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Zhong, Luoyifan.  2022.  Optimization and Prediction of Intelligent Tourism Data. 2022 IEEE 8th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :186–188.
Tourism is one of the main sources of income in Australia. The number of tourists will affect airlines, hotels and other stakeholders. Predicting the arrival of tourists can make full preparations for welcoming tourists. This paper selects Queensland Tourism data as intelligent data. Carry out data visualization around the intelligent data, establish seasonal ARIMA model, find out the characteristics and predict. In order to improve the accuracy of prediction. Based on the tourism data around Queensland, build a 10 layer Back Propagation neural network model. It is proved that the network shows good performance for the data prediction of this paper.
Liu, Zhiqin, Zhu, Nan, Wang, Kun.  2022.  Recaptured Image Forensics Based on Generalized Central Difference Convolution Network. 2022 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence (SEAI). :59—63.
With large advancements in image display technology, recapturing high-quality images from high-fidelity LCD screens becomes much easier. Such recaptured images can be used to hide image tampering traces and fool some intelligent identification systems. In order to prevent such a security loophole, we propose a recaptured image detection approach based on generalized central difference convolution (GCDC) network. Specifically, by using GCDC instead of vanilla convolution, more detailed features can be extracted from both intensity and gradient information from an image. Meanwhile, we concatenate the feature maps from multiple GCDC modules to fuse low-, mid-, and high-level features for higher performance. Extensive experiments on three public recaptured image databases demonstrate the superior of our proposed method when compared with the state-of-the-art approaches.
Amin, Md Rayhan, Bhowmik, Tanmay.  2022.  Existing Vulnerability Information in Security Requirements Elicitation. 2022 IEEE 30th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops (REW). :220—225.
In software engineering, the aspect of addressing security requirements is considered to be of paramount importance. In most cases, however, security requirements for a system are considered as non-functional requirements (NFRs) and are addressed at the very end of the software development life cycle. The increasing number of security incidents in software systems around the world has made researchers and developers rethink and consider this issue at an earlier stage. An important and essential step towards this process is the elicitation of relevant security requirements. In a recent work, Imtiaz et al. proposed a framework for creating a mapping between existing requirements and the vulnerabilities associated with them. The idea is that, this mapping can be used by developers to predict potential vulnerabilities associated with new functional requirements and capture security requirements to avoid these vulnerabilities. However, to what extent, such existing vulnerability information can be useful in security requirements elicitation is still an open question. In this paper, we design a human subject study to answer this question. We also present the results of a pilot study and discuss their implications. Preliminary results show that existing vulnerability information can be a useful resource in eliciting security requirements and lays ground work for a full scale study.
Liu, Zhenyu, Lou, Xuanyu, Cui, Yajun, Zhao, Yingdong, Li, Hua.  2022.  Colored Petri Net Reusing for Service Function Chaining Validation. 2022 IEEE 46th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :1531—1535.
With the development of software defined network and network function virtualization, network operators can flexibly deploy service function chains (SFC) to provide network security services more than before according to the network security requirements of business systems. At present, most research on verifying the correctness of SFC is based on whether the logical sequence between service functions (SF) in SFC is correct before deployment, and there is less research on verifying the correctness after SFC deployment. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of using Colored Petri Net (CPN) to establish a verification model offline and verify whether each SF deployment in SFC is correct after online deployment. After the SFC deployment is completed, the information is obtained online and input into the established model for verification. The experimental results show that the SFC correctness verification method proposed in this paper can effectively verify whether each SF in the deployed SFC is deployed correctly. In this process, the correctness of SF model is verified by using SF model in the model library, and the model reuse technology is preliminarily discussed.
Zheng, Chaofan, Hu, Wenhui, Li, Tianci, Liu, Xueyang, Zhang, Jinchan, Wang, Litian.  2022.  An Insider Threat Detection Method Based on Heterogeneous Graph Embedding. 2022 IEEE 8th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :11—16.
