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Toma, A., Krayani, A., Marcenaro, L., Gao, Y., Regazzoni, C. S..  2020.  Deep Learning for Spectrum Anomaly Detection in Cognitive mmWave Radios. 2020 IEEE 31st Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications. :1–7.
Millimeter Wave (mmWave) band can be a solution to serve the vast number of Internet of Things (IoT) and Vehicle to Everything (V2X) devices. In this context, Cognitive Radio (CR) is capable of managing the mmWave spectrum sharing efficiently. However, Cognitive mmWave Radios are vulnerable to malicious users due to the complex dynamic radio environment and the shared access medium. This indicates the necessity to implement techniques able to detect precisely any anomalous behaviour in the spectrum to build secure and efficient radios. In this work, we propose a comparison framework between deep generative models: Conditional Generative Adversarial Network (C-GAN), Auxiliary Classifier Generative Adversarial Network (AC-GAN), and Variational Auto Encoder (VAE) used to detect anomalies inside the dynamic radio spectrum. For the sake of the evaluation, a real mmWave dataset is used, and results show that all of the models achieve high probability in detecting spectrum anomalies. Especially, AC-GAN that outperforms C-GAN and VAE in terms of accuracy and probability of detection.
Wang, F., Zhang, X..  2020.  Secure Resource Allocation for Polarization-Based Non-Linear Energy Harvesting Over 5G Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
We address secure resource allocation for the energy harvesting (EH) based 5G cooperative cognitive radio networks (CRNs). To guarantee that the size-limited secondary users (SUs) can simultaneously send the primary user's and their own information, we assume that SUs are equipped with orthogonally dual-polarized antennas (ODPAs). In particular, we propose, develop, and analyze an efficient resource allocation scheme under a practical non-linear EH model, which can capture the nonlinear characteristics of the end-to-end wireless power transfer (WPT) for radio frequency (RF) based EH circuits. Our obtained numerical results validate that a substantial performance gain can be obtained by employing the non-linear EH model.
Bouzegag, Y., Teguig, D., Maali, A., Sadoudi, S..  2020.  On the Impact of SSDF Attacks in Hard Combination Schemes in Cognitive Radio Networks. 020 1st International Conference on Communications, Control Systems and Signal Processing (CCSSP). :19–24.
One of the critical threats menacing the Cooperative Spectrum Sensing (CSS) in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) is the Spectrum Sensing Data Falsification (SSDF) reports, which can deceive the decision of Fusion Center (FC) about the Primary User (PU) spectrum accessibility. In CSS, each CR user performs Energy Detection (ED) technique to detect the status of licensed frequency bands of the PU. This paper investigates the performance of different hard-decision fusion schemes (OR-rule, AND-rule, and MAJORITY-rule) in the presence of Always Yes and Always No Malicious User (AYMU and ANMU) over Rayleigh and Gaussian channels. More precisely, comparative study is conducted to evaluate the impact of such malicious users in CSS on the performance of various hard data combining rules in terms of miss detection and false alarm probabilities. Furthermore, computer simulations are carried out to show that the hard-decision fusion scheme with MAJORITY-rule is the best among hard-decision combination under AYMU attacks, OR-rule has the best detection performance under ANMU.
Joykutty, A. M., Baranidharan, B..  2020.  Cognitive Radio Networks: Recent Advances in Spectrum Sensing Techniques and Security. 2020 International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :878–884.
Wireless networks are very significant in the present world owing to their widespread use and its application in domains like disaster management, smart cities, IoT etc. A wireless network is made up of a group of wireless nodes that communicate with each other without using any formal infrastructure. The topology of the wireless network is not fixed and it can vary. The huge increase in the number of wireless devices is a challenge owing to the limited availability of wireless spectrum. Opportunistic spectrum access by Cognitive radio enables the efficient usage of limited spectrum resources. The unused channels assigned to the primary users may go waste in idle time. Cognitive radio systems will sense the unused channel space and assigns it temporarily for secondary users. This paper discusses about the recent trends in the two most important aspects of Cognitive radio namely spectrum sensing and security.
