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Zhu, S., Chen, H., Xi, W., Chen, M., Fan, L., Feng, D..  2019.  A Worst-Case Entropy Estimation of Oscillator-Based Entropy Sources: When the Adversaries Have Access to the History Outputs. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :152—159.
Entropy sources are designed to provide unpredictable random numbers for cryptographic systems. As an assessment of the sources, Shannon entropy is usually adopted to quantitatively measure the unpredictability of the outputs. In several related works about the entropy evaluation of ring oscillator-based (RO-based) entropy sources, authors evaluated the unpredictability with the average conditional Shannon entropy (ACE) of the source, moreover provided a lower bound of the ACE (LBoACE). However, in this paper, we have demonstrated that when the adversaries have access to the history outputs of the entropy source, for example, by some intrusive attacks, the LBoACE may overestimate the actual unpredictability of the next output for the adversaries. In this situation, we suggest to adopt the specific conditional Shannon entropy (SCE) which exactly measures the unpredictability of the future output with the knowledge of previous output sequences and so is more consistent with the reality than the ACE. In particular, to be conservative, we propose to take the lower bound of the SCE (LBoSCE) as an estimation of the worst-case entropy of the sources. We put forward a detailed method to estimate this worst-case entropy of RO-based entropy sources, which we have also verified by experiment on an FPGA device. We recommend to adopt this method to provide a conservative assessment of the unpredictability when the entropy source works in a vulnerable environment and the adversaries might obtain the previous outputs.
Hazari, N. A., Alsulami, F., Niamat, M..  2018.  FPGA IP Obfuscation Using Ring Oscillator Physical Unclonable Function. NAECON 2018 - IEEE National Aerospace and Electronics Conference. :105–108.
IP piracy, reverse engineering, and tampering with FPGA based IP is increasing over time. ROPUF based IP obfuscation can provide a feasible solution. In this paper, a novel approach of FPGA IP obfuscation is implemented using Ring Oscillator based Physical Unclonable Function (ROPUF) and random logic gates. This approach provides a lock and key mechanism as well as authentication of FPGA based designs to protect from security threats. Using the Xilinx ISE design tools and ISCAS 89 benchmarks we have designed a secure FPGA based IP protection scheme with an average of 15% area and 10% of power overhead.
Zhang, Jiliang, Qu, Gang.  2020.  Physical Unclonable Function-Based Key Sharing via Machine Learning for IoT Security. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. 67:7025—7033.

In many industry Internet of Things applications, resources like CPU, memory, and battery power are limited and cannot afford the classic cryptographic security solutions. Silicon physical unclonable function (PUF) is a lightweight security primitive that exploits manufacturing variations during the chip fabrication process for key generation and/or device authentication. However, traditional weak PUFs such as ring oscillator (RO) PUF generate chip-unique key for each device, which restricts their application in security protocols where the same key is required to be shared in resource-constrained devices. In this article, in order to address this issue, we propose a PUF-based key sharing method for the first time. The basic idea is to implement one-to-one input-output mapping with lookup table (LUT)-based interstage crossing structures in each level of inverters of RO PUF. Individual customization on configuration bits of interstage crossing structure and different RO selections with challenges bring high flexibility. Therefore, with the flexible configuration of interstage crossing structures and challenges, crossover RO PUF can generate the same shared key for resource-constrained devices, which enables a new application for lightweight key sharing protocols.

Moghadas, S. H., Fischer, G..  2017.  Robust IoT communication physical layer concept with improved physical unclonable function. 2017 IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Postgraduate Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PrimeAsia). :97–100.

Reliability and robustness of Internet of Things (IoT)-cloud-based communication is an important issue for prospective development of the IoT concept. In this regard, a robust and unique client-to-cloud communication physical layer is required. Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) is regarded as a suitable physics-based random identification hardware, but suffers from reliability problems. In this paper, we propose novel hardware concepts and furthermore an analysis method in CMOS technology to improve the hardware-based robustness of the generated PUF word from its first point of generation to the last cloud-interfacing point in a client. Moreover, we present a spectral analysis for an inexpensive high-yield implementation in a 65nm generation. We also offer robust monitoring concepts for the PUF-interfacing communication physical layer hardware.

Abtioglu, E., Yeniçeri, R., Gövem, B., Göncü, E., Yalçin, M. E., Saldamli, G..  2017.  Partially Reconfigurable IP Protection System with Ring Oscillator Based Physically Unclonable Functions. 2017 New Generation of CAS (NGCAS). :65–68.

The size of counterfeiting activities is increasing day by day. These activities are encountered especially in electronics market. In this paper, a countermeasure against counterfeiting on intellectual properties (IP) on Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) is proposed. FPGA vendors provide bitstream ciphering as an IP security solution such as battery-backed or non-volatile FPGAs. However, these solutions are secure as long as they can keep decryption key away from third parties. Key storage and key transfer over unsecure channels expose risks for these solutions. In this work, physical unclonable functions (PUFs) have been used for key generation. Generating a key from a circuit in the device solves key transfer problem. Proposed system goes through different phases when it operates. Therefore, partial reconfiguration feature of FPGAs is essential for feasibility of proposed system.

Pirpilidis, Filippos, Voyiatzis, Artemios G., Pyrgas, Lambros, Kitsos, Paris.  2016.  An Efficient Reconfigurable Ring Oscillator for Hardware Trojan Detection. Proceedings of the 20th Pan-Hellenic Conference on Informatics. :66:1–66:6.

The threat of inserting malicious logic in hardware design is increasing as the digital supply chains are becoming more deep and span the whole globe. Ring oscillators (ROs) can be used to detect deviations of circuit operations due to changes of its layout caused by the insertion of a hardware Trojan horse (Trojan). The placement and the length of the ring oscillator are two important parameters that define an RO sensitivity and capability to detect malicious alternations. We propose and study the use of ring oscillators with variable lengths, configurable at the runtime. Such oscillators push further the envelope for the attackers, as their design must be undetectable by all supported lengths. We study the efficiency of our proposal on defending against a family of hardware Trojans against an implementation of the AES cryptographic algorithm on an FPGA.