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2021-12-22
Malhotra, Diksha, Srivastava, Shubham, Saini, Poonam, Singh, Awadhesh Kumar.  2021.  Blockchain Based Audit Trailing of XAI Decisions: Storing on IPFS and Ethereum Blockchain. 2021 International Conference on COMmunication Systems NETworkS (COMSNETS). :1–5.
Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) generates explanations which are used by regulators to audit the responsibility in case of any catastrophic failure. These explanations are currently stored in centralized systems. However, due to lack of security and traceability in centralized systems, the respective owner may temper the explanations for his convenience in order to avoid any penalty. Nowadays, Blockchain has emerged as one of the promising technologies that might overcome the security limitations. Hence, in this paper, we propose a novel Blockchain based framework for proof-of-authenticity pertaining to XAI decisions. The framework stores the explanations in InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) due to storage limitations of Ethereum Blockchain. Further, a Smart Contract is designed and deployed in order to supervise the storage and retrieval of explanations from Ethereum Blockchain. Furthermore, to induce cryptographic security in the network, an explanation's hash is calculated and stored in Blockchain too. Lastly, we perform the cost and security analysis of our proposed system.
2021-12-21
Ahn, Bohyun, Bere, Gomanth, Ahmad, Seerin, Choi, JinChun, Kim, Taesic, Park, Sung-won.  2021.  Blockchain-Enabled Security Module for Transforming Conventional Inverters toward Firmware Security-Enhanced Smart Inverters. 2021 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE). :1307–1312.
As the traditional inverters are transforming toward more intelligent inverters with advanced information and communication technologies, the cyber-attack surface has been remarkably expanded. Specifically, securing firmware of smart inverters from cyber-attacks is crucial. This paper provides expanded firmware attack surface targeting smart inverters. Moreover, this paper proposes a security module for transforming a conventional inverter to a firmware security built-in smart inverter by preventing potential malware and unauthorized firmware update attacks as well as fast automated inverter recovery from zero-day attacks. Furthermore, the proposed security module as a client of blockchain is connected to blockchain severs to fully utilize blockchain technologies such as membership service, ledgers, and smart contracts to detect and mitigate the firmware attacks. The proposed security module framework is implemented in an Internet-of-Thing (IoT) device and validated by experiments.
Li, Kemeng, Zheng, Dong, Guo, Rui.  2021.  An Anonymous Editable Blockchain Scheme Based on Certificateless Aggregate Signature. 2021 3rd International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICNLP). :57–67.
Blockchain technology has gradually replaced traditional centralized data storage methods, and provided people reliable data storage services with its decentralized and non-tamperable features. However, the current blockchain data supervision is insufficient and the data cannot be modified once it is on the blockchain, which will cause the blockchain system to face various problems such as illegal information cannot be deleted and breach of smart contract cannot be fixed in time. To address these issues, we propose an anonymous editable blockchain scheme based on the reconstruction of the blockchain structure of the SpaceMint combining with the certificateless aggregate signature algorithm. Users register with their real identities and use pseudonyms in the system to achieve their anonymity. If the number of users who agree to edit meets the threshold, the data on the blockchain can be modified or deleted, and our scheme has the function of accountability for malicious behavior. The security analysis show that the proposed certificateless aggregate signature algorithm enjoys the unforgeability under the adaptive selected message attack. Moreover, the method of setting the threshold of related users is adopted to guarantee the effectiveness and security of editing blockchain data. At last, we evaluate the performance of our certificateless aggregate signature algorithm and related schemes in theoretical analysis and experimental simulation, which demonstrates our scheme is feasible and efficient in storage, bandwidth and computational cost.
2021-12-20
Zhou, Yitao, Wu, Judong, Zhang, Shengxin.  2021.  Anonymity Analysis of Bitcoin, Zcash and Ethereum. 2021 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Big Data, Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things Engineering (ICBAIE). :45–48.
As an innovative type of decentralized model, blockchain is a growing list of blocks linked by cryptography. Blockchain incorporates anonymity protocol, distributed data storage, consensus algorithm, and smart contract. The anonymity protocols in blockchain are significant in that they could protect users from leaking their personal information. In this paper, we will conduct a detailed review and comparison of anonymity protocols used in three famous cryptocurrencies, namely Bitcoin, Zcash, and Ethereum.
2021-11-29
N, Sivaselvan, Bhat K, Vivekananda, Rajarajan, Muttukrishnan.  2020.  Blockchain-Based Scheme for Authentication and Capability-Based Access Control in IoT Environment. 2020 11th IEEE Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :0323–0330.
Authentication and access control techniques are fundamental security elements to restrict access to critical resources in IoT environment. In the current state-of-the-art approaches in the literature, the architectures do not address the security features of authentication and access control together. Besides, they don't completely fulfill the key Internet-of-Things (IoT) features such as usability, scalability, interoperability and security. In this paper, we introduce a novel blockchain-based architecture for authentication and capability-based access control for IoT environment. A capability is a token which contains the access rights authorized to the device holding it. The architecture uses blockchain technology to carry out all the operations in the scheme. It does not embed blockchain technology into the resource-constrained IoT devices for the purpose of authentication and access control of the devices. However, the IoT devices and blockchain are connected by means of interfaces through which the essential communications are established. The authenticity of such interfaces are verified before any communication is made. Consequently, the architecture satisfies usability, scalability, interoperability and security features. We carried out security evaluation for the scheme. It exhibits strong resistance to threats like spoofing, tampering, repudiation, information disclosure, and Denial-of-Service (DoS). We also developed a proof of concept implementation where cost and storage overhead of blockchain transactions are studied.
2021-10-12
Sharma, Rohit, Pawar, Siddhesh, Gurav, Siddhita, Bhavathankar, Prasenjit.  2020.  A Unique Approach towards Image Publication and Provenance using Blockchain. 2020 Third International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT). :311–314.
The recent spurt of incidents related to copyrights and security breaches has led to the monetary loss of several digital content creators and publishers. These incidents conclude that the existing system lacks the ability to uphold the integrity of their published content. Moreover, some of the digital content owners rely on third parties, results in lack of ability to provide provenance of digital media. The question that needs to be addressed today is whether modern technologies can be leveraged to suppress such incidents and regain the confidence of creators and the audience. Fortunately, this paper presents a unique framework that empowers digital content creators to have complete control over the place of its origin, accessibility and impose restrictions on unauthorized alteration of their content. This framework harnesses the power of the Ethereum platform, a part of Blockchain technology, and uses S mart Contracts as a key component empowering the creators with enhanced control of their content and the corresponding audience.