Morozov, M. Y., Perfilov, O. Y., Malyavina, N. V., Teryokhin, R. V., Chernova, I. V..  2020.  Combined Approach to SSDF-Attacks Mitigation in Cognitive Radio Networks. 2020 Systems of Signals Generating and Processing in the Field of on Board Communications. :1–4.
Cognitive radio systems aim to solve the issue of spectrum scarcity through implementation of dynamic spectrum management and cooperative spectrum access. However, the structure of such systems introduced unique types of vulnerabilities and attacks, one of which is spectrum sensing data falsification attack (SSDF). In such attacks malicious users provide incorrect observations to the fusion center of the system, which may result in severe quality of service degradation and interference for licensed users. In this paper we investigate this type of attacks and propose a combined approach to their mitigation. On the first step a reputational method is used to isolate the initially untrustworthy nodes, on the second step specialized q-out-of-m fusion rule is utilized to mitigate the remains of attack. In this paper we present theoretical analysis of the proposed combined method.
Akter, S., Rahman, M. S., Mansoor, N..  2020.  An Efficient Routing Protocol for Secured Communication in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks. 2020 IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP). :1713–1716.
This paper introduces an efficient reactive routing protocol considering the mobility and the reliability of a node in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks (CRSNs). The proposed protocol accommodates the dynamic behavior of the spectrum availability and selects a stable transmission path from a source node to the destination. Outlined as a weighted graph problem, the proposed protocol measures the weight for an edge the measuring the mobility patterns of the nodes and channel availability. Furthermore, the mobility pattern of a node is defined in the proposed routing protocol from the viewpoint of distance, speed, direction, and node's reliability. Besides, the spectrum awareness in the proposed protocol is measured over the number of shared common channels and the channel quality. It is anticipated that the proposed protocol shows efficient routing performance by selecting stable and secured paths from source to destination. Simulation is carried out to assess the performance of the protocol where it is witnessed that the proposed routing protocol outperforms existing ones.
Nieto-Chaupis, H..  2020.  Hyper Secure Cognitive Radio Communications in an Internet of Space Things Network Based on the BB84 Protocol. 2020 Intermountain Engineering, Technology and Computing (IETC). :1–5.
Once constellation of satellites are working in a collaborative manner, the security of their messages would have to be highly secure from all angles of scenarios by which the praxis of eavesdropping constitutes a constant thread for the instability of the different tasks and missions. In this paper we employ the Bennet-Brassard commonly known as the BB84 protocol in conjunction to the technique of Cognitive Radio applied to the Internet of Space Things to build a prospective technology to guarantee the communications among geocentric orbital satellites. The simulations have yielded that for a constellation of 5 satellites, the probability of successful of completion the communication might be of order of 75% ±5%.
Khalid, W., Yu, H..  2020.  Residual Energy Analysis with Physical-Layer Security for Energy-Constrained UAV Cognitive Radio Systems. 2020 International Conference on Electronics, Information, and Communication (ICEIC). :1–3.
