft systems under different threat patterns, considering the vulnerability of the systems and consequences brought by data attacks. Our simulation in a UAV illustrated the efficiency and reliability of the algorithm.

Bovo, Cristian, Ilea, Valentin, Rolandi, Claudio.  2018.  A Security-Constrained Islanding Feasibility Optimization Model in the Presence of Renewable Energy Sources. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I CPS Europe). :1—6.

The massive integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into power systems is a major challenge but it also provides new opportunities for network operation. For example, with a large amount of RES available at HV subtransmission level, it is possible to exploit them as controlling resources in islanding conditions. Thus, a procedure for off-line evaluation of islanded operation feasibility in the presence of RES is proposed. The method finds which generators and loads remain connected after islanding to balance the island's real power maximizing the amount of supplied load and assuring the network's long-term security. For each possible islanding event, the set of optimal control actions (load/generation shedding) to apply in case of actual islanding, is found. The procedure is formulated as a Mixed Integer Non-Linear Problem (MINLP) and is solved using Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Results, including dynamic simulations, are shown for a representative HV subtransmission grid.

Lingasubramanian, Karthikeyan, Kumar, Ranveer, Gunti, Nagendra Babu, Morris, Thomas.  2018.  Study of hardware trojans based security vulnerabilities in cyber physical systems. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1—6.

The dependability of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) solely lies in the secure and reliable functionality of their backbone, the computing platform. Security of this platform is not only threatened by the vulnerabilities in the software peripherals, but also by the vulnerabilities in the hardware internals. Such threats can arise from malicious modifications to the integrated circuits (IC) based computing hardware, which can disable the system, leak information or produce malfunctions. Such modifications to computing hardware are made possible by the globalization of the IC industry, where a computing chip can be manufactured anywhere in the world. In the complex computing environment of CPS such modifications can be stealthier and undetectable. Under such circumstances, design of these malicious modifications, and eventually their detection, will be tied to the functionality and operation of the CPS. So it is imperative to address such threats by incorporating security awareness in the computing hardware design in a comprehensive manner taking the entire system into consideration. In this paper, we present a study in the influence of hardware Trojans on closed-loop systems, which form the basis of CPS, and establish threat models. Using these models, we perform a case study on a critical CPS application, gas pipeline based SCADA system. Through this process, we establish a completely virtual simulation platform along with a hardware-in-the-loop based simulation platform for implementation and testing.

Ni, Ming, Xue, Yusheng, Tong, Heqin, Li, Manli.  2018.  A cyber physical power system co-simulation platform. 2018 Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES). :1—5.

With the tighter integration of power system and Information and Communication Technology (ICT), power grid is becoming a typical cyber physical system (CPS). It is important to analyze the impact of the cyber event on power system, so that it is necessary to build a co-simulation system for studying the interaction between power system and ICT. In this paper, a cyber physical power system (CPPS) co-simulation platform is proposed, which includes the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation function. By using flexible interface, various simulation software for power system and ICT can be interconnected into the platform to build co-simulation tools for various simulation purposes. To demonstrate it as a proof, one simulation framework for real life cyber-attack on power system control is introduced. In this case, the real life denial-of-service attack on a router in automatic voltage control (AVC) is simulated to demonstrate impact of cyber-attack on power system.

Ding, Yueming, Li, Kuan, Meng, Zhaoxian.  2018.  CPS Optimal Control for Interconnected Power Grid Based on Model Predictive Control. 2018 2nd IEEE Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System Integration (EI2). :1—9.

The CPS standard can be more objective to evaluate the effect of control behavior in each control area on the interconnected power grid. The CPS standard is derived from statistical methods emphasizing the long-term control performance of AGC, which is beneficial to the frequency control of the power grid by mutual support between the various power grids in the case of an accident. Moreover, CPS standard reduces the wear of the equipment caused by the frequent adjustment of the AGC unit. The key is to adjust the AGC control strategy to meet the performance of CPS standard. This paper proposed a dynamic optimal CPS control methodology for interconnected power systems based on model predictive control which can achieve optimal control under the premise of meeting the CPS standard. The effectiveness of the control strategy is verified by simulation examples.