Insider threats have high risk and concealment characteristics, which makes traditional anomaly detection methods less effective in insider threat detection. Existing detection methods ignore the logical relationship between user behaviors and the consistency of behavior sequences among homogeneous users, resulting in poor model effects. We propose an insider threat detection method based on internal user heterogeneous graph embedding. Firstly, according to the characteristics of CERT data, comprehensively consider the relationship between users, the time sequence, and logical relationship, and construct a heterogeneous graph. In the second step, according to the characteristics of heterogeneous graphs, the embedding learning of graph nodes is carried out according to random walk and Word2vec. Finally, we propose an Insider Threat Detection Design (ITDD) model which can map and the user behavior sequence information into a high-dimensional feature space. In the CERT r5.2 dataset, compared with a variety of traditional machine learning methods, the effect of our method is significantly better than the final result.
Peng, Jianhuan.  2022.  Research on E-government Information Security Based on Cloud Computing. 2022 IEEE 10th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). 10:312–316.
As an important pillar of social informatization, e-government not only provides more convenient services for the public, but also effectively improves administrative efficiency. At the same time, the application of cloud computing technology also urgently requires the government to improve the level of digital construction. This paper proposes the concept of e-government based on cloud computing, analyze the possible hidden dangers that cloud computing brings to e-government in management, technology, and security, and build cloud computing e-government information security system from three aspects: cloud security management, cloud security technology, and cloud security assurance.
ISSN: 2693-2865
Riedel, Paul, Riesner, Michael, Wendt, Karsten, Aßmann, Uwe.  2022.  Data-Driven Digital Twins in Surgery utilizing Augmented Reality and Machine Learning. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :580–585.
On the one hand, laparoscopic surgery as medical state-of-the-art method is minimal invasive, and thus less stressful for patients. On the other hand, laparoscopy implies higher demands on physicians, such as mental load or preparation time, hence appropriate technical support is essential for quality and suc-cess. Medical Digital Twins provide an integrated and virtual representation of patients' and organs' data, and thus a generic concept to make complex information accessible by surgeons. In this way, minimal invasive surgery could be improved significantly, but requires also a much more complex software system to achieve the various resulting requirements. The biggest challenges for these systems are the safe and precise mapping of the digital twin to reality, i.e. dealing with deformations, movement and distortions, as well as balance out the competing requirement for intuitive and immersive user access and security. The case study ARAILIS is presented as a proof in concept for such a system and provides a starting point for further research. Based on the insights delivered by this prototype, a vision for future Medical Digital Twins in surgery is derived and discussed.
ISSN: 2694-2941
Liang, Chenjun, Deng, Li, Zhu, Jincan, Cao, Zhen, Li, Chao.  2022.  Cloud Storage I/O Load Prediction Based on XB-IOPS Feature Engineering. 2022 IEEE 8th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :54—60.
With the popularization of cloud computing and the deepening of its application, more and more cloud block storage systems have been put into use. The performance optimization of cloud block storage systems has become an important challenge facing today, which is manifested in the reduction of system performance caused by the unbalanced resource load of cloud block storage systems. Accurately predicting the I/O load status of the cloud block storage system can effectively avoid the load imbalance problem. However, the cloud block storage system has the characteristics of frequent random reads and writes, and a large amount of I/O requests, which makes prediction difficult. Therefore, we propose a novel I/O load prediction method for XB-IOPS feature engineering. The feature engineering is designed according to the I/O request pattern, I/O size and I/O interference, and realizes the prediction of the actual load value at a certain moment in the future and the average load value in the continuous time interval in the future. Validated on a real dataset of Alibaba Cloud block storage system, the results show that the XB-IOPS feature engineering prediction model in this paper has better performance in Alibaba Cloud block storage devices where random I/O and small I/O dominate. The prediction performance is better, and the prediction time is shorter than other prediction models.
Waluyo, Adam, Cahyono, M.T. Setiyo, Mahfud, Ahmad Zainudin.  2022.  Digital Forensic Analysis on Caller ID Spoofing Attack. 2022 7th International Workshop on Big Data and Information Security (IWBIS). :95—100.
