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Lin, F., Beadon, M., Dixit, H. D., Vunnam, G., Desai, A., Sankar, S..  2018.  Hardware Remediation at Scale. 2018 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W). :14–17.
Large scale services have automated hardware remediation to maintain the infrastructure availability at a healthy level. In this paper, we share the current remediation flow at Facebook, and how it is being monitored. We discuss a class of hardware issues that are transient and typically have higher rates during heavy load. We describe how our remediation system was enhanced to be efficient in detecting this class of issues. As hardware and systems change in response to the advancement in technology and scale, we have also utilized machine learning frameworks for hardware remediation to handle the introduction of new hardware failure modes. We present an ML methodology that uses a set of predictive thresholds to monitor remediation efficiency over time. We also deploy a recommendation system based on natural language processing, which is used to recommend repair actions for efficient diagnosis and repair. We also describe current areas of research that will enable us to improve hardware availability further.
Diao, Y., Rosu, D..  2018.  Improving response accuracy for classification- based conversational IT services. NOMS 2018 - 2018 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. :1–15.
Conversational IT services are expected to reduce user wait times and improve overall customer satisfaction. Cloud-based solutions are readily available for enterprise subject matter experts (SMEs) to train user-question classifiers and build conversational services with little effort. However, methodologies that the SMEs can use to improve the response accuracy and conversation quality are merely stated and evaluated. In complex service scenarios such as software support, the scope of topics is typically large and the training samples are often limited. Thus, training the classifier based on labeled samples of plain user utterances is not effective in most cases. In this paper, we identify several methods for improving classification quality and evaluate them in concrete training set scenarios. Particularly, a process-based methodology is described that builds and refines on top of service domain knowledge in order to develop a scalable solution for training accurate conversation services. Enterprises and service providers are continuously seeking new ways to improve customer experience on working with IT systems, where user wait times and service resolution quality are critical business metrics. One of the latest trends is the use of conversational IT services. Customers can interact with a conversational service to express their questions in natural language and the system can automatically return relevant answers or execute back-end processes for automated actions. Various text classification techniques have been developed and applied to understand the user questions and trigger the correct responses. For instance, in the context of IT software support, customers can use conversational systems to get answers about software product errors, licenses, or upgrade processes. While the potential benefits of building conversational services are huge, it is often difficult to effectively train classification models that cover well the scope of realistically complex services. In this paper, we propose a training methodology that addresses the limitations in both the scope of topics and the scarcity of the training set. We further evaluate the proposed methodology in a real service support scenario and share the lessons learned.
Berscheid, A., Makarov, Y., Hou, Z., Diao, R., Zhang, Y., Samaan, N., Yuan, Y., Zhou, H..  2018.  An Open-Source Tool for Automated Power Grid Stress Level Prediction at Balancing Authorities. 2018 IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (T D). :1–5.
The behavior of modern power systems is becoming more stochastic and dynamic, due to the increased penetration of variable generation, demand response, new power market structure, extreme weather conditions, contingencies, and unexpected events. It is critically important to predict potential system operational issues so that grid planners and operators can take preventive actions to mitigate the impact, e.g., lack of operational reserves. In this paper, an innovative software tool is presented to assist power grid operators in a balancing authority in predicting the grid stress level over the next operating day. It periodically collects necessary information from public domain such as weather forecasts, electricity demand, and automatically estimates the stress levels on a daily basis. Advanced Neural Network and regression tree algorithms are developed as the prediction engines to achieve this goal. The tool has been tested on a few key balancing authorities and successfully predicted the growing system peak load and increased stress levels under extreme heat waves.
Husari, G., Niu, X., Chu, B., Al-Shaer, E..  2018.  Using Entropy and Mutual Information to Extract Threat Actions from Cyber Threat Intelligence. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :1–6.