Ma, Siyou, Yan, Yunqiang.  2018.  Simulation Testing of Fault-Tolerant CPS Based on Hierarchical Adaptive Policies. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :443—449.

Cyber physical system (CPS) is often deployed at safety-critical key infrastructures and fields, fault tolerance policies are extensively applied in CPS systems to improve its credibility; the same physical backup of hardware redundancy (SPB) technology is frequently used for its simple and reliable implementation. To resolve challenges faced with in simulation test of SPB-CPS, this paper dynamically determines the test resources matched with the CPS scale by using the adaptive allocation policies, establishes the hierarchical models and inter-layer message transmission mechanism. Meanwhile, the collaborative simulation time sequence push strategy and the node activity test mechanism based on the sliding window are designed in this paper to improve execution efficiency of the simulation test. In order to validate effectiveness of the method proposed in this paper, we successfully built up a fault-tolerant CPS simulation platform. Experiments showed that it can improve the SPB-CPS simulation test efficiency.

Roth, Thomas, Burns, Martin.  2018.  A gateway to easily integrate simulation platforms for co-simulation of cyber-physical systems. 2018 Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES). :1—6.

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) research leverages the expertise of researchers from multiple domains to engineer complex systems of interacting physical and computational components. An approach called co-simulation is often used in CPS conceptual design to integrate the specialized tools and simulators from each of these domains into a joint simulation for the evaluation of design decisions. Many co-simulation platforms are being developed to expedite CPS conceptualization and realization, but most use intrusive modeling and communication libraries that require researchers to either abandon their existing models or spend considerable effort to integrate them into the platform. A significant number of these co-simulation platforms use the High Level Architecture (HLA) standard that provides a rich set of services to facilitate distributed simulation. This paper introduces a simple gateway that can be readily implemented without co-simulation expertise to adapt existing models and research infrastructure for use in HLA. An open-source implementation of the gateway has been developed for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) co-simulation platform called the Universal CPS Environment for Federation (UCEF).

Koumidis, K., Kolios, P., Ellinas, G., Panayiotou, C. G..  2019.  Secure Event Logging Using a Blockchain of Heterogeneous Computing Resources. 2019 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM). :1—6.

Secure logging is essential for the integrity and accountability of cyber-physical systems (CPS). To prevent modification of log files the integrity of data must be ensured. In this work, we propose a solution for secure event in cyberphysical systems logging based on the blockchain technology, by encapsulating event data in blocks. The proposed solution considers the real-time application constraints that are inherent in CPS monitoring and control functions by optimizing the heterogeneous resources governing blockchain computations. In doing so, the proposed blockchain mechanism manages to deliver events in hard-to-tamper ledger blocks that can be accessed and utilized by the various functions and components of the system. Performance analysis of the proposed solution is conducted through extensive simulation, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach in delivering blocks of events on time using the minimum computational resources.

Farivar, Faezeh, Haghighi, Mohammad Sayad, Barchinezhad, Soheila, Jolfaei, Alireza.  2019.  Detection and Compensation of Covert Service-Degrading Intrusions in Cyber Physical Systems through Intelligent Adaptive Control. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT). :1143—1148.

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are playing important roles in the critical infrastructure now. A prominent family of CPSs are networked control systems in which the control and feedback signals are carried over computer networks like the Internet. Communication over insecure networks make system vulnerable to cyber attacks. In this article, we design an intrusion detection and compensation framework based on system/plant identification to fight covert attacks. We collect error statistics of the output estimation during the learning phase of system operation and after that, monitor the system behavior to see if it significantly deviates from the expected outputs. A compensating controller is further designed to intervene and replace the classic controller once the attack is detected. The proposed model is tested on a DC motor as the plant and is put against a deception signal amplification attack over the forward link. Simulation results show that the detection algorithm well detects the intrusion and the compensator is also successful in alleviating the attack effects.