Misuse of caller ID spoofing combined with social engineering has the potential as a means to commit other crimes, such as fraud, theft, leaking sensitive information, spreading hoaxes, etc. The appropriate forensic technique must be carried out to support the verification and collection of evidence related to these crimes. In this research, a digital forensic analysis was carried out on the BlueStacks emulator, Redmi 5A smartphone, and SIM card which is a device belonging to the victim and attacker to carry out caller ID spoofing attacks. The forensic analysis uses the NIST SP 800-101 R1 guide and forensic tools FTK imager, Oxygen Forensic Detective, and Paraben’s E3. This research aims to determine the artifacts resulting from caller ID spoofing attacks to assist in mapping and finding digital evidence. The result of this research is a list of digital evidence findings in the form of a history of outgoing calls, incoming calls, caller ID from the source of the call, caller ID from the destination of the call, the time the call started, the time the call ended, the duration of the call, IMSI, ICCID, ADN, and TMSI.
Zhuoyu, Han, Yongzhen, Li.  2022.  Design and implementation of efficient hash functions. 2022 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Power, Electronics and Computer Applications (ICPECA). :1240—1243.
With the rapid popularity of the network, the development of information encryption technology has a significant role and significance in securing network security. The security of information has become an issue of concern to the whole society, and the study of cryptography has been increasingly concerned, and the hash function is the core of modern cryptography, the most common hash algorithms are MD5 series of algorithms, SHA series of algorithms. MD5 is a popular and excellent typical Hash encryption technology today, which is used for password management, electronic signature, spam screening. In this paper, we focus on the improved MD5 algorithm with more efficiency, focusing on the internal structure of MD5, and finally making it more efficient in retrieval.
Ambedkar, B. R., Bharti, P. K., Husain, Akhtar.  2022.  Enhancing the Performance of Hash Function Using Autonomous Initial Value Proposed Secure Hash Algorithm 256. 2022 IEEE 11th International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies (CSNT). :560—565.
To verify the integrity and confidentiality of data communicated through the web is a very big issue worldwide because every person wants very fast computing and secure electronic data communication via the web. The authentication of electronic data is done by hashing algorithms. Presently researchers are using one-time padding to convert variable-length input messages into a block of fixed length and also using constant initial values that are constant for any input message. So this reason we are proposing the autonomous initial value proposed secure hash algorithm-256 (AIVPSHA256) and we are enhancing the performance of the hash function by designing and compuiting its experimental results in python 3.9.5 programming language.
Chai, Heyan, Su, Weijun, Tang, Siyu, Ding, Ye, Fang, Binxing, Liao, Qing.  2022.  Improving Anomaly Detection with a Self-Supervised Task Based on Generative Adversarial Network. ICASSP 2022 - 2022 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :3563–3567.
Existing anomaly detection models show success in detecting abnormal images with generative adversarial networks on the insufficient annotation of anomalous samples. However, existing models cannot accurately identify the anomaly samples which are close to the normal samples. We assume that the main reason is that these methods ignore the diversity of patterns in normal samples. To alleviate the above issue, this paper proposes a novel anomaly detection framework based on generative adversarial network, called ADe-GAN. More concretely, we construct a self-supervised learning task to fully explore the pattern information and latent representations of input images. In model inferring stage, we design a new abnormality score approach by jointly considering the pattern information and reconstruction errors to improve the performance of anomaly detection. Extensive experiments show that the ADe-GAN outperforms the state-of-the-art methods over several real-world datasets.
ISSN: 2379-190X
Dabush, Lital, Routtenberg, Tirza.  2022.  Detection of False Data Injection Attacks in Unobservable Power Systems by Laplacian Regularization. 2022 IEEE 12th Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop (SAM). :415—419.
The modern electrical grid is a complex cyber-physical system, and thus is vulnerable to measurement losses and attacks. In this paper, we consider the problem of detecting false data injection (FDI) attacks and bad data in unobservable power systems. Classical bad-data detection methods usually assume observable systems and cannot detect stealth FDI attacks. We use the smoothness property of the system states (voltages) w.r.t. the admittance matrix, which is also the Laplacian of the graph representation of the grid. First, we present the Laplacian-based regularized state estimator, which does not require full observability of the network. Then, we derive the Laplacian-regularized generalized likelihood ratio test (LR-GLRT). We show that the LR-GLRT has a component of a soft high-pass graph filter applied to the state estimator. Numerical results on the IEEE 118-bus system demonstrate that the LR-GLRT outperforms other detection approaches and is robust to missing data.
