Visible to the public Biblio

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2020-07-27
Torkura, Kennedy A., Sukmana, Muhammad I.H., Cheng, Feng, Meinel, Christoph.  2019.  Security Chaos Engineering for Cloud Services: Work In Progress. 2019 IEEE 18th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA). :1–3.
The majority of security breaches in cloud infrastructure in recent years are caused by human errors and misconfigured resources. Novel security models are imperative to overcome these issues. Such models must be customer-centric, continuous, not focused on traditional security paradigms like intrusion detection and adopt proactive techniques. Thus, this paper proposes CloudStrike, a cloud security system that implements the principles of Chaos Engineering to enable the aforementioned properties. Chaos Engineering is an emerging discipline employed to prevent non-security failures in cloud infrastructure via Fault Injection Testing techniques. CloudStrike employs similar techniques with a focus on injecting failures that impact security i.e. integrity, confidentiality and availability. Essentially, CloudStrike leverages the relationship between dependability and security models. Preliminary experiments provide insightful and prospective results.
Sandosh, S., Govindasamy, V., Akila, G., Deepasangavy, K., FemidhaBegam, S., Sowmiya, B..  2019.  A Progressive Intrusion Detection System through Event Processing: Challenges and Motivation. 2019 IEEE International Conference on System, Computation, Automation and Networking (ICSCAN). :1–7.
In this contemporary world, working on internet is a crucial task owing to the security threats in the network like intrusions, injections etc. To recognize and reduce these system attacks, analysts and academicians have introduced Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) with the various standards and applications. There are different types of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) arise to solve the attacks in various environments. Though IDS is more powerful, it produces the results on the abnormal behaviours said to be attacks with false positive and false negative rates which leads to inaccurate detection rate. The other problem is that, there are more number of attacks arising simultaneously with different behaviour being detected by the IDS with high false positive rates which spoils the strength and lifetime of the system, system's efficiency and fault tolerance. Complex Event Processing (CEP) plays a vital role in handling the alerts as events in real time environment which mainly helps to recognize and reduce the redundant alerts.CEP identifies and analyses relationships between events in real time, allowing the system to proactively take efficient actions to respond to specific alerts.In this study, the tendency of Complex Event Processing (CEP) over Intrusion Detection System (IDS) which offers effective handling of the alerts received from IDS in real time and the promotion of the better detection of the attacks are discussed. The merits and challenges of CEP over IDS described in this paper helps to understand and educate the IDS systems to focus on how to tackle the dynamic attacks and its alerts in real time.
Tun, May Thet, Nyaung, Dim En, Phyu, Myat Pwint.  2019.  Performance Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Streaming Transactions Using Apache Kafka and Spark Streaming. 2019 International Conference on Advanced Information Technologies (ICAIT). :25–30.
In the information era, the size of network traffic is complex because of massive Internet-based services and rapid amounts of data. The more network traffic has enhanced, the more cyberattacks have dramatically increased. Therefore, cybersecurity intrusion detection has been a challenge in the current research area in recent years. The Intrusion detection system requires high-level protection and detects modern and complex attacks with more accuracy. Nowadays, big data analytics is the main key to solve marketing, security and privacy in an extremely competitive financial market and government. If a huge amount of stream data flows within a short period time, it is difficult to analyze real-time decision making. Performance analysis is extremely important for administrators and developers to avoid bottlenecks. The paper aims to reduce time-consuming by using Apache Kafka and Spark Streaming. Experiments on the UNSWNB-15 dataset indicate that the integration of Apache Kafka and Spark Streaming can perform better in terms of processing time and fault-tolerance on the huge amount of data. According to the results, the fault tolerance can be provided by the multiple brokers of Kafka and parallel recovery of Spark Streaming. And then, the multiple partitions of Apache Kafka increase the processing time in the integration of Apache Kafka and Spark Streaming.
Xu, Shuiling, Ji, Xinsheng, Liu, Wenyan.  2019.  Enhancing the Reliability of NFV with Heterogeneous Backup. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :923–927.
Virtual network function provides tenant with flexible and scalable end-to-end service chaining in the cloud computing and data center environments. However, comparing with traditional hardware network devices, the uncertainty caused by software and virtualization of Network Function Virtualization expands the attack surface, making the network node vulnerable to a certain types of attacks. The existing approaches for solving the problem of reliability are able to reduce the impact of failure of physical devices, but pay little attention to the attack scenario, which could be persistent and covert. In this paper, a heterogeneous backup strategy is brought up, enhancing the intrusion tolerance of NFV SFC by dynamically switching the VNF executor. The validity of the method is verified by simulation and game theory analysis.
Liem, Clifford, Murdock, Dan, Williams, Andrew, Soukup, Martin.  2019.  Highly Available, Self-Defending, and Malicious Fault-Tolerant Systems for Automotive Cybersecurity. 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :24–27.