With the rapid growth of the cyber attacks, cyber threat intelligence (CTI) sharing becomes essential for providing advance threat notice and enabling timely response to cyber attacks. Our goal in this paper is to develop an approach to extract low-level cyber threat actions from publicly available CTI sources in an automated manner to enable timely defense decision making. Specifically, we innovatively and successfully used the metrics of entropy and mutual information from Information Theory to analyze the text in the cybersecurity domain. Combined with some basic NLP techniques, our framework, called ActionMiner has achieved higher precision and recall than the state-of-the-art Stanford typed dependency parser, which usually works well in general English but not cybersecurity texts.
Elbez, Ghada, Keller, Hubert B., Hagenmeyer, Veit.  2018.  A New Classification of Attacks Against the Cyber-Physical Security of Smart Grids. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :63:1–63:6.
Modern critical infrastructures such as Smart Grids (SGs) rely heavily on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems to monitor and control operations and states within large-scale facilities. The potential offered by SGs includes an effective integration of renewables, a demand-response action and a dynamic pricing system. The increasing use of ICT for the communication infrastructure of modern power systems offers advantages but can give rise to cyber attacks that compromise the security of the SG. To deal efficiently with the security concerns of SGs, a survey of the different attacks that consider the physical as well as the cyber characteristics of modern power grids is required. In the present paper, first the specific differences between SGs with respect to both Information Technology (IT) systems and conventional energy grids are discussed. Thereafter, the specific security requirements of SGs are presented in order to raise awareness of the new security challenges. Finally, a new classification of cyber attacks, based on the architecture of the SG, is proposed and details for each category are provided. The new classification is distinguished by its focus on the cyber-physical security of the SG in particular, which gives a comprehensive overview of the different threats. Thus, this new classification forms the necessary knowledge-basis for the design of respective countermeasures.
Lee, Jangwon, Tan, Haodan, Crandall, David, Šabanović, Selma.  2018.  Forecasting Hand Gestures for Human-Drone Interaction. Companion of the 2018 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction. :167–168.
Computer vision techniques that can anticipate people»s actions ahead of time could create more responsive and natural human-robot interaction systems. In this paper, we present a new human gesture forecasting framework for human-drone interaction. Our primary motivation is that despite growing interest in early recognition, little work has tried to understand how people experience these early recognition-based systems, and our human-drone forecasting framework will serve as a basis for conducting this human subjects research in future studies. We also introduce a new dataset with 22 videos of two human-drone interaction scenarios, and use it to test our gesture forecasting approach. Finally, we suggest follow-up procedures to investigate people»s experience in interacting with these early recognition-enabled systems.
Buck, Joshua W., Perugini, Saverio, Nguyen, Tam V..  2018.  Natural Language, Mixed-initiative Personal Assistant Agents. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication. :82:1–82:8.
The increasing popularity and use of personal voice assistant technologies, such as Siri and Google Now, is driving and expanding progress toward the long-term and lofty goal of using artificial intelligence to build human-computer dialog systems capable of understanding natural language. While dialog-based systems such as Siri support utterances communicated through natural language, they are limited in the flexibility they afford to the user in interacting with the system and, thus, support primarily action-requesting and information-seeking tasks. Mixed-initiative interaction, on the other hand, is a flexible interaction technique where the user and the system act as equal participants in an activity, and is often exhibited in human-human conversations. In this paper, we study user support for mixed-initiative interaction with dialog-based systems through natural language using a bag-of-words model and k-nearest-neighbor classifier. We study this problem in the context of a toolkit we developed for automated, mixed-initiative dialog system construction, involving a dialog authoring notation and management engine based on lambda calculus, for specifying and implementing task-based, mixed-initiative dialogs. We use ordering at Subway through natural language, human-computer dialogs as a case study. Our results demonstrate that the dialogs authored with our toolkit support the end user's completion of a natural language, human-computer dialog in a mixed-initiative fashion. The use of natural language in the resulting mixed-initiative dialogs afford the user the ability to experience multiple self-directed paths through the dialog and makes the flexibility in communicating user utterances commensurate with that in dialog completion paths—an aspect missing from commercial assistants like Siri.