Huang, Fanwei, Li, Qiuping, Zhao, Junhui.  2022.  Trust Management Model of VANETs Based on Machine Learning and Active Detection Technology. 2022 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC Workshops). :412—416.
With the continuous development of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), it brings great traffic convenience. How-ever, it is still a difficult problem for malicious vehicles to spread false news. In order to ensure the reliability of the message, an effective trust management model must be established, so that malicious vehicles can be detected and false information can be identified in the vehicle ad hoc network in time. This paper presents a trust management model based on machine learning and active detection technology, which evaluates the trust of vehicles and events to ensure the credibility of communication. Through the active detection mechanism, vehicles can detect the indirect trust of their neighbors, which improves the filtering speed of malicious nodes. Bayesian classifier can judge whether a vehicle is a malicious node by the state information of the vehicle, and can limit the behavior of the malicious vehicle at the first time. The simulation results show that our scheme can obviously restrict malicious vehicles.
Nguyen, Bien-Cuong, Pham, Cong-Kha.  2022.  A Combined Blinding-Shuffling Online Template Attacks Countermeasure Based on Randomized Domain Montgomery Multiplication. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1—6.
Online template attacks (OTA), high-efficiency side-channel attacks, are initially presented to attack the elliptic curve scalar. The modular exponentiation is similarly vulnerable to OTA. The correlation between modular multiplication's intermediate products is a crucial leakage of the modular exponent. This paper proposed a practical OTA countermeasure based on randomized domain Montgomery multiplication, which combines blinding and shuffling methods to eliminate the correlation between modular multiplication's inner products without additional computation requirements. The proposed OTA countermeasure is implemented on the Sakura-G board with a suppose that the target board and template board are identical. The experiment results show that the proposed countermeasure is sufficient to protect the modular exponentiation from OTA.
Yao, Jianbo, Yang, Chaoqiong, Zhang, Tao.  2022.  Safe and Effective Elliptic Curve Cryptography Algorithm against Power Analysis. 2022 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Power, Electronics and Computer Applications (ICPECA). :393–397.
Having high safety and effective computational property, the elliptic curve cryptosystem is very suitable for embedded mobile environment with resource constraints. Power attack is a powerful cipher attack method, it uses leaking information of cipher-chip in its operation process to attack chip cryptographic algorithms. In view of the situation that the power attack on the elliptic curve cryptosystem mainly concentrates on scalar multiplication operation an improved algorithm FWNAF based on RWNAF is proposed. This algorithm utilizes the fragments window technology further improves the utilization ratio of the storage resource and reduces the “jitter phenomenon” in system computing performance caused by the sharp change in system resources.
Eisele, Max.  2022.  Debugger-driven Embedded Fuzzing. 2022 IEEE Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST). :483–485.
Embedded Systems - the hidden computers in our lives - are deployed in the billionths and are already in the focus of attackers. They pose security risks when not tested and maintained thoroughly. In recent years, fuzzing has become a promising technique for automated security testing of programs, which can generate tons of test inputs for a program. Fuzzing is hardly applied to embedded systems, because of their high diversity and closed character. During my research I want tackle that gap in fuzzing embedded systems - short: “Embedded Fuzzing”. My goal is to obtain insights of the embedded system during execution, by using common debugging interfaces and hardware breakpoints to enable guided fuzzing in a generic and widely applicable way. Debugging interfaces and hardware breakpoints are available for most common microcontrollers, generating a potential industry impact. Preliminary results show that the approach covers basic blocks faster than blackbox fuzzing. Additionally, it is source code agnostic and leaves the embedded firmware unaltered.
ISSN: 2159-4848
Ogiela, Marek R., Ogiela, Urszula.  2022.  DNA-based Secret Sharing and Hiding in Dispersed Computing. 2022 IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW). :126—127.
In this paper will be described a new security protocol for secret sharing and hiding, which use selected personal features. Such technique allows to create human-oriented personalized security protocols dedicated for particular users. Proposed method may be applied in dispersed computing systems, where secret data should be divided into particular number of parts.