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) based cognitive radio (CR) systems improve the sensing performance. However, such systems demand secure communication with lower power consumption. Motivated by these observations, we consider an energy-constraint yet energy harvesting (EH) drone flying periodically in the circular track around primary transmitter in the presence of an eavesdropper with an aim to use the licensed band opportunistically. Considering the trade-off between the residual energy and secondary link performance, we formulate the constrained optimization problem, i.e., maximizing residual energy under the constraint of secondary secrecy outage. Simulation results verify the proposed theoretical analysis.
Thanuja, T. C., Daman, K. A., Patil, A. S..  2020.  Optimized Spectrum sensing Techniques for Enhanced Throughput in Cognitive Radio Network. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Smart Computing and Informatics (ESCI). :137–141.
The wireless communication is a backbone for a development of a nation. But spectrum is finite resource and issues like spectrum scarcity, loss of signal quality, transmission delay, raised in wireless communication system due to growth of wireless applications and exponentially increased number of users. Secondary use of a spectrum using Software Defined Radio (SDR) is one of the solutions which is also supported by TRAI. The spectrum sensing is key process in communication based on secondary use of spectrum. But energy consumption, added delay, primary users security are some threats in this system. Here in this paper we mainly focused on throughput optimization in secondary use of spectrum based on optimal sensing time and number of Secondary users during cooperative spectrum sensing in Cognitive radio networks.
Salama, G. M., Taha, S. A..  2020.  Cooperative Spectrum Sensing and Hard Decision Rules for Cognitive Radio Network. 2020 3rd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1–6.
Cognitive radio is development of wireless communication and mobile computing. Spectrum is a limited source. The licensed spectrum is proposed to be used only by the spectrum owners. Cognitive radio is a new view of the recycle licensed spectrum in an unlicensed manner. The main condition of the cognitive radio network is sensing the spectrum hole. Cognitive radio can be detect unused spectrum. It shares this with no interference to the licensed spectrum. It can be a sense signals. It makes viable communication in the middle of multiple users through co-operation in a self-organized manner. The energy detector method is unseen signal detector because it reject the data of the signal.In this paper, has implemented Simulink Energy Detection of spectrum sensing cognitive radio in a MATLAB Simulink to Exploit spectrum holes and avoid damaging interference to licensed spectrum and unlicensed spectrum. The hidden primary user problem will happened because fading or shadowing. Ithappens when cognitive radio could not be detected by primer users because of its location. Cooperative sensing spectrum sensing is the best-proposed method to solve the hidden problem.
Taggu, Amar, Marchang, Ningrinla.  2019.  Random-Byzantine Attack Mitigation in Cognitive Radio Networks using a Multi-Hidden Markov Model System. 2019 International Conference on Electrical and Computing Technologies and Applications (ICECTA). :1—5.
Cognitive Radio Networks (CRN) are opportunistic networks which aim to harness the white space in the television frequency spectrum, on a need-to-need basis, without interfering the incumbent, called the Primary User (PU). Cognitive radios (CR) that sense the spectrum periodically for sensing the PU activity, are called Secondary Users (SU). CRNs are susceptible to two major attacks, Byzantine attacks and Primary User Emulation Attack (PUEA). Both the attacks are capable of rendering a CRN useless, by either interfering with the PU itself or capturing the entire channel for themselves. Byzantine attacks detection and mitigation is an important security issue in CRN. Hence, the current work proposes using a multi-Hidden Markov Model system with an aim to detect different types of random-Byzantine attacks. Simulation results show good detection rate across all the attacks.
Ling, Mee Hong, Yau, Kok-Lim Alvin.  2019.  Can Reinforcement Learning Address Security Issues? an Investigation into a Clustering Scheme in Distributed Cognitive Radio Networks 2019 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :296—300.