Moolchandani, Pooja, Hayes, Cory J., Marge, Matthew.  2018.  Evaluating Robot Behavior in Response to Natural Language. Companion of the 2018 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction. :197–198.
Human-robot teaming can be improved if a robot»s actions meet human users» expectations. The goal of this research is to determine what variations of robot actions in response to natural language match human judges» expectations in a series of tasks. We conducted a study with 21 volunteers that analyzed how a virtual robot behaved when executing eight navigation instructions from a corpus of human-robot dialogue. Initial findings suggest that movement more accurately meets human expectation when the robot (1) navigates with an awareness of its environment and (2) demonstrates a sense of self-safety.
Benyo, Brett, Clark, Shane, Paulos, Aaron, Pal, Partha.  2018.  HYDRA: Hypothesis Driven Repair Automation. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :8:1–8:10.
HYDRA is an automated mechanism to repair code in response to successful attacks. Given a set of malicious inputs that include the attack and a set of benign inputs that do not, along with an ability to test the victim application with these labelled inputs, HYDRA quickly provides rank ordered patches to close the exploited vulnerability. HYDRA also produces human-readable summaries of its findings and repair actions to aid the manual vulnerability mitigation process. We tested HYDRA using 8 zero-days, HYDRA produced patches that stopped the attacks in all 8 cases and preserved application functionality in 7 of the 8 cases.
Gafurov, Davrondzhon, Hurum, Arne Erik, Markman, Martin.  2018.  Achieving Test Automation with Testers Without Coding Skills: An Industrial Report. Proceedings of the 33rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Automated Software Engineering. :749–756.
We present a process driven test automation solution which enables delegating (part of) automation tasks from test automation engineer (expensive resource) to test analyst (non-developer, less expensive). In our approach, a test automation engineer implements test steps (or actions) which are executed automatically. Such automated test steps represent user actions in the system under test and specified by a natural language which is understandable by a non-technical person. Then, a test analyst with a domain knowledge organizes automated steps combined with test input to create an automated test case. It should be emphasized that the test analyst does not need to possess programming skills to create, modify or execute automated test cases. We refine benchmark test automation architecture to be better suitable for an effective separation and sharing of responsibilities between the test automation engineer (with coding skills) and test analyst (with a domain knowledge). In addition, we propose a metric to empirically estimate cooperation between test automation engineer and test analyst's works. The proposed automation solution has been defined based on our experience in the development and maintenance of Helsenorg, the national electronic health services in Norway which has had over one million of visits per month past year, and we still use it to automate the execution of regression tests.
Deb, Supratim, Ge, Zihui, Isukapalli, Sastry, Puthenpura, Sarat, Venkataraman, Shobha, Yan, He, Yates, Jennifer.  2017.  AESOP: Automatic Policy Learning for Predicting and Mitigating Network Service Impairments. Proceedings of the 23rd ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. :1783–1792.
Efficient management and control of modern and next-gen networks is of paramount importance as networks have to maintain highly reliable service quality whilst supporting rapid growth in traffic demand and new application services. Rapid mitigation of network service degradations is a key factor in delivering high service quality. Automation is vital to achieving rapid mitigation of issues, particularly at the network edge where the scale and diversity is the greatest. This automation involves the rapid detection, localization and (where possible) repair of service-impacting faults and performance impairments. However, the most significant challenge here is knowing what events to detect, how to correlate events to localize an issue and what mitigation actions should be performed in response to the identified issues. These are defined as policies to systems such as ECOMP. In this paper, we present AESOP, a data-driven intelligent system to facilitate automatic learning of policies and rules for triggering remedial actions in networks. AESOP combines best operational practices (domain knowledge) with a variety of measurement data to learn and validate operational policies to mitigate service issues in networks. AESOP's design addresses the following key challenges: (i) learning from high-dimensional noisy data, (ii) capturing multiple fault models, (iii) modeling the high service-cost of false positives, and (iv) accounting for the evolving network infrastructure. We present the design of our system and show results from our ongoing experiments to show the effectiveness of our policy leaning framework.
Lu, Marisa, Bose, Gautam, Lee, Austin, Scupelli, Peter.  2017.  Knock Knock to Unlock: A Human-centered Novel Authentication Method for Secure System Fluidity. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction. :729–732.

