Visible to the public Biblio

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Fiebig, T..  2020.  How to stop crashing more than twice: A Clean-Slate Governance Approach to IT Security. 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :67—74.

"Moving fast, and breaking things", instead of "being safe and secure", is the credo of the IT industry. However, if we look at the wide societal impact of IT security incidents in the past years, it seems like it is no longer sustainable. Just like in the case of Equifax, people simply forget updates, just like in the case of Maersk, companies do not use sufficient network segmentation. Security certification does not seem to help with this issue. After all, Equifax was IS027001 compliant.In this paper, we take a look at how we handle and (do not) learn from security incidents in IT security. We do this by comparing IT security incidents to early and later aviation safety. We find interesting parallels to early aviation safety, and outline the governance levers that could make the world of IT more secure, which were already successful in making flying the most secure way of transportation.

Mukhametov, D. R..  2020.  Self-organization of Network Communities via Blockchain Technology: Reputation Systems and Limits of Digital Democracy. 2020 Systems of Signal Synchronization, Generating and Processing in Telecommunications (SYNCHROINFO). :1—7.

The article is devoted to the analysis of the use of blockchain technology for self-organization of network communities. Network communities are characterized by the key role of trust in personal interactions, the need for repeated interactions, strong and weak ties within the network, social learning as the mechanism of self-organization. Therefore, in network communities reputation is the central component of social action, assessment of the situation, and formation of the expectations. The current proliferation of virtual network communities requires the development of appropriate technical infrastructure in the form of reputation systems - programs that provide calculation of network members reputation and organization of their cooperation and interaction. Traditional reputation systems have vulnerabilities in the field of information security and prevention of abusive behavior of agents. Overcoming these restrictions is possible through integration of reputation systems and blockchain technology that allows to increase transparency of reputation assessment system and prevent attempts of manipulation the system and social engineering. At the same time, the most promising is the use of blockchain-oracles to ensure communication between the algorithms of blockchain-based reputation system and the external information environment. The popularization of blockchain technology and its implementation in various spheres of social management, production control, economic exchange actualizes the problems of using digital technologies in political processes and their impact on the formation of digital authoritarianism, digital democracy and digital anarchism. The paper emphasizes that blockchain technology and reputation systems can equally benefit both the resources of government control and tools of democratization and public accountability to civil society or even practices of avoiding government. Therefore, it is important to take into account the problems of political institutionalization, path dependence and the creation of differentiated incentives as well as the technological aspects.

Alarcon, G. M., Gibson, A. M., Jessup, S. A..  2020.  Trust Repair in Performance, Process, and Purpose Factors of Human-Robot Trust. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Human-Machine Systems (ICHMS). :1—6.

The current study explored the influence of trust and distrust behaviors on performance, process, and purpose (trustworthiness) perceptions over time when participants were paired with a robot partner. We examined the changes in trustworthiness perceptions after trust violations and trust repair after those violations. Results indicated performance, process, and purpose perceptions were all affected by trust violations, but perceptions of process and purpose decreased more than performance following a distrust behavior. Similarly, trust repair was achieved in performance perceptions, but trust repair in perceived process and purpose was absent. When a trust violation occurred, process and purpose perceptions deteriorated and failed to recover from the violation. In addition, the trust violation resulted in untrustworthy perceptions of the robot. In contrast, trust violations decreased partner performance perceptions, and subsequent trust behaviors resulted in a trust repair. These findings suggest that people are more sensitive to distrust behaviors in their perceptions of process and purpose than they are in performance perceptions.