With the growing number of electronic features in cars and their connections to the cloud, smartphones, road-side equipment, and neighboring cars the need for effective cybersecurity is paramount. Beyond the concern of brand degradation, warranty fraud, and recalls, what keeps manufacturers up at night is the threat of malicious attacks which can affect the safety of vehicles on the road. Would any single protection technique provide the security needed over the long lifetime of a vehicle? We present a new methodology for automotive cybersecurity where the designs are made to withstand attacks in the future based on the concepts of high availability and malicious fault-tolerance through self-defending techniques. When a system has an intrusion, self-defending technologies work to contain the breach using integrity verification, self-healing, and fail-over techniques to keep the system running.
Babasaheb, Desai Rahul, Raman, Indhumathi.  2018.  Survey on Fault Tolerance and Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). 2018 3rd International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT). :1–5.
Providing fault tolerance in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) is very tricky activity as nodes migrate from one place to other place and changes network topology. Also MANET is very susceptible for various attacks like DoS attacks etc. So providing security to MANET is also very difficult job. Multipath protocols provide better results than unipath protocols. Multipath protocols provide fault tolerance but many multipath protocols for MANETs not targeted security issues. Distributed and cooperative security that means Intrusion Detection System (IDS) gives better security to MANETs. In this paper we have discussed many confronts and concerns regarding fault tolerance and IDS.
Zheng, Junjun, Okamura, Hiroyuki, Dohi, Tadashi.  2018.  A Pull-Type Security Patch Management of an Intrusion Tolerant System Under a Periodic Vulnerability Checking Strategy. 2018 IEEE 42nd Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 01:630–635.
In this paper, we consider a stochastic model to evaluate the system availability of an intrusion tolerant system (ITS), where the system undergoes the patch management with a periodic vulnerability checking strategy, i.e., a pull-type patch management. Based on the model, this paper discusses the appropriate timing for patch applying. In particular, the paper models the attack behavior of adversary and the system behaviors under reactive defense strategies by a composite stochastic reward net (SRN). Furthermore, we formulate the interval availability by applying the phase-type (PH) approximation to solve the Markov regenerative process (MRGP) models derived from the SRNs. Numerical experiments are conducted to study the sensitivity of the system availability with respect to the number of checking.
Babay, Amy, Schultz, John, Tantillo, Thomas, Amir, Yair.  2018.  Toward an Intrusion-Tolerant Power Grid: Challenges and Opportunities. 2018 IEEE 38th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :1321–1326.
While cyberattacks pose a relatively new challenge for power grid control systems, commercial cloud systems have needed to address similar threats for many years. However, technology and approaches developed for cloud systems do not necessarily transfer directly to the power grid, due to important differences between the two domains. We discuss our experience adapting intrusion-tolerant cloud technologies to the power domain and describe the challenges we have encountered and potential directions for overcoming those obstacles.
Babay, Amy, Tantillo, Thomas, Aron, Trevor, Platania, Marco, Amir, Yair.  2018.  Network-Attack-Resilient Intrusion-Tolerant SCADA for the Power Grid. 2018 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :255–266.
As key components of the power grid infrastructure, Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are likely to be targeted by nation-state-level attackers willing to invest considerable resources to disrupt the power grid. We present Spire, the first intrusion-tolerant SCADA system that is resilient to both system-level compromises and sophisticated network-level attacks and compromises. We develop a novel architecture that distributes the SCADA system management across three or more active sites to ensure continuous availability in the presence of simultaneous intrusions and network attacks. A wide-area deployment of Spire, using two control centers and two data centers spanning 250 miles, delivered nearly 99.999% of all SCADA updates initiated over a 30-hour period within 100ms. This demonstrates that Spire can meet the latency requirements of SCADA for the power grid.
McBride, Marci, Mitchell, Robert.  2018.  Enhanced dynamic cyber zone defense. 2018 IEEE 8th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :66–71.
Information security is a top priority in government and industry because high consequence cyber incidents continue with regularity. The blue teamers that protect cyber systems cannot stop or even know about all these incidents, so they must take measures to tolerate these incursions in addition to preventing and detecting them. We propose dynamically compartmentalizing subject networks into collaboration zones and limiting the communication between these zones. In this article, we demonstrate this technique's effect on the attacker and the defender for various parameter settings using discrete-time simulation. Based on our results, we conclude that dynamic cyber zone defense is a viable intrusion tolerance technique and should be considered for technology transfer.
Liu, Dongqi.  2018.  A Creditability-based Intrusion Tolerant Method for Protection Equipment in Transformer Substations. 2018 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED). :1489–1492.
With the development of the interconnection of all things(IoT), a large number of mobile terminal devices with multiple users access the distribution network, and gradually form an open and interconnected network environment, which brings new challenges to the security and protection of the distribution network. In this paper, a method of analyzing the sensing data of the digital substation is proposed, which can prevent the abnormal data from causing the malfunction of the protective relays by calculating the creditability of the sensing data. Creditability calculation algorithm as well as the implementation of the intrusion tolerance strategy are studied throughout the paper. The simulation results show that the proposed creditability-based intrusion-tolerant(CIT) algorithm can ensure that the protective equipment have no protective malfunction from the false instructions or false data attacks, and the proposed intrusion tolerant algorithm has little affect on the real-time performance of the original protection algorithm, hence it has some practical value.