2021-09-16
Ruggeri, Armando, Celesti, Antonio, Fazio, Maria, Galletta, Antonino, Villari, Massimo.  2020.  BCB-X3DH: A Blockchain Based Improved Version of the Extended Triple Diffie-Hellman Protocol. 2020 Second IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :73–78.
The Extended Triple Diffie-Hellman (X3DH) protocol has been used for years as the basis of secure communication establishment among parties (i.e, humans and devices) over the Internet. However, such a protocol has several limits. It is typically based on a single trust third-party server that represents a single point of failure (SPoF) being consequently exposed to well- known Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) attacks. In order to address such a limit, several solutions have been proposed so far that are often cost expensive and difficult to be maintained. The objective of this paper is to propose a BlockChain-Based X3DH (BCB-X3DH) protocol that allows eliminating such a SPoF, also simplifying its maintenance. Specifically, it combines the well- known X3DH security mechanisms with the intrinsic features of data non-repudiation and immutability that are typical of Smart Contracts. Furthermore, different implementation approaches are discussed to suits both human-to-human and device-to-device scenarios. Experiments compared the performance of both X3DH and BCB-X3DH.
2021-09-07
Al'aziz, Bram Andika Ahmad, Sukarno, Parman, Wardana, Aulia Arif.  2020.  Blacklisted IP Distribution System to Handle DDoS Attacks on IPS Snort Based on Blockchain. 2020 6th Information Technology International Seminar (ITIS). :41–45.
The mechanism for distributing information on the source of the attack by combining blockchain technology with the Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) can be done so that DDoS attack mitigation becomes more flexible, saves resources and costs. Also, by informing the blacklisted Internet Protocol(IP), each IPS can share attack source information so that attack traffic blocking can be carried out on IPS that are closer to the source of the attack. Therefore, the attack traffic passing through the network can be drastically reduced because the attack traffic has been blocked on the IPS that is closer to the attack source. The blocking of existing DDoS attack traffic is generally carried out on each IPS without a mechanism to share information on the source of the attack so that each IPS cannot cooperate. Also, even though the DDoS attack traffic did not reach the server because it had been blocked by IPS, the attack traffic still flooded the network so that network performance was reduced. Through smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, it is possible to inform the source of the attack or blacklisted IP addresses without requiring additional infrastructure. The blacklisted IP address is used by IPS to detect and handle DDoS attacks. Through the blacklisted IP distribution scheme, testing and analysis are carried out to see information on the source of the attack on each IPS and the attack traffic that passes on the network. The result is that each IPS can have the same blacklisted IP so that each IPS can have the same attack source information. The results also showed that the attack traffic through the network infrastructure can be drastically reduced. Initially, the total number of attack packets had an average of 115,578 reduced to 27,165.
Fernando, Praveen, Wei, Jin.  2020.  Blockchain-Powered Software Defined Network-Enabled Networking Infrastructure for Cloud Management. 2020 IEEE 17th Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–6.
Cloud architecture has become a valuable solution for different applications, such as big data analytics, due to its high degree of availability, scalability and strategic value. However, there still remain challenges in managing cloud architecture, in areas such as cloud security. In this paper, we exploit software-defined networking (SDN) and blockchain technologies to secure cloud management platforms from a networking perspective. We develop a blockchain-powered SDN-enabled networking infrastructure in which the integration between blockchain-based security and autonomy management layer and multi-controller SDN networking layer is defined to enhance the integrity of the control and management messages. Furthermore, our proposed networking infrastructure also enables the autonomous bandwidth provisioning to enhance the availability of cloud architecture. In the simulation section, we evaluate the performance of our proposed blockchain-powered SDN-enabled networking infrastructure by considering different scenarios.
2021-07-08
Oktian, Yustus Eko, Lee, Sang-Gon, Lee, Hoon-Jae.  2020.  TwoChain: Leveraging Blockchain and Smart Contract for Two Factor Authentication. 2020 3rd International Seminar on Research of Information Technology and Intelligent Systems (ISRITI). :187—191.
User identity and personal information remain to be hot targets for attackers. From recent surveys, we can categorize that 65.5% of all cyberattacks in 2018 target user information. Sadly, most of the time, the system's security depends on how secure it is the implementation from the provider-side. One defense technique that the user can take part in is applying a two-factor authentication (2FA) system for their account. However, we observe that state-of-the-art 2FAs have several weaknesses and limitations. In this paper, we propose TwoChain, a blockchain-based 2FA system for web services to overcome those issues. Our implementation facilitates an alternative 2FA system that is more secure, disposable, and decentralized. Finally, we release TwoChain for public use.
2021-06-30
Solomon Doss, J. Kingsleen, Kamalakkannan, S..  2020.  IoT System Accomplishment using BlockChain in Validating and Data Security with Cloud. 2020 Fourth International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :60—64.
In a block channel IoT system, sensitive details can be leaked by means of the proof of work or address check, as data or application Validation data is applied on the blockchain. In this, the zero-knowledge evidence is applied to a smart metering system to show how to improve the anonymity of the blockchain for privacy safety without disclosing information as a public key. Within this article, a blockchain has been implemented to deter security risks such as data counterfeiting by utilizing intelligent meters. Zero-Knowledge Proof, an anonymity blockchain technology, has been implemented through block inquiry to prevent threats to security like personal information infringement. It was suggested that intelligent contracts would be used to avoid falsification of intelligent meter data and abuse of personal details.
2021-06-28
Roshan, Rishu, Matam, Rakesh, Mukherjee, Mithun, Lloret, Jaime, Tripathy, Somanath.  2020.  A secure task-offloading framework for cooperative fog computing environment. GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1–6.
Fog computing architecture allows the end-user devices of an Internet of Things (IoT) application to meet their latency and computation requirements by offloading tasks to a fog node in proximity. This fog node in turn may offload the task to a neighboring fog node or the cloud-based on an optimal node selection policy. Several such node selection policies have been proposed that facilitate the selection of an optimal node, minimizing delay and energy consumption. However, one crucial assumption of these schemes is that all the networked fog nodes are authorized part of the fog network. This assumption is not valid, especially in a cooperative fog computing environment like a smart city, where fog nodes of multiple applications cooperate to meet their latency and computation requirements. In this paper, we propose a secure task-offloading framework for a distributed fog computing environment based on smart-contracts on the blockchain. The proposed framework allows a fog-node to securely offload tasks to a neighboring fog node, even if no prior trust-relation exists. The security analysis of the proposed framework shows how non-authenticated fog nodes are prevented from taking up offloading tasks.
2021-05-20
Dua, Amit, Barpanda, Siddharth Sekhar, Kumar, Neeraj, Tanwar, Sudeep.  2020.  Trustful: A Decentralized Public Key Infrastructure and Identity Management System. 2020 IEEE Globecom Workshops GC Wkshps. :1—6.