Demjaha, A., Caulfield, T., Sasse, M. Angela, Pym, D..  2019.  2 Fast 2 Secure: A Case Study of Post-Breach Security Changes. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :192—201.
A security breach often makes companies react by changing their attitude and approach to security within the organization. This paper presents an in-depth case study of post-breach security changes made by a company and the consequences of those changes. We employ the principles of participatory action research and humble inquiry to conduct a long-term study with employee interviews while embedded in the organization's security division. Despite an extremely high level of financial investment in security, and consistent attention and involvement from the board, the interviews indicate a significant level of friction between employees and security. In the main themes that emerged from our data analysis, a number of factors shed light on the friction: fear of another breach leading to zero risk appetite, impossible security controls making non-compliance a norm, security theatre underminining the purpose of security policies, employees often trading-off security with productivity, and as such being treated as children in detention rather than employees trying to finish their paid jobs. This paper shows that post-breach security changes can be complex and sometimes risky due to emotions often being involved. Without an approach considerate of how humans and security interact, even with high financial investment, attempts to change an organization's security behaviour may be ineffective.
Mousavi, M. Z., Kumar, S..  2019.  Analysis of key Factors for Organization Information Security. 2019 International Conference on Machine Learning, Big Data, Cloud and Parallel Computing (COMITCon). :514—518.
Protecting sensitive information from illegal access and misuse is crucial to all organizations. An inappropriate Information Security (IS) policy and procedures are not only a suitable environment for an outsider attack but also a good chance for the insiders' misuse. In this paper, we will discuss the roles of an organization in information security and how human behavior affects the Information Security System (ISS). How an organization can create and instill an effective information security culture in an organization to improve their information safeguards. The findings in this review can be used to further researches and will be useful for organizations to improve their information security structure (ISC).
Alzahrani, A., Johnson, C., Altamimi, S..  2018.  Information security policy compliance: Investigating the role of intrinsic motivation towards policy compliance in the organization. 2018 4th International Conference on Information Management (ICIM). :125—132.
Recent behavioral research in information security has focused on increasing employees' motivation to enhance the security performance in an organization. This empirical study investigated employees' information security policy (ISP) compliance intentions using self-determination theory (SDT). Relevant hypotheses were developed to test the proposed research model. Data obtained via a survey (N=3D407) from a Fortune 600 organization in Saudi Arabia provides empirical support for the model. The results confirmed that autonomy, competence and the concept of relatedness all positively affect employees' intentions to comply. The variable 'perceived value congruence' had a negative effect on ISP compliance intentions, and the perceived legitimacy construct did not affect employees' intentions. In general, the findings of this study suggest that SDT has value in research into employees' ISP compliance intentions.
Agadakos, I., Ciocarlie, G. F., Copos, B., George, J., Leslie, N., Michaelis, J..  2019.  Security for Resilient IoBT Systems: Emerging Research Directions. IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :1—6.

Continued advances in IoT technology have prompted new investigation into its usage for military operations, both to augment and complement existing military sensing assets and support next-generation artificial intelligence and machine learning systems. Under the emerging Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) paradigm, a multitude of operational conditions (e.g., diverse asset ownership, degraded networking infrastructure, adversary activities) necessitate the development of novel security techniques, centered on establishment of trust for individual assets and supporting resilience of broader systems. To advance current IoBT efforts, a set of research directions are proposed that aim to fundamentally address the issues of trust and trustworthiness in contested battlefield environments, building on prior research in the cybersecurity domain. These research directions focus on two themes: (1) Supporting trust assessment for known/unknown IoT assets; (2) Ensuring continued trust of known IoBT assets and systems.

Choudhury, O., Sylla, I., Fairoza, N., Das, A..  2019.  A Blockchain Framework for Ensuring Data Quality in Multi-Organizational Clinical Trials. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Healthcare Informatics (ICHI). :1–9.
The cost and complexity of conducting multi-site clinical trials have significantly increased over time, with site monitoring, data management, and Institutional Review Board (IRB) amendments being key drivers. Trial sponsors, such as pharmaceutical companies, are also increasingly outsourcing trial management to multiple organizations. Enforcing compliance with standard operating procedures, such as preserving data privacy for human subject protection, is crucial for upholding the integrity of a study and its findings. Current efforts to ensure quality of data collected at multiple sites and by multiple organizations lack a secure, trusted, and efficient framework for fragmented data capture. To address this challenge, we propose a novel data management infrastructure based on a permissioned blockchain with private channels, smart contracts, and distributed ledgers. We use an example multi-organizational clinical trial to design and implement a blockchain network: generate activity-specific private channels to segregate data flow for confidentiality, write channel-specific smart contracts to enforce regulatory guidelines, monitor the immutable transaction log to detect protocol breach, and auto-generate audit trail. Through comprehensive experimental study, we demonstrate that our system handles high-throughput transactions, exhibits low-latency, and constitutes a trusted, scalable solution.
Bayaga, Anass, Ophoff, Jacques.  2019.  Determinants of E-Government Use in Developing Countries: The Influence of Privacy and Security Concerns. 2019 Conference on Next Generation Computing Applications (NextComp). :1—7.