When a person gets to a door and wants to get in, what do they do? They knock. In our system, the user's specific knock pattern authenticates their identity, and opens the door for them. The system empowers people's intuitive actions and responses to affect the world around them in a new way. We leverage IOT, and physical computing to make more technology feel like less. From there, the system of a knock based entrance creates affordances in social interaction for shared spaces wherein ownership fluidity and accessibility needs to be balanced with security

Tan, Cao, Chang, Siqin, Fan, Xinyu.  2017.  Low Power Consumption Direct Drive Control Valve Based on Hybrid Excited Linear Actuator. ICCAE '17 Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer and Automation Engineering . :184–188.

A low power consumption three-position four-way direct drive control valve based on hybrid excited linear actuator (HELA-DDCV) was provided to meet the requirements of the response time and the power consumption. A coupling system numerical model was established and validated by experiments, which is based on Matlab/Simulink, from four points of view: electric circuit, electromagnetic field, mechanism and fluid mechanics. A dual-closed-loop PI control strategy for both spool displacement and coil current is adopted, and the process of displacement response was analyzed as well as the power consumption performances. The results show that the prototype valve spool displacement response time is less than 9.6ms. Furthermore, the holding current is less than 30% of the peak current in working process, which reduces the power consumption effectively and improves the system stability. Note that the holding current can be eliminated when the spool working at the ends of stroke, and 0.26 J energy is needed in once action independent of the working time.

Baragchizadeh, A., Karnowski, T. P., Bolme, D. S., O’Toole, A. J..  2017.  Evaluation of Automated Identity Masking Method (AIM) in Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS). 2017 12th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face Gesture Recognition (FG 2017). :378–385.
Identity masking methods have been developed in recent years for use in multiple applications aimed at protecting privacy. There is only limited work, however, targeted at evaluating effectiveness of methods-with only a handful of studies testing identity masking effectiveness for human perceivers. Here, we employed human participants to evaluate identity masking algorithms on video data of drivers, which contains subtle movements of the face and head. We evaluated the effectiveness of the “personalized supervised bilinear regression method for Facial Action Transfer (FAT)” de-identification algorithm. We also evaluated an edge-detection filter, as an alternate “fill-in” method when face tracking failed due to abrupt or fast head motions. Our primary goal was to develop methods for humanbased evaluation of the effectiveness of identity masking. To this end, we designed and conducted two experiments to address the effectiveness of masking in preventing recognition and in preserving action perception. 1- How effective is an identity masking algorithm?We conducted a face recognition experiment and employed Signal Detection Theory (SDT) to measure human accuracy and decision bias. The accuracy results show that both masks (FAT mask and edgedetection) are effective, but that neither completely eliminated recognition. However, the decision bias data suggest that both masks altered the participants' response strategy and made them less likely to affirm identity. 2- How effectively does the algorithm preserve actions? We conducted two experiments on facial behavior annotation. Results showed that masking had a negative effect on annotation accuracy for the majority of actions, with differences across action types. Notably, the FAT mask preserved actions better than the edge-detection mask. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate a deidentification method aimed at preserving facial ac- ions employing human evaluators in a laboratory setting.
Khan, S., Ullah, K..  2017.  Smart elevator system for hazard notification. 2017 International Conference on Innovations in Electrical Engineering and Computational Technologies (ICIEECT). :1–4.

In this proposed method, the traditional elevators are upgraded in such a way that any alarming situation in the elevator can be detected and then sent to a main center where further action can be taken accordingly. Different emergency situation can be handled by implementing the system. Smart elevator system works by installing different modules inside the elevator such as speed sensors which will detect speed variations occurring above or below a certain threshold of elevator speed. The smart elevator system installed within the elevator sends a message to the emergency response center and sends an automated call as well. The smart system also includes an emotion detection algorithm which will detect emotions of the individual based on their expression in the elevator. The smart system also has a whisper detection system as well to know if someone stuck inside the elevator is alive during any hazardous situation. A broadcast signal is used as a check in the elevator system to evaluate if every part of the system is in stable state. Proposed system can completely replace the current elevator systems and become part of smart homes.