Modern Internet TCP uses Secure Sockets Layers (SSL)/Transport Layer Security (TLS) for secure communication, which relies on Public Key Infrastructure (PKIs) to authenticate public keys. Conventional PKI is done by Certification Authorities (CAs), issuing and storing Digital Certificates, which are public keys of users with the users identity. This leads to centralization of authority with the CAs and the storage of CAs being vulnerable and imposes a security concern. There have been instances in the past where CAs have issued rogue certificates or the CAs have been hacked to issue malicious certificates. Motivated from these facts, in this paper, we propose a method (named as Trustful), which aims to build a decentralized PKI using blockchain. Blockchains provide immutable storage in a decentralized manner and allows us to write smart contracts. Ethereum blockchain can be used to build a web of trust model where users can publish attributes, validate attributes about other users by signing them and creating a trust store of users that they trust. Trustful works on the Web-of-Trust (WoT) model and allows for any entity on the network to verify attributes about any other entity through a trusted network. This provides an alternative to the conventional CA-based identity verification model. The proposed model has been implemented and tested for efficacy and known major security attacks.

Al-madani, Ali Mansour, Gaikwad, Ashok T., Mahale, Vivek, Ahmed, Zeyad A.T..  2020.  Decentralized E-voting system based on Smart Contract by using Blockchain Technology. 2020 International Conference on Smart Innovations in Design, Environment, Management, Planning and Computing (ICSIDEMPC). :176—180.