This paper investigates the effectiveness of reinforcement learning (RL) model in clustering as an approach to achieve higher network scalability in distributed cognitive radio networks. Specifically, it analyzes the effects of RL parameters, namely the learning rate and discount factor in a volatile environment, which consists of member nodes (or secondary users) that launch attacks with various probabilities of attack. The clusterhead, which resides in an operating region (environment) that is characterized by the probability of attacks, countermeasures the malicious SUs by leveraging on a RL model. Simulation results have shown that in a volatile operating environment, the RL model with learning rate α= 1 provides the highest network scalability when the probability of attacks ranges between 0.3 and 0.7, while the discount factor γ does not play a significant role in learning in an operating environment that is volatile due to attacks.

Pham-Thi-Dan, Ngoc, Do-Dac, Thiem, Ho-Van, Khuong, Vo-Que, Son, Pham-Ngoc, Son.  2019.  On Security Capability of Cooperative Communications in Energy Scavenging Cognitive Radio Networks. 2019 International Conference on Advanced Technologies for Communications (ATC). :89—93.
In this paper, secrecy outage probability (SOP) of cooperative communications in ESCRNs is numerically evaluated by the recommended precise closed-form formula which is corroborated by numerous computer simulations. Results expose that the relay's location, energy scavenging time, message recovering time, and power division for energy scavenging and message recovering dramatically impact the SOP of the cooperative communications in ESCRNs. Moreover, results infer that the SOP is constant either in energy scavenging non-cognitive networks (ES-nonCRNs) or in ESCRNs with infinite power transmitters.
Sureka, N., Gunaseelan, K..  2019.  Detection Defense against Primary User Emulation Attack in Dynamic Cognitive Radio Networks. 2019 Fifth International Conference on Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (ICONSTEM). 1:505—510.
Cognitive radio is a promising technology that intends on solving the spectrum scarcity problem by allocating free spectrum dynamically to the unlicensed Secondary Users (SUs) in order to establish coexistence between the licensed Primary User (PU) & SUs, without causing any interference to the incumbent transmission. Primary user emulation attack (PUEA) is one such major threat posed on spectrum sensing, which decreases the spectrum access probability. Detection and defense against PUEA is realized using Yardstick based Threshold Allocation technique (YTA), by assigning threshold level to the base station thereby efficiently enhancing the spectrum sensing ability in a dynamic CR network. The simulation is performed using NS2 and analysis by using X-graph. The results shows minimum interference to primary transmissions by letting SUs spontaneously predict the prospective spectrum availability and aiding in effective prevention of potential emulation attacks along with proficient improvement of throughput in a dynamic cognitive radio environment.
Simpson, Oluyomi, Sun, Yichuang.  2019.  A Stochastic based Physical Layer Security in Cognitive Radio Networks: Cognitive Relay to Fusion Center. 2019 IEEE 38th International Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC). :1—7.
Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) are found to be, without difficulty wide-open to external malicious threats. Secure communication is an important prerequisite for forthcoming fifth-generation (5G) systems, and CRs are not exempt. A framework for developing the accomplishable benefits of physical layer security (PLS) in an amplify-and-forward cooperative spectrum sensing (AF-CSS) in a cognitive radio network (CRN) using a stochastic geometry is proposed. In the CRN the spectrum sensing data from secondary users (SU) are collected by a fusion center (FC) with the assistance of access points (AP) as cognitive relays, and when malicious eavesdropping SU are listening. In this paper we focus on the secure transmission of active APs relaying their spectrum sensing data to the FC. Closed expressions for the average secrecy rate are presented. Analytical formulations and results substantiate our analysis and demonstrate that multiple antennas at the APs is capable of improving the security of an AF-CSSCRN. The obtained numerical results also show that increasing the number of FCs, leads to an increase in the secrecy rate between the AP and its correlated FC.
Pham-Thi-Dan, Ngoc, Ho-Van, Khuong, Do-Dac, Thiem, Vo-Que, Son, Pham-Ngoc, Son.  2019.  Security Analysis for Cognitive Radio Network with Energy Scavenging Capable Relay over Nakagami-m Fading Channels. 2019 International Symposium on Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ISEE). :68—72.
In this paper, we propose an exact closed-form expression of secrecy outage probability (SOP) for underlay cognitive network with energy scavenging capable relay over Nakagami-m fading channels and under both (maximum transmit and interference) power constraints. Various results validated the proposed expression and shed insights into the security performance of this network in key specifications.
Torabi, Mohammad, Pouri, Alireza Baghaei.  2019.  Physical Layer Security of a Two-Hop Mixed RF-FSO System in a Cognitive Radio Network. 2019 2nd West Asian Colloquium on Optical Wireless Communications (WACOWC). :167—170.
In this paper, the physical layer (PHY)security performance of a dual-hop cooperative relaying in a cognitive-radio system in the presence of an eavesdropper is investigated. The dual-hop transmission is composed of an asymmetric radio frequency (RF)link and a free space optical (FSO)link. In the considered system, an unlicensed secondary user (SU)uses the spectrum which is shared by a licensed primary user (PU)in a controlled manner to keep the interference at PU receiver, below a predefined value. Furthermore, among M available relays, one relay with the best end-to-end signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR)is selected for transmission. It is assumed that all of the RF links follow Rayleigh fading and all of the FSO links follow Gamma-Gamma distribution. Simulations results for some important security metrics, such as the average secrecy capacity (SC), and secrecy outage probability (SOP)are presented, where some practical issues of FSO links such as atmospheric turbulence, and pointing errors are taken into consideration.
Chao, Chih-Min, Lee, Wei-Che, Wang, Cong-Xiang, Huang, Shin-Chung, Yang, Yu-Chich.  2018.  A Flexible Anti-Jamming Channel Hopping for Cognitive Radio Networks. 2018 Sixth International Symposium on Computing and Networking Workshops (CANDARW). :549-551.