McDuff, D., Soleymani, M..  2017.  Large-scale Affective Content Analysis: Combining Media Content Features and Facial Reactions. 2017 12th IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face Gesture Recognition (FG 2017). :339–345.
We present a novel multimodal fusion model for affective content analysis, combining visual, audio and deep visual-sentiment descriptors from the media content with automated facial action measurements from naturalistic responses to the media. We collected a dataset of 48,867 facial responses to 384 media clips and extracted a rich feature set from the facial responses and media content. The stimulus videos were validated to be informative, inspiring, persuasive, sentimental or amusing. By combining the features, we were able to obtain a classification accuracy of 63% (weighted F1-score: 0.62) for a five-class task. This was a significant improvement over using the media content features alone. By analyzing the feature sets independently, we found that states of informed and persuaded were difficult to differentiate from facial responses alone due to the presence of similar sets of action units in each state (AU 2 occurring frequently in both cases). Facial actions were beneficial in differentiating between amused and informed states whereas media content features alone performed less well due to similarities in the visual and audio make up of the content. We highlight examples of content and reactions from each class. This is the first affective content analysis based on reactions of 10,000s of people.
AbuAli, N. A., Taha, A. E. M..  2017.  A dynamic scalable scheme for managing mixed crowds. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–5.

Crowd management in urban settings has mostly relied on either classical, non-automated mechanisms or spontaneous notifications/alerts through social networks. Such management techniques are heavily marred by lack of comprehensive control, especially in terms of averting risks in a manner that ensures crowd safety and enables prompt emergency response. In this paper, we propose a Markov Decision Process Scheme MDP to realize a smart infrastructure that is directly aimed at crowd management. A key emphasis of the scheme is a robust and reliable scalability that provides sufficient flexibility to manage a mixed crowd (i.e., pedestrian, cyclers, manned vehicles and unmanned vehicles). The infrastructure also spans various population settings (e.g., roads, buildings, game arenas, etc.). To realize a reliable and scalable crowd management scheme, the classical MDP is decomposed into Local MDPs with smaller action-state spaces. Preliminarily results show that the MDP decomposition can reduce the system global cost and facilitate fast convergence to local near-optimal solution for each L-MDP.

Zhmud, V., Dimitrov, L., Taichenachev, A..  2017.  Model study of automatic and automated control of hysteretic object. 2017 International Siberian Conference on Control and Communications (SIBCON). :1–5.
This paper presents the results of research and simulation of feature automated control of a hysteretic object and the difference between automated control and automatic control. The main feature of automatic control is in the fact that the control loop contains human being as a regulator with its limited response speed. The human reaction can be described as integrating link. The hysteretic object characteristic is switching from one state to another. This is followed by a transient process from one to another characteristic. For this reason, it is very difficult to keep the object in a desired state. Automatic operation ensures fast switching of the feedback signal that produces such a mode, which in many ways is similar to the sliding mode. In the sliding mode control signal abruptly switches from maximum to minimum and vice versa. The average value provides the necessary action to the object. Theoretical analysis and simulation show that the use of the maximum value of the control signal is not required. It is sufficient that the switching oscillation amplitude is such that the output signal varies with the movement of the object along both branches with hysteretic characteristics in the fastest cycle. The average output value in this case corresponds to the prescribed value of the control task. With automated control, the human response can be approximately modeled by integrating regulator. In this case the amplitude fluctuation could be excessively high and the frequency could be excessively low. The simulation showed that creating an artificial additional fluctuation in the control signal makes possible to provide a reduction in the amplitude and the resulting increase in the frequency of oscillation near to the prescribed value. This should be evaluated as a way to improve the quality of automated control with the helps of human being. The paper presents some practical examples of the examined method.
Nakhla, N., Perrett, K., McKenzie, C..  2017.  Automated computer network defence using ARMOUR: Mission-oriented decision support and vulnerability mitigation. 2017 International Conference On Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA). :1–8.