Rani, Sonam, Jain, Sushma.  2018.  Hybrid Approach to Detect Network Based Intrusion. 2018 Fourth International Conference on Computing Communication Control and Automation (ICCUBEA). :1–5.
In internet based communication, various types of attacks have been evolved. Hence, attacker easily breaches the securities. Traditional intrusion detection techniques to observe these attacks have failed and thus hefty systems are required to remove these attacks before they expose entire network. With the ability of artificial intelligence systems to adapt high computational speed, boost fault tolerance, and error resilience against noisy information, a hybrid particle swarm optimization(PSO) fuzzy rule based inference engine has been designed in this paper. The fuzzy logic based on degree of truth while the PSO algorithm based on population stochastic technique helps in learning from the scenario, thus their combination will increase the toughness of intrusion detection system. The proposed network intrusion detection system will be able to classify normal as well as anomalism behaviour in the network. DARPA-KDD99 dataset examined on this system to address the behaviour of each connection on network and compared with existing system. This approach improves the result on the basis of precision, recall and F1-score.
Vöelp, Marcus, Esteves-Verissimo, Paulo.  2018.  Intrusion-Tolerant Autonomous Driving. 2018 IEEE 21st International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC). :130–133.
Fully autonomous driving is one if not the killer application for the upcoming decade of real-time systems. However, in the presence of increasingly sophisticated attacks by highly skilled and well equipped adversarial teams, autonomous driving must not only guarantee timeliness and hence safety. It must also consider the dependability of the software concerning these properties while the system is facing attacks. For distributed systems, fault-and-intrusion tolerance toolboxes already offer a few solutions to tolerate partial compromise of the system behind a majority of healthy components operating in consensus. In this paper, we present a concept of an intrusion-tolerant architecture for autonomous driving. In such a scenario, predictability and recovery challenges arise from the inclusion of increasingly more complex software on increasingly less predictable hardware. We highlight how an intrusion tolerant design can help solve these issues by allowing timeliness to emerge from a majority of complex components being fast enough, often enough while preserving safety under attack through pre-computed fail safes.
Lambert, Christoph, Völp, Marcus, Decouchant, Jérémie, Esteves-Verissimo, Paulo.  2018.  Towards Real-Time-Aware Intrusion Tolerance. 2018 IEEE 37th Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS). :269–270.
Technologies such as Industry 4.0 or assisted/autonomous driving are relying on highly customized cyber-physical realtime systems. Those systems are designed to match functional safety regulations and requirements such as EN ISO 13849, EN IEC 62061 or ISO 26262. However, as systems - especially vehicles - are becoming more connected and autonomous, they become more likely to suffer from new attack vectors. New features may meet the corresponding safety requirements but they do not consider adversaries intruding through security holes with the purpose of bringing vehicles into unsafe states. As research goal, we want to bridge the gap between security and safety in cyber-physical real-time systems by investigating real-time-aware intrusion-tolerant architectures for automotive use-cases.
2020-04-17
Gorbenko, Anatoliy, Romanovsky, Alexander, Tarasyuk, Olga, Biloborodov, Oleksandr.  2020.  From Analyzing Operating System Vulnerabilities to Designing Multiversion Intrusion-Tolerant Architectures. IEEE Transactions on Reliability. 69:22—39.

This paper analyzes security problems of modern computer systems caused by vulnerabilities in their operating systems (OSs). Our scrutiny of widely used enterprise OSs focuses on their vulnerabilities by examining the statistical data available on how vulnerabilities in these systems are disclosed and eliminated, and by assessing their criticality. This is done by using statistics from both the National Vulnerabilities Database and the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures System. The specific technical areas the paper covers are the quantitative assessment of forever-day vulnerabilities, estimation of days-of-grey-risk, the analysis of the vulnerabilities severity and their distributions by attack vector and impact on security properties. In addition, the study aims to explore those vulnerabilities that have been found across a diverse range of OSs. This leads us to analyzing how different intrusion-tolerant architectures deploying the OS diversity impact availability, integrity, and confidentiality.

2020-03-16
Babay, Amy, Schultz, John, Tantillo, Thomas, Beckley, Samuel, Jordan, Eamon, Ruddell, Kevin, Jordan, Kevin, Amir, Yair.  2019.  Deploying Intrusion-Tolerant SCADA for the Power Grid. 2019 49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :328–335.

While there has been considerable research on making power grid Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems resilient to attacks, the problem of transitioning these technologies into deployed SCADA systems remains largely unaddressed. We describe our experience and lessons learned in deploying