There has been growing concern about privacy and security risks towards electronic-government (e-government) services adoption. Though there are positive results of e- government, there are still other contestable challenges that hamper success of e-government services. While many of the challenges have received considerable attention, there is still little to no firm research on others such as privacy and security risks, effects of infrastructure both in urban and rural settings. Other concerns that have received little consideration are how for instance; e-government serves as a function of perceived usefulness, ease of use, perceived benefit, as well as cultural dimensions and demographic constructs in South Africa. Guided by technology acceptance model, privacy calculus, Hofstede cultural theory and institutional logic theory, the current research sought to examine determinants of e- government use in developing countries. Anchored upon the aforementioned theories and background, the current study proposed three recommendations as potential value chain, derived from e-government service in response to citizens (end- user) support, government and community of stakeholders.

Widergren, Steve, Melton, Ron, Khandekar, Aditya, Nordman, Bruce, Knight, Mark.  2019.  The Plug-and-Play Electricity Era: Interoperability to Integrate Anything, Anywhere, Anytime. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine. 17:47–58.
The inforrmation age continues to transform the mechanics of integrating electric power devices and systems, from coordinated operations based purely on the physics of electric power engineering to an increasing blend of power with information and communication technology. Integrating electric system components is not just about attaching wires. It requires the connection of computer-based automation systems to associated sensing and communication equipment. The architectural impacts are significant. Well-considered and commonly held concepts, principles, and organizational structures continue to emerge to address the complexity of the integrated operational challenges that drive our society to expect more flexibility in configuring the electric power system, while simultaneously achieving greater efficiency, reliability, and resilience. Architectural concepts, such as modularity and composability, contribute to the creation of structures that enable the connection of power system equipment characterized by clearly defined interfaces consisting of physical and cyberlinks. The result of successful electric power system component connection is interoperation: the discipline that drives integration to be simple and reliable.
Quinn, Ren, Holguin, Nico, Poster, Ben, Roach, Corey, Merwe, Jacobus Kobus Van der.  2019.  WASPP: Workflow Automation for Security Policy Procedures. 2019 15th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM). :1–5.

Every day, university networks are bombarded with attempts to steal the sensitive data of the various disparate domains and organizations they serve. For this reason, universities form teams of information security specialists called a Security Operations Center (SOC) to manage the complex operations involved in monitoring and mitigating such attacks. When a suspicious event is identified, members of the SOC are tasked to understand the nature of the event in order to respond to any damage the attack might have caused. This process is defined by administrative policies which are often very high-level and rarely systematically defined. This impedes the implementation of generalized and automated event response solutions, leading to specific ad hoc solutions based primarily on human intuition and experience as well as immediate administrative priorities. These solutions are often fragile, highly specific, and more difficult to reuse in other scenarios.