Nowadays the use of the Internet is growing; E-voting system has been used by different countries because it reduces the cost and the time which used to consumed by using traditional voting. When the voter wants to access the E-voting system through the web application, there are requirements such as a web browser and a server. The voter uses the web browser to reach to a centralized database. The use of a centralized database for the voting system has some security issues such as Data modification through the third party in the network due to the use of the central database system as well as the result of the voting is not shown in real-time. However, this paper aims to provide an E-voting system with high security by using blockchain. Blockchain provides a decentralized model that makes the network Reliable, safe, flexible, and able to support real-time services.

2021-04-27
Giannoutakis, K. M., Spathoulas, G., Filelis-Papadopoulos, C. K., Collen, A., Anagnostopoulos, M., Votis, K., Nijdam, N. A..  2020.  A Blockchain Solution for Enhancing Cybersecurity Defence of IoT. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :490—495.

The growth of IoT devices during the last decade has led to the development of smart ecosystems, such as smart homes, prone to cyberattacks. Traditional security methodologies support to some extend the requirement for preserving privacy and security of such deployments, but their centralized nature in conjunction with low computational capabilities of smart home gateways make such approaches not efficient. Last achievements on blockchain technologies allowed the use of such decentralized architectures to support cybersecurity defence mechanisms. In this work, a blockchain framework is presented to support the cybersecurity mechanisms of smart homes installations, focusing on the immutability of users and devices that constitute such environments. The proposed methodology provides also the appropriate smart contracts support for ensuring the integrity of the smart home gateway and IoT devices, as well as the dynamic and immutable management of blocked malicious IPs. The framework has been deployed on a real smart home environment demonstrating its applicability and efficiency.

Vishwakarma, L., Das, D..  2020.  BSS: Blockchain Enabled Security System for Internet of Things Applications. 2020 IEEE 19th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA). :1—4.

In the Internet of Things (IoT), devices can interconnect and communicate autonomously, which requires devices to authenticate each other to exchange meaningful information. Otherwise, these things become vulnerable to various attacks. The conventional security protocols are not suitable for IoT applications due to the high computation and storage demand. Therefore, we proposed a blockchain-enabled secure storage and communication scheme for IoT applications, called BSS. The scheme ensures identification, authentication, and data integrity. Our scheme uses the security advantages of blockchain and helps to create safe zones (trust batch) where authenticated objects interconnect securely and do communication. A secure and robust trust mechanism is employed to build these batches, where each device has to authenticate itself before joining the trust batch. The obtained results satisfy the IoT security requirements with 60% reduced computation, storage and communication cost compared with state-of-the-art schemes. BSS also withstands various cyberattacks such as impersonation, message replay, man-in-the-middle, and botnet attacks.