Mission assurance requires effective, near-real time defensive cyber operations to appropriately respond to cyber attacks, without having a significant impact on operations. The ability to rapidly compute, prioritize and execute network-based courses of action (CoAs) relies on accurate situational awareness and mission-context information. Although diverse solutions exist for automatically collecting and analysing infrastructure data, few deliver automated analysis and implementation of network-based CoAs in the context of the ongoing mission. In addition, such processes can be operatorintensive and available tools tend to be specific to a set of common data sources and network responses. To address these issues, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) is leading the development of the Automated Computer Network Defence (ARMOUR) technology demonstrator and cyber defence science and technology (S&T) platform. ARMOUR integrates new and existing off-the-shelf capabilities to provide enhanced decision support and to automate many of the tasks currently executed manually by network operators. This paper describes the cyber defence integration framework, situational awareness, and automated mission-oriented decision support that ARMOUR provides.

Erola, A., Agrafiotis, I., Happa, J., Goldsmith, M., Creese, S., Legg, P. A..  2017.  RicherPicture: Semi-automated cyber defence using context-aware data analytics. 2017 International Conference On Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA). :1–8.
In a continually evolving cyber-threat landscape, the detection and prevention of cyber attacks has become a complex task. Technological developments have led organisations to digitise the majority of their operations. This practice, however, has its perils, since cybespace offers a new attack-surface. Institutions which are tasked to protect organisations from these threats utilise mainly network data and their incident response strategy remains oblivious to the needs of the organisation when it comes to protecting operational aspects. This paper presents a system able to combine threat intelligence data, attack-trend data and organisational data (along with other data sources available) in order to achieve automated network-defence actions. Our approach combines machine learning, visual analytics and information from business processes to guide through a decision-making process for a Security Operation Centre environment. We test our system on two synthetic scenarios and show that correlating network data with non-network data for automated network defences is possible and worth investigating further.
Das, M. Swami, Govardhan, A., Lakshmi, D. Vijaya.  2016.  Best Practices for Web Applications to Improve Performance of QoS. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Competitive Strategies. :123:1–123:9.

Web Service Architecture gives a compatible and scalable structure for web service interactions with performance, responsiveness, reliability and security to make a quality of software design. Systematic quantitative approaches have been discussed for designing and developing software systems that meet performance objectives. Many companies have successfully applied these techniques in different applications to achieve better performance in terms of financial, customer satisfaction, and other benefits. This paper describes the architecture, design, implementation, integration testing, performance and maintenance of new applications. The most successful best practices used in world class organizations are discussed. This will help the application, component, and software system designers to develop web applications and fine tune the existing methods in line with the best practices. In business process automation, many standard practices and technologies have been used to model and execute business processes. The emerging technology is web applications technology which provides a great flexibility for development of interoperable environment services. In this paper we propose a Case study of Automatic Gas Booking system, a business process development strategy and best practices used in development of software components used in web applications. The classification of QWS dataset with 2507 records, service invocations, integration and security for web applications have been discussed.

Herold, Nadine, Kinkelin, Holger, Carle, Georg.  2016.  Collaborative Incident Handling Based on the Blackboard-Pattern. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM on Workshop on Information Sharing and Collaborative Security. :25–34.

Defending computer networks from ongoing security incidents is a key requirement to ensure service continuity. Handling incidents in real-time is a complex process consisting of the three single steps: intrusion detection, alert processing and intrusion response. For useful and automated incident handling a comprehensive view on the process and tightly interleaved single steps are required. Existing solutions for incident handling merely focus on a single step leaving the other steps completely aside. Incompatible and encapsulated partial solutions are the consequence. This paper proposes an incident handling systems (IHS) based on a novel execution model that allows interleaving and collaborative interaction between the incident handling steps realized using the Blackboard Pattern. Our holistic information model lays the foundation for a conflict-free collaboration. The incident handling steps are further segmented into exchangeable functional blocks distributed across the network. To show the applicability of our approach, typical use cases for incident handling systems are identified and tested with our implementation.