TÎTU, Mihail Aurel, POP, Alina Bianca, ŢÎŢU, Ştefan.  2018.  The correlation between intellectual property management and quality management in the modern knowledge-based economy. 2018 10th International Conference on Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence (ECAI). :1—6.
The aim of this research paper is to highlight the intellectual property place and role within an industrial knowledge-based organization which performs design activities. The research begins by presenting the importance of integrating intellectual property policy implementation with quality policy. The research is based on the setting of objectives in the intellectual property field. This research also establishes some intellectual property strategies, and improvement measures for intellectual property protection management. The basis for these activities is correlation of the quality policy with an intellectual property policy, as well as the point of strength identified in the studied organization. The issues discussed in this scientific paper conclude on the possibility of the implementation of standards in the intellectual property field.
Jaworowska, Małgorzata, Śniadkowski, Mariusz, Wac-Włodarczyk, Andrzej.  2019.  Protection of intellectual property as part of developing the skills of future engineers on their way to innovation. 2019 29th Annual Conference of the European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering (EAEEIE). :1—6.
Diagnostic research methods were designed to draw attention to the needs of future engineers in the field of innovative methods of acquiring knowledge, skills and competencies in the protection of intellectual property in order to prepare for functioning in the economy 4.0.
Showkatramani, Girish J., Khatri, Nidhi, Landicho, Arlene, Layog, Darwin.  2019.  A Secure Permissioned Blockchain Based System for Trademarks. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Decentralized Applications and Infrastructures (DAPPCON). :135—139.
A trademark may be a word, phrase, symbol, sound, color, scent or design, or combination of these, that identifies and distinguishes the products or services of a particular source from those of others. Obtaining a trademark is a complex, time intensive and costly process that involves varied steps before the trademark can be registered including searching prior trademarks, filing of the trademark application, review of the trademark application and final publication for opposition by the public. Currently, the process of trademark registration, renewal and validation faces numerous challenges such as the requirement for registration in different jurisdictions, maintenance of centralized databases in different jurisdictions, proving the authenticity of the physical trademark documents, identifying the violation and abuse of the intellectual property etc. to name a few. Recently, blockchain technology has shown great potential in a variety of industries such as finance, education, energy and resource management, healthcare, due to its decentralization and non-tampering features. Furthermore, in the recent years, smart contracts have attracted increased attention due to the popularity of blockchains. In this study, we have utilized Hyperledger fabric as the permissioned blockchain framework along with smart contracts to provide solution to the financial, procedural, enforcement and protection related challenges of the current trademark system. Our blockchain based application seeks to provide a secure, decentralized, immutable trademark system that can be utilized by the intellectual property organizations across different jurisdictions for easily and effectively registering, renewing, validating and distributing digital trademark certificates.
Naik, Nitin, Jenkins, Paul, Savage, Nick.  2019.  A Ransomware Detection Method Using Fuzzy Hashing for Mitigating the Risk of Occlusion of Information Systems. 2019 International Symposium on Systems Engineering (ISSE). :1–6.
Today, a significant threat to organisational information systems is ransomware that can completely occlude the information system by denying access to its data. To reduce this exposure and damage from ransomware attacks, organisations are obliged to concentrate explicitly on the threat of ransomware, alongside their malware prevention strategy. In attempting to prevent the escalation of ransomware attacks, it is important to account for their polymorphic behaviour and dispersion of inexhaustible versions. However, a number of ransomware samples possess similarity as they are created by similar groups of threat actors. A particular threat actor or group often adopts similar practices or codebase to create unlimited versions of their ransomware. As a result of these common traits and codebase, it is probable that new or unknown ransomware variants can be detected based on a comparison with their originating or existing samples. Therefore, this paper presents a detection method for ransomware by employing a similarity preserving hashing method called fuzzy hashing. This detection method is applied on the collected WannaCry or WannaCryptor ransomware corpus utilising three fuzzy hashing methods SSDEEP, SDHASH and mvHASH-B to evaluate the similarity detection success rate by each method. Moreover, their fuzzy similarity scores are utilised to cluster the collected ransomware corpus and its results are compared to determine the relative accuracy of the selected fuzzy hashing methods.
Livshitz, Ilva I., Lontsikh, Pawel A., Lontsiklr, Natalia P., Karascv, Sergey, Golovina, Elena.  2019.  The Actual Problems of IT-Security Process Assurance. 2019 International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT QM IS). :140–144.

The article deals with the aspects of IT-security of business processes, using a variety of methodological tools, including Integrated Management Systems. Currently, all IMS consist of at least 2 management systems, including the IT-Security Management System. Typically, these IMS cover biggest part of the company business processes, but in practice, there are examples of different scales, even within a single facility. However, it should be recognized that the total number of such projects both in the Russian Federation and in the World is small. The security of business processes will be considered on the example of the incident of Norsk Hydro. In the article the main conclusions are given to confirm the possibility of security, continuity and recovery of critical business processes on the example of this incident.

Ahmadi-Assalemi, Gabriela, al-Khateeb, Haider M., Epiphaniou, Gregory, Cosson, Jon, Jahankhani, Hamid, Pillai, Prashant.  2019.  Federated Blockchain-Based Tracking and Liability Attribution Framework for Employees and Cyber-Physical Objects in a Smart Workplace. 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Security, Safety and Sustainability (ICGS3). :1–9.
The systematic integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) into the supply chain to increase operational efficiency and quality has also introduced new complexities to the threat landscape. The myriad of sensors could increase data collection capabilities for businesses to facilitate process automation aided by Artificial Intelligence (AI) but without adopting an appropriate Security-by-Design framework, threat detection and response are destined to fail. The emerging concept of Smart Workplace incorporates many CPS (e.g. Robots and Drones) to execute tasks alongside Employees both of which can be exploited as Insider Threats. We introduce and discuss forensic-readiness, liability attribution and the ability to track moving Smart SPS Objects to support modern Digital Forensics and Incident Response (DFIR) within a defence-in-depth strategy. We present a framework to facilitate the tracking of object behaviour within Smart Controlled Business Environments (SCBE) to support resilience by enabling proactive insider threat detection. Several components of the framework were piloted in a company to discuss a real-life case study and demonstrate anomaly detection and the emerging of behavioural patterns according to objects' movement with relation to their job role, workspace position and nearest entry or exit. The empirical data was collected from a Bluetooth-based Proximity Monitoring Solution. Furthermore, a key strength of the framework is a federated Blockchain (BC) model to achieve forensic-readiness by establishing a digital Chain-of-Custody (CoC) and a collaborative environment for CPS to qualify as Digital Witnesses (DW) to support post-incident investigations.
Asadi, Nima, Rege, Aunshul, Obradovic, Zoran.  2019.  Pattern Discovery in Intrusion Chains and Adversarial Movement. 2019 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA). :1–4.
Capturing the patterns in adversarial movement can present crucial insight into team dynamics and organization of cybercrimes. This information can be used for additional assessment and comparison of decision making approaches during cyberattacks. In this study, we propose a data-driven analysis based on time series analysis and social networks to identify patterns and alterations in time allocated to intrusion stages and adversarial movements. The results of this analysis on two case studies of collegiate cybersecurity exercises is provided as well as an analytical comparison of their behavioral trends and characteristics. This paper presents preliminary insight into complexities of individual and group level adversarial movement and decision-making as cyberattacks unfold.
Salamai, Abdullah, Hussain, Omar, Saberi, Morteza.  2019.  Decision Support System for Risk Assessment Using Fuzzy Inference in Supply Chain Big Data. 2019 International Conference on High Performance Big Data and Intelligent Systems (HPBD IS). :248–253.

