Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is Fault attack  [Clear All Filters]
Hou, Xiaolu, Breier, Jakub, Jap, Dirmanto, Ma, Lei, Bhasin, Shivam, Liu, Yang.  2020.  Security Evaluation of Deep Neural Network Resistance Against Laser Fault Injection. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA). :1–6.
Deep learning is becoming a basis of decision making systems in many application domains, such as autonomous vehicles, health systems, etc., where the risk of misclassification can lead to serious consequences. It is necessary to know to which extent are Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) robust against various types of adversarial conditions. In this paper, we experimentally evaluate DNNs implemented in embedded device by using laser fault injection, a physical attack technique that is mostly used in security and reliability communities to test robustness of various systems. We show practical results on four activation functions, ReLu, softmax, sigmoid, and tanh. Our results point out the misclassification possibilities for DNNs achieved by injecting faults into the hidden layers of the network. We evaluate DNNs by using several different attack strategies to show which are the most efficient in terms of misclassification success rates. Outcomes of this work should be taken into account when deploying devices running DNNs in environments where malicious attacker could tamper with the environmental parameters that would bring the device into unstable conditions. resulting into faults.
Engels, Susanne, Schellenberg, Falk, Paar, Christof.  2020.  SPFA: SFA on Multiple Persistent Faults. 2020 Workshop on Fault Detection and Tolerance in Cryptography (FDTC). :49–56.
For classical fault analysis, a transient fault is required to be injected during runtime, e.g., only at a specific round. Instead, Persistent Fault Analysis (PFA) introduces a powerful class of fault attacks that allows for a fault to be present throughout the whole execution. One limitation of original PFA as introduced by Zhang et al. at CHES'18 is that the adversary needs know (or brute-force) the faulty values prior to the analysis. While this was addressed at a follow-up work at CHES'20, the solution is only applicable to a single faulty value. Instead, we use the potency of Statistical Fault Analysis (SFA) in the persistent fault setting, presenting Statistical Persistent Fault Analysis (SPFA) as a more general approach of PFA. As a result, any or even a multitude of unknown faults that cause an exploitable bias in the targeted round can be used to recover the cipher's secret key. Indeed, the undesired faults in the other rounds that occur due the persistent nature of the attack converge to a uniform distribution as required by SFA. We verify the effectiveness of our attack against LED and AES.
Takahashi, Akira, Tibouchi, Mehdi.  2019.  Degenerate Fault Attacks on Elliptic Curve Parameters in OpenSSL. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :371–386.
In this paper, we describe several practically exploitable fault attacks against OpenSSL's implementation of elliptic curve cryptography, related to the singular curve point decompression attacks of Blömer and Günther (FDTC2015) and the degenerate curve attacks of Neves and Tibouchi (PKC 2016). In particular, we show that OpenSSL allows to construct EC key files containing explicit curve parameters with a compressed base point. A simple single fault injection upon loading such a file yields a full key recovery attack when the key file is used for signing with ECDSA, and a complete recovery of the plaintext when the file is used for encryption using an algorithm like ECIES. The attack is especially devastating against curves with j-invariant equal to 0 such as the Bitcoin curve secp256k1, for which key recovery reduces to a single division in the base field. Additionally, we apply the present fault attack technique to OpenSSL's implementation of ECDH, by combining it with Neves and Tibouchi's degenerate curve attack. This version of the attack applies to usual named curve parameters with nonzero j-invariant, such as P192 and P256. Although it is typically more computationally expensive than the one against signatures and encryption, and requires multiple faulty outputs from the server, it can recover the entire static secret key of the server even in the presence of point validation. These various attacks can be mounted with only a single instruction skipping fault, and therefore can be easily injected using low-cost voltage glitches on embedded devices. We validated them in practice using concrete fault injection experiments on a Rapsberry Pi single board computer running the up to date OpenSSL command line tools-a setting where the threat of fault attacks is quite significant.
Zhang, F., Dong, X., Zhao, X., Wang, Y., Qureshi, S., Zhang, Y., Lou, X., Tang, Y..  2018.  Theoretical Round Modification Fault Analysis on AEGIS-128 with Algebraic Techniques. 2018 IEEE 15th International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS). :335-343.
This paper proposed an advanced round modification fault analysis (RMFA) at the theoretical level on AEGIS-128, which is one of seven finalists in CAESAR competition. First, we clarify our assumptions and simplifications on the attack model, focusing on the encryption security. Then, we emphasize the difficulty of applying vanilla RMFA to AEGIS-128 in the practical case. Finally we demonstrate our advanced fault analysis on AEGIS-128 using machine-solver based algebraic techniques. Our enhancement can be used to conquer the practical scenario which is difficult for vanilla RMFA. Simulation results show that when the fault is injected to the initialization phase and the number of rounds is reduced to one, two samples of injections can extract the whole 128 key bits within less than two hours. This work can also be extended to other versions such as AEGIS-256.
Nalla, Venu, Sahu, Rajeev Anand, Saraswat, Vishal.  2016.  Differential Fault Attack on SIMECK. Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Cryptography and Security in Computing Systems. :45–48.

In 2013, researchers from the National Security Agency of the USA (NSA) proposed two lightweight block ciphers SIMON and SPECK [3]. While SIMON is tuned for optimal performance in hardware, SPECK is tuned for optimal performance in software. At CHES 2015, Yang et al. [6] combined the "good" design components from both SIMON and SPECK and proposed a new lightweight block cipher SIMECK that is even more compact and efficient. In this paper we show that SIMECK is vulnerable to fault attacks and demonstrate two fault attacks on SIMECK. The first is a random bit-flip fault attack which recovers the n-bit last round key of Simeck using on average about n/2 faults and the second is a more practical, random byte fault attack which recovers the n-bit last round key of SIMECK using on average about n/6.5 faults.