Hammoud, O. R., Tarkhanov, I. A..  2020.  Blockchain-based open infrastructure for URL filtering in an Internet browser. 2020 IEEE 14th International Conference on Application of Information and Communication Technologies (AICT). :1—4.
This research is dedicated to the development of a prototype of open infrastructure for users’ internet traffic filtering on a browser level. We described the advantages of a distributed approach in comparison with current centralized solutions. Besides, we suggested a solution to define the optimum size for a URL storage block in Ethereum network. This solution may be used for the development of infrastructure of DApps applications on Ethereum network in future. The efficiency of the suggested approach is supported by several experiments.
Alniamy, A. M., Liu, H..  2020.  Blockchain-Based Secure Collaboration Platform for Sharing and Accessing Scientific Research Data. 2020 3rd International Conference on Hot Information-Centric Networking (HotICN). :34—40.
Research teams or institutions in different countries need an effective and secure online platform for collaboration and data sharing. It is essential to build such a collaboration platform with strong data security and privacy. In this paper, we propose a platform for researchers to collaborate and share their data by leveraging attribute-based access control (ABAC) and blockchain technologies. ABAC provides an access control paradigm whereby access rights are granted to users through attribute-based policies, instead of user identities and roles. Hyperledger fabric permission blockchain is used to enable a decentralized secure data sharing environment and preserves user’s privacy. The proposed platform allows researchers to fully control their data, manage access to the data at a fine-grained level, keep file updates with proof of authorship, and ensure data integrity and privacy.
2021-03-29
Gururaj, P..  2020.  Identity management using permissioned blockchain. 2020 International Conference on Mainstreaming Block Chain Implementation (ICOMBI). :1—3.

Authenticating a person's identity has always been a challenge. While attempts are being made by government agencies to address this challenge, the citizens are being exposed to a new age problem of Identity management. The sharing of photocopies of identity cards in order to prove our identity is a common sight. From score-card to Aadhar-card, the details of our identity has reached many unauthorized hands during the years. In India the identity thefts accounts for 77% [1] of the fraud cases, and the threats are trending. Programs like e-Residency by Estonia[2], Bitnation using Ethereum[3] are being devised for an efficient Identity Management. Even the US Home Land Security is funding a research with an objective of “Design information security and privacy concepts on the Blockchain to support identity management capabilities that increase security and productivity while decreasing costs and security risks for the Homeland Security Enterprise (HSE).” [4] This paper will discuss the challenges specific to India around Identity Management, and the possible solution that the Distributed ledger, hashing algorithms and smart contracts can offer. The logic of hashing the personal data, and controlling the distribution of identity using public-private keys with Blockchain technology will be discussed in this paper.

Naik, N., Jenkins, P..  2020.  uPort Open-Source Identity Management System: An Assessment of Self-Sovereign Identity and User-Centric Data Platform Built on Blockchain. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Systems Engineering (ISSE). :1—7.

Managing identity across an ever-growing digital services landscape has become one of the most challenging tasks for security experts. Over the years, several Identity Management (IDM) systems were introduced and adopted to tackle with the growing demand of an identity. In this series, a recently emerging IDM system is Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI) which offers greater control and access to users regarding their identity. This distinctive feature of the SSI IDM system represents a major development towards the availability of sovereign identity to users. uPort is an emerging open-source identity management system providing sovereign identity to users, organisations, and other entities. As an emerging identity management system, it requires meticulous analysis of its architecture, working, operational services, efficiency, advantages and limitations. Therefore, this paper contributes towards achieving all of these objectives. Firstly, it presents the architecture and working of the uPort identity management system. Secondly, it develops a Decentralized Application (DApp) to demonstrate and evaluate its operational services and efficiency. Finally, based on the developed DApp and experimental analysis, it presents the advantages and limitations of the uPort identity management system.

2021-03-15
Hwang, S., Ryu, S..  2020.  Gap between Theory and Practice: An Empirical Study of Security Patches in Solidity. 2020 IEEE/ACM 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). :542–553.
Ethereum, one of the most popular blockchain platforms, provides financial transactions like payments and auctions through smart contracts. Due to the immense interest in smart contracts in academia, the research community of smart contract security has made a significant improvement recently. Researchers have reported various security vulnerabilities in smart contracts, and developed static analysis tools and verification frameworks to detect them. However, it is unclear whether such great efforts from academia has indeed enhanced the security of smart contracts in reality. To understand the security level of smart contracts in the wild, we empirically studied 55,046 real-world Ethereum smart contracts written in Solidity, the most popular programming language used by Ethereum smart contract developers. We first examined how many well-known vulnerabilities the Solidity compiler has patched, and how frequently the Solidity team publishes compiler releases. Unfortunately, we observed that many known vulnerabilities are not yet patched, and some patches are not even sufficient to avoid their target vulnerabilities. Subsequently, we investigated whether smart contract developers use the most recent compiler with vulnerabilities patched. We reported that developers of more than 98% of real-world Solidity contracts still use older compilers without vulnerability patches, and more than 25% of the contracts are potentially vulnerable due to the missing security patches. To understand actual impacts of the missing patches, we manually investigated potentially vulnerable contracts that are detected by our static analyzer and identified common mistakes by Solidity developers, which may cause serious security issues such as financial loss. We detected hundreds of vulnerable contracts and about one fourth of the vulnerable contracts are used by thousands of people. We recommend the Solidity team to make patches that resolve known vulnerabilities correctly, and developers to use the latest Solidity compiler to avoid missing security patches.
2021-03-09
Toutara, F., Spathoulas, G..  2020.  A distributed biometric authentication scheme based on blockchain. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :470–475.