Currently, organisations find it difficult to design a Decision Support System (DSS) that can predict various operational risks, such as financial and quality issues, with operational risks responsible for significant economic losses and damage to an organisation's reputation in the market. This paper proposes a new DSS for risk assessment, called the Fuzzy Inference DSS (FIDSS) mechanism, which uses fuzzy inference methods based on an organisation's big data collection. It includes the Emerging Association Patterns (EAP) technique that identifies the important features of each risk event. Then, the Mamdani fuzzy inference technique and several membership functions are evaluated using the firm's data sources. The FIDSS mechanism can enhance an organisation's decision-making processes by quantifying the severity of a risk as low, medium or high. When it automatically predicts a medium or high level, it assists organisations in taking further actions that reduce this severity level.

Hou, Ye, Such, Jose, Rashid, Awais.  2019.  Understanding Security Requirements for Industrial Control System Supply Chains. 2019 IEEE/ACM 5th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Smart Cyber-Physical Systems (SEsCPS). :50–53.

We address the need for security requirements to take into account risks arising from complex supply chains underpinning cyber-physical infrastructures such as industrial control systems (ICS). We present SEISMiC (SEcurity Industrial control SysteM supply Chains), a framework that takes into account the whole spectrum of security risks - from technical aspects through to human and organizational issues - across an ICS supply chain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of SEISMiC through a supply chain risk assessment of Natanz, Iran's nuclear facility that was the subject of the Stuxnet attack.

Iriqat, Yousef Mohammad, Ahlan, Abd Rahman, Molok, Nurul Nuha Abdul.  2019.  Information Security Policy Perceived Compliance Among Staff in Palestine Universities: An Empirical Pilot Study. 2019 IEEE Jordan International Joint Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (JEEIT). :580–585.

In today's interconnected world, universities recognize the importance of protecting their information assets from internal and external threats. Being the possible insider threats to Information Security, employees are often coined as the weakest link. Both employees and organizations should be aware of this raising challenge. Understanding staff perception of compliance behaviour is critical for universities wanting to leverage their staff capabilities to mitigate Information Security risks. Therefore, this research seeks to get insights into staff perception based on factors adopted from several theories by using proposed constructs i.e. "perceived" practices/policies and "perceived" intention to comply. Drawing from the General Deterrence Theory, Protection Motivation Theory, Theory of Planned Behaviour and Information Reinforcement, within the context of Palestine universities, this paper integrates staff awareness of Information Security Policies (ISP) countermeasures as antecedents to ``perceived'' influencing factors (perceived sanctions, perceived rewards, perceived coping appraisal, and perceived information reinforcement). The empirical study is designed to follow a quantitative research approaches, use survey as a data collection method and questionnaires as the research instruments. Partial least squares structural equation modelling is used to inspect the reliability and validity of the measurement model and hypotheses testing for the structural model. The research covers ISP awareness among staff and seeks to assert that information security is the responsibility of all academic and administrative staff from all departments. Overall, our pilot study findings seem promising, and we found strong support for our theoretical model.