Maity, Ilora, Vu, Thang X., Chatzinotas, Symeon, Minardi, Mario.  2022.  D-ViNE: Dynamic Virtual Network Embedding in Non-Terrestrial Networks. 2022 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :166—171.
In this paper, we address the virtual network embedding (VNE) problem in non-terrestrial networks (NTNs) enabling dynamic changes in the virtual network function (VNF) deployment to maximize the service acceptance rate and service revenue. NTNs such as satellite networks involve highly dynamic topology and limited resources in terms of rate and power. VNE in NTNs is a challenge because a static strategy under-performs when new service requests arrive or the network topology changes unexpectedly due to failures or other events. Existing solutions do not consider the power constraint of satellites and rate limitation of inter-satellite links (ISLs) which are essential parameters for dynamic adjustment of existing VNE strategy in NTNs. In this work, we propose a dynamic VNE algorithm that selects a suitable VNE strategy for new and existing services considering the time-varying network topology. The proposed scheme, D-ViNE, increases the service acceptance ratio by 8.51% compared to the benchmark scheme TS-MAPSCH.
Azghandi, Seif.  2022.  Deterrence of Cycles in Temporal Knowledge Graphs. 2022 IEEE Aerospace Conference (AERO). :01–09.
Temporal Knowledge Graph Embedding (TKGE) is an extensible (continuous vector space) time-sensitive data structure (tree) and is used to predict future event given historical events. An event consists of current state of a knowledge (subject), and a transition (predicate) that morphs the knowledge to the next state (object). The prediction is accomplished when the historical event data conform to structural model of Temporal Points Processes (TPP), followed by processing it by the behavioral model of Conditional Intensity Function (CIF). The formidable challenge in constructing and maintaining a TKGE is to ensure absence of cycles when historical event data are formed/structured as logical paths. Variations of depth-first search (DFS) are used in constructing TKGE albeit with the challenge of maintaining it as a cycle-free structure. This article presents a simple (tradeoff-based) design that creates and maintains a single-rooted isolated-paths TKGE: ipTKGE. In ipTKGE, isolated-paths have their own (local) roots. The local roots trigger the break down of the traditionally-constructed TKGE into isolated (independent) paths alleviating the necessity for using DFS - or its variational forms. This approach is possible at the expense of subject/objec t and predicates redun-dancies in ipTKGE. Isolated-paths allow for simpler algorithmic detection and avoidance of potential cycles in TKGE.
ISSN: 1095-323X
Wu, Zhiyong, Cao, Yanhua.  2022.  Analysis of “Tripartite and Bilateral” Space Deterrence Based on Signaling Game. 2022 IEEE 6th Information Technology and Mechatronics Engineering Conference (ITOEC). 6:2100–2104.
A “tripartite and bilateral” dynamic game model was constructed to study the impact of space deterrence on the challenger's military strategy in a military conflict. Based on the signal game theory, the payment matrices and optimal strategies of the sheltering side and challenging side were analyzed. In a theoretical framework, the indicators of the effectiveness of the challenger's response to space deterrence and the influencing factors of the sheltering's space deterrence were examined. The feasibility and effective means for the challenger to respond to the space deterrent in a “tripartite and bilateral” military conflict were concluded.
ISSN: 2693-289X
Kumar, Anmol, Somani, Gaurav.  2022.  DDoS attack mitigation in cloud targets using scale-inside out assisted container separation. IEEE INFOCOM 2022 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :1–6.
From the past few years, DDoS attack incidents are continuously rising across the world. DDoS attackers have also shifted their target towards cloud environments as majority of services have shifted their operations to cloud. Various authors proposed distinct solutions to minimize the DDoS attacks effects on victim services and co-located services in cloud environments. In this work, we propose an approach by utilizing incoming request separation at the container-level. In addition, we advocate to employ scale-inside out [10] approach for all the suspicious requests. In this manner, we achieve the request serving of all the authenticated benign requests even in the presence of an attack. We also improve the usages of scale-inside out approach by applying it to a container which is serving the suspicious requests in a separate container. The results of our proposed technique show a significant decrease in the response time of benign users during the DDoS attack as compared with existing solutions.