Biometric authentication is the preferred authentication scheme in modern computing systems. While it offers enhanced usability, it also requires cautious handling of sensitive users' biometric templates. In this paper, a distributed scheme that eliminates the requirement for a central node that holds users' biometric templates is presented. This is replaced by an Ethereum/IPFS combination to which the templates of the users are stored in a homomorphically encrypted form. The scheme enables the biometric authentication of the users by any third party service, while the actual biometric templates of the user never leave his device in non encrypted form. Secure authentication of users in enabled, while sensitive biometric data are not exposed to anyone. Experiments show that the scheme can be applied as an authentication mechanism with minimal time overhead.

2021-03-04
Ghaffaripour, S., Miri, A..  2020.  A Decentralized, Privacy-preserving and Crowdsourcing-based Approach to Medical Research. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). :4510—4515.
Access to data at large scales expedites the progress of research in medical fields. Nevertheless, accessibility to patients' data faces significant challenges on regulatory, organizational and technical levels. In light of this, we present a novel approach based on the crowdsourcing paradigm to solve this data scarcity problem. Utilizing the infrastructure that blockchain provides, our decentralized platform enables researchers to solicit contributions to their well-defined research study from a large crowd of volunteers. Furthermore, to overcome the challenge of breach of privacy and mutual trust, we employed the cryptographic primitive of Zero-knowledge Argument of Knowledge (zk-SNARK). This not only allows participants to make contributions without exposing their privacy-sensitive health data, but also provides a means for a distributed network of users to verify the validity of the contributions in an efficient manner. Finally, since without an incentive mechanism in place, the crowdsourcing platform would be rendered ineffective, we incorporated smart contracts to ensure a fair reciprocal exchange of data for reward between patients and researchers.
2021-02-03
Kaneriya, J., Patel, H..  2020.  A Comparative Survey on Blockchain Based Self Sovereign Identity System. 2020 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Sustainable Systems (ICISS). :1150—1155.

The Internet has changed business, education, healthcare, banking etc. and it is the main part of technological evolution. Internet provides us a connecting world to perform our day to day life activities easily. Internet is designed in such a way that it can uniquely identify machine, not a person, on the network hence there is need to design a system that can perform entity identification on the Internet. Currently on Internet, service providers provide identity of a user with user name and password and store this information on a centralized server. These servers become honey pot for hackers to steal user’s personal identity information and service provider can utilize user identity information using data mining, artificial intelligence for economic benefits. Aim of Self sovereign identity system is to provide decentralized, user centric identity system which is controlled by identity owner that can be developed along with distributed ledger technology i.e. blockchain. In this paper, we intend to make an exhaustive study on different blockchain based self sovereign identity implementations (such as Sovrin, Uport, EverID, LifeID, Sora, SelfKey) along with its architectural components and discuss about use case of self sovereign identity.

2021-01-18
Huitzil, I., Fuentemilla, Á, Bobillo, F..  2020.  I Can Get Some Satisfaction: Fuzzy Ontologies for Partial Agreements in Blockchain Smart Contracts. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE). :1–8.
This paper proposes a novel extension of blockchain systems with fuzzy ontologies. The main advantage is to let the users have flexible restrictions, represented using fuzzy sets, and to develop smart contracts where there is a partial agreement among the involved parts. We propose a general architecture based on four fuzzy ontologies and a process to develop and run the smart contracts, based on a reduction to a well-known fuzzy ontology reasoning task (Best Satisfiability Degree). We also investigate different operators to compute Pareto-optimal solutions and implement our approach in the Ethereum blockchain.