Nicho, Mathew, McDermott, Christopher D..  2019.  Dimensions of ‘Socio’ Vulnerabilities of Advanced Persistent Threats. 2019 International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM). :1–5.
Advanced Persistent Threats (APT) are highly targeted and sophisticated multi-stage attacks, utilizing zero day or near zero-day malware. Directed at internetworked computer users in the workplace, their growth and prevalence can be attributed to both socio (human) and technical (system weaknesses and inadequate cyber defenses) vulnerabilities. While many APT attacks incorporate a blend of socio-technical vulnerabilities, academic research and reported incidents largely depict the user as the prominent contributing factor that can weaken the layers of technical security in an organization. In this paper, our objective is to explore multiple dimensions of socio factors (non-technical vulnerabilities) that contribute to the success of APT attacks in organizations. Expert interviews were conducted with senior managers, working in government and private organizations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) over a period of four years (2014 to 2017). Contrary to common belief that socio factors derive predominately from user behavior, our study revealed two new dimensions of socio vulnerabilities, namely the role of organizational management, and environmental factors which also contribute to the success of APT attacks. We show that the three dimensions postulated in this study can assist Managers and IT personnel in organizations to implement an appropriate mix of socio-technical countermeasures for APT threats.
Alzahrani, Ahmed, Johnson, Chris, Altamimi, Saad.  2018.  Information security policy compliance: Investigating the role of intrinsic motivation towards policy compliance in the organisation. 2018 4th International Conference on Information Management (ICIM). :125–132.
Recent behavioral research in information security has focused on increasing employees' motivation to enhance the security performance in an organization. This empirical study investigated employees' information security policy (ISP) compliance intentions using self-determination theory (SDT). Relevant hypotheses were developed to test the proposed research model. Data obtained via a survey (N=3D407) from a Fortune 600 organization in Saudi Arabia provides empirical support for the model. The results confirmed that autonomy, competence and the concept of relatedness all positively affect employees' intentions to comply. The variable 'perceived value congruence' had a negative effect on ISP compliance intentions, and the perceived legitimacy construct did not affect employees' intentions. In general, the findings of this study suggest that SDT has value in research into employees' ISP compliance intentions.
Moore, A. P., Cassidy, T. M., Theis, M. C., Bauer, D., Rousseau, D. M., Moore, S. B..  2018.  Balancing Organizational Incentives to Counter Insider Threat. 2018 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :237–246.

Traditional security practices focus on negative incentives that attempt to force compliance through constraints, monitoring, and punishment. This paper describes a missing dimension of most organizations' insider threat defense-one that explicitly considers positive incentives for attracting individuals to act in the interests of the organization. Positive incentives focus on properties of the organizational context of workforce management practices - including those relating to organizational supportiveness, coworker connectedness, and job engagement. Without due attention to the organizational context in which insider threats occur, insider misbehaviors may simply reoccur as a natural response to counterproductive or dysfunctional management practices. A balanced combination of positive and negative incentives can improve employees' relationships with the organization and provide a means for employees to better cope with personal and professional stressors. An insider threat program that balances organizational incentives can become an advocate for the workforce and a means for improving employee work life - a welcome message to employees who feel threatened by programs focused on discovering insider wrongdoing.

Naik, N., Jenkins, P., Kerby, B., Sloane, J., Yang, L..  2018.  Fuzzy Logic Aided Intelligent Threat Detection in Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance 5500 Series Firewalls. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE). :1-8.

Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA) 5500 Series Firewall is amongst the most popular and technically advanced for securing organisational networks and systems. One of its most valuable features is its threat detection function which is available on every version of the firewall running a software version of 8.0(2) or higher. Threat detection operates at layers 3 and 4 to determine a baseline for network traffic, analysing packet drop statistics and generating threat reports based on traffic patterns. Despite producing a large volume of statistical information relating to several security events, further effort is required to mine and visually report more significant information and conclude the security status of the network. There are several commercial off-the-shelf tools available to undertake this task, however, they are expensive and may require a cloud subscription. Furthermore, if the information transmitted over the network is sensitive or requires confidentiality, the involvement of a third party or a third-party tool may place organisational security at risk. Therefore, this paper presents a fuzzy logic aided intelligent threat detection solution, which is a cost-free, intuitive and comprehensible solution, enhancing and simplifying the threat detection process for all. In particular, it employs a fuzzy reasoning system based on the threat detection statistics, and presents results/threats through a developed dashboard user interface, for ease of understanding for administrators and users. The paper further demonstrates the successful utilisation of a fuzzy reasoning system for selected and prioritised security events in basic threat detection, although it can be extended to encompass more complex situations, such as complete basic threat detection, advanced threat detection, scanning threat detection, and customised feature based threat detection.