In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), secondary users (SUs) are vulnerable to malicious attacks because an SU node's opportunistic access cannot be protected from adversaries. How to design a channel hopping scheme to protect SU nodes from jamming attacks is thus an important issue in CRNs. Existing anti-jamming channel hopping schemes have some limitations: Some require SU nodes to exchange secrets in advance; some require an SU node to be either a receiver or a sender, and some are not flexible enough. Another issue for existing anti-jamming channel hopping schemes is that they do not consider different nodes may have different traffic loads. In this paper, we propose an anti-jamming channel hopping protocol, Load Awareness Anti-jamming channel hopping (LAA) scheme. Nodes running LAA are able to change their channel hopping sequences based on their sending and receiving traffic. Simulation results verify that LAA outperforms existing anti-jamming schemes.

Avila, J, Prem, S, Sneha, R, Thenmozhi, K.  2018.  Mitigating Physical Layer Attack in Cognitive Radio - A New Approach. 2018 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1-4.

With the improvement in technology and with the increase in the use of wireless devices there is deficiency of radio spectrum. Cognitive radio is considered as the solution for this problem. Cognitive radio is capable to detect which communication channels are in use and which are free, and immediately move into free channels while avoiding the used ones. This increases the usage of radio frequency spectrum. Any wireless system is prone to attack. Likewise, the main two attacks in the physical layer of cognitive radio are Primary User Emulation Attack (PUEA) and replay attack. This paper focusses on mitigating these two attacks with the aid of authentication tag and distance calculation. Mitigation of these attacks results in error free transmission which in turn fallouts in efficient dynamic spectrum access.

Hussain, Muzzammil, Swami, Tulsi.  2018.  Primary User Authentication in Cognitive Radio Network Using Pre-Generated Hash Digest. 2018 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI). :903-908.

The primary objective of Cognitive Radio Networks (CRN) is to opportunistically utilize the available spectrum for efficient and seamless communication. Like all other radio networks, Cognitive Radio Network also suffers from a number of security attacks and Primary User Emulation Attack (PUEA) is vital among them. Primary user Emulation Attack not only degrades the performance of the Cognitive Radio Networks but also dissolve the objective of Cognitive Radio Network. Efficient and secure authentication of Primary Users (PU) is an only solution to mitigate Primary User Emulation Attack but most of the mechanisms designed for this are either complex or make changes to the spectrum. Here, we proposed a mechanism to authenticate Primary Users in Cognitive Radio Network which is neither complex nor make any changes to spectrum. The proposed mechanism is secure and also has improved the performance of the Cognitive Radio Network substantially.