Möstl, Mischa, Schlatow, Johannes, Ernst, Rolf, Hoffmann, Henry, Merchant, Arif, Shraer, Alexander.  2016.  Self-aware Systems for the Internet-of-things. Proceedings of the Eleventh IEEE/ACM/IFIP International Conference on Hardware/Software Codesign and System Synthesis. :21:1–21:9.

The IoT will host a large number of co-existing cyber-physical applications. Continuous change, application interference, environment dynamics and uncertainty lead to complex effects which must be controlled to give performance and application guarantees. Application and platform self-configuration and self-awareness are one paradigm to approach this challenge. They can leverage context knowledge to control platform and application functions and their interaction. They could play a dominant role in large scale cyber-physical systems and systems-of-systems, simply because no person can oversee the whole system functionality and dynamics. IoT adds a new dimension because Internet based services will increasingly be used in such system functions. Autonomous vehicles accessing cloud services for efficiency and comfort as well as to reach the required level of safety and security are an example. Such vehicle platforms will communicate with a service infrastructure that must be reliable and highly responsive. Automated continuous self-configuration of data storage might be a good basis for such services up to the point where the different self-x strategies might affect each other, in a positive or negative form. This paper contains three contributions from different domains representing the current status of self-aware systems as they will meet in the Internet-of-Things and closes with a short discussion of upcoming challenges.

Liu, Yuntao, Xie, Yang, Bao, Chongxi, Srivastava, Ankur.  2016.  An Optimization-theoretic Approach for Attacking Physical Unclonable Functions. Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Computer-Aided Design. :45:1–45:6.

Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) utilize manufacturing ariations of circuit elements to produce unpredictable response to any challenge vector. The attack on PUF aims to predict the PUF response to all challenge vectors while only a small number of challenge-response pairs (CRPs) are known. The target PUFs in this paper include the Arbiter PUF (ArbPUF) and the Memristor Crossbar PUF (MXbarPUF). The manufacturing variations of the circuit elements in the targeted PUF can be characterized by a weight vector. An optimization-theoretic attack on the target PUFs is proposed. The feasible space for a PUF's weight vector is described by a convex polytope confined by the known CRPs. The centroid of the polytope is chosen as the estimate of the actual weight vector, while new CRPs are adaptively added into the original set of known CRPs. The linear behavior of both ArbPUF and MXbarPUF is proven which ensures that the feasible space for their weight vectors is convex. Simulation shows that our approach needs 71.4% fewer known CRPs and 86.5% less time than the state-of-the-art machine learning based approach.

Hu, Wei, Becker, Andrew, Ardeshiricham, Armita, Tai, Yu, Ienne, Paolo, Mu, Dejun, Kastner, Ryan.  2016.  Imprecise Security: Quality and Complexity Tradeoffs for Hardware Information Flow Tracking. Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Computer-Aided Design. :95:1–95:8.

Secure hardware design is a challenging task that goes far beyond ensuring functional correctness. Important design properties such as non-interference cannot be verified on functional circuit models due to the lack of essential information (e.g., sensitivity level) for reasoning about security. Hardware information flow tracking (IFT) techniques associate data objects in the hardware design with sensitivity labels for modeling security-related behaviors. They allow the designer to test and verify security properties related to confidentiality, integrity, and logical side channels. However, precisely accounting for each bit of information flow at the hardware level can be expensive. In this work, we focus on the precision of the IFT logic. The key idea is to selectively introduce only one sided errors (false positives); these provide a conservative and safe information flow response while reducing the complexity of the security logic. We investigate the effect of logic synthesis on the quality and complexity of hardware IFT and reveal how different logic synthesis optimizations affect the amount of false positives and design overheads of IFT logic. We propose novel techniques to further simplify the IFT logic while adding no, or only a minimum number of, false positives. Additionally, we provide a solution to quantitatively introduce false positives in order to accelerate information flow security verification. Experimental results using IWLS benchmarks show that our method can reduce complexity of GLIFT by 14.47% while adding 0.20% of false positives on average. By quantitatively introducing false positives, we can achieve up to a 55.72% speedup in verification time.