Muragaa, Wisam H. A.  2022.  The single packet Low-rate DDoS attack detection and prevention in SDN. 2022 IEEE 2nd International Maghreb Meeting of the Conference on Sciences and Techniques of Automatic Control and Computer Engineering (MI-STA). :323–328.
The new paradigm software-defined networking (SDN) supports network innovation and makes the control of network operations more agile. The flow table is the main component of SDN switch which contains a set of flow entries that define how new flows are processed. Low-rate distributed denial-of-service (LR-DDoS) attacks are difficult to detect and mitigate because they behave like legitimate users. There are many detection methods for LR DDoS attacks in the literature, but none of these methods detect single-packet LR DDoS attacks. In fact, LR DDoS attackers exploit vulnerabilities in the mechanism of congestion control in TCP to either periodically retransmit burst attack packets for a short time period or to continuously launch a single attack packet at a constant low rate. In this paper, the proposed scheme detects LR-DDoS by examining all incoming packets and filtering the single packets sent from different source IP addresses to the same destination at a constant low rate. Sending single packets at a constant low rate will increase the number of flows at the switch which can make it easily overflowed. After detecting the single attack packets, the proposed scheme prevents LR-DDoS at its early stage by deleting the flows created by these packets once they reach the threshold. According to the results of the experiment, the scheme achieves 99.47% accuracy in this scenario. In addition, the scheme has simple logic and simple calculation, which reduces the overhead of the SDN controller.
Black, Samuel, Kim, Yoohwan.  2022.  An Overview on Detection and Prevention of Application Layer DDoS Attacks. 2022 IEEE 12th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0791–0800.
Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks aim to cause downtime or a lack of responsiveness for web services. DDoS attacks targeting the application layer are amongst the hardest to catch as they generally appear legitimate at lower layers and attempt to take advantage of common application functionality or aspects of the HTTP protocol, rather than simply send large amounts of traffic like with volumetric flooding. Attacks can focus on functionality such as database operations, file retrieval, or just general backend code. In this paper, we examine common forms of application layer attacks, preventative and detection measures, and take a closer look specifically at HTTP Flooding attacks by the High Orbit Ion Cannon (HOIC) and “low and slow” attacks through slowloris.
Xiao, Renjie, Yuan, Yong'an, Tan, Zijing, Ma, Shuai, Wang, Wei.  2022.  Dynamic Functional Dependency Discovery with Dynamic Hitting Set Enumeration. 2022 IEEE 38th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE). :286—298.
Functional dependencies (FDs) are widely applied in data management tasks. Since FDs on data are usually unknown, FD discovery techniques are studied for automatically finding hidden FDs from data. In this paper, we develop techniques to dynamically discover FDs in response to changes on data. Formally, given the complete set Σ of minimal and valid FDs on a relational instance r, we aim to find the complete set Σ$^\textrm\textbackslashprime$ of minimal and valid FDs on røplus\textbackslashDelta r, where \textbackslashDelta r is a set of tuple insertions and deletions. Different from the batch approaches that compute Σ$^\textrm\textbackslashprime$ on røplus\textbackslashDelta r from scratch, our dynamic method computes Σ$^\textrm\textbackslashprime$ in response to \textbackslashtriangle\textbackslashuparrow. by leveraging the known Σ on r, and avoids processing the whole of r for each update from \textbackslashDelta r. We tackle dynamic FD discovery on røplus\textbackslashDelta r by dynamic hitting set enumeration on the difference-set of røplus\textbackslashDelta r. Specifically, (1) leveraging auxiliary structures built on r, we first present an efficient algorithm to update the difference-set of r to that of røplus\textbackslashDelta r. (2) We then compute Σ$^\textrm\textbackslashprime$, by recasting dynamic FD discovery as dynamic hitting set enumeration on the difference-set of røplus\textbackslashDelta r and developing novel techniques for dynamic hitting set enumeration. (3) We finally experimentally verify the effectiveness and efficiency of our approaches, using real-life and synthetic data. The results show that our dynamic FD discovery method outperforms the batch counterparts on most tested data, even when \textbackslashDelta r is up to 30 % of r.