Mu, Li, Mianquan, Li, Yuzhen, Huang, Hao, Yin, Yan, Wang, Baoquan, Ren, Xiaofei, Qu, Rui, Yu.  2018.  Security Analysis of Overlay Cognitive Wireless Networks with an Untrusted Secondary User. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC). :1-5.

In this article, we study the transmission secrecy performance of primary user in overlay cognitive wireless networks, in which an untrusted energy-limited secondary cooperative user assists the primary transmission to exchange for the spectrum resource. In the network, the information can be simultaneously transmitted through the direct and relay links. For the enhancement of primary transmission security, a maximum ratio combining (MRC) scheme is utilized by the receiver to exploit the two copies of source information. For the security analysis, we firstly derive the tight lower bound expression for secrecy outage probability (SOP). Then, three asymptotic expressions for SOP are also expressed to further analyze the impacts of the transmit power and the location of secondary cooperative node on the primary user information security. The findings show that the primary user information secrecy performance enhances with the improvement of transmit power. Moreover, the smaller the distance between the secondary node and the destination, the better the primary secrecy performance.

Sejaphala, Lanka, Velempini, Mthulisi, Dlamini, Sabelo Velemseni.  2018.  HCOBASAA: Countermeasure Against Sinkhole Attacks in Software-Defined Wireless Sensor Cognitive Radio Networks. 2018 International Conference on Advances in Big Data, Computing and Data Communication Systems (icABCD). :1-5.

Software-defined wireless sensor cognitive radio network is one of the emerging technologies which is simple, agile, and flexible. The sensor network comprises of a sink node with high processing power. The sensed data is transferred to the sink node in a hop-by-hop basis by sensor nodes. The network is programmable, automated, agile, and flexible. The sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radios, which sense available spectrum bands and transmit sensed data on available bands, which improves spectrum utilization. Unfortunately, the Software-defined wireless sensor cognitive radio network is prone to security issues. The sinkhole attack is the most common attack which can also be used to launch other attacks. We propose and evaluate the performance of Hop Count-Based Sinkhole Attack detection Algorithm (HCOBASAA) using probability of detection, probability of false negative, and probability of false positive as the performance metrics. On average HCOBASAA managed to yield 100%, 75%, and 70% probability of detection.

Yadav, Kuldeep, Roy, Sanjay Dhar, Kundu, Sumit.  2018.  Total Error Reduction in Presence of Malicious User in a Cognitive Radio Network. 2018 2nd International Conference on Electronics, Materials Engineering Nano-Technology (IEMENTech). :1-4.

Primary user emulation (PUE) attack causes security issues in a cognitive radio network (CRN) while sensing the unused spectrum. In PUE attack, malicious users transmit an emulated primary signal in spectrum sensing interval to secondary users (SUs) to forestall them from accessing the primary user (PU) spectrum bands. In the present paper, the defense against such attack by Neyman-Pearson criterion is shown in terms of total error probability. Impact of several parameters such as attacker strength, attacker's presence probability, and signal-to-noise ratio on SU is shown. Result shows proposed method protect the harmful effects of PUE attack in spectrum sensing.

Bouabdellah, Mounia, Ghribi, Elias, Kaabouch, Naima.  2019.  RSS-Based Localization with Maximum Likelihood Estimation for PUE Attacker Detection in Cognitive Radio Networks. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Electro Information Technology (EIT). :1-6.

With the rapid proliferation of mobile users, the spectrum scarcity has become one of the issues that have to be addressed. Cognitive Radio technology addresses this problem by allowing an opportunistic use of the spectrum bands. In cognitive radio networks, unlicensed users can use licensed channels without causing harmful interference to licensed users. However, cognitive radio networks can be subject to different security threats which can cause severe performance degradation. One of the main attacks on these networks is the primary user emulation in which a malicious node emulates the characteristics of the primary user signals. In this paper, we propose a detection technique of this attack based on the RSS-based localization with the maximum likelihood estimation. The simulation results show that the proposed technique outperforms the RSS-based localization method in detecting the primary user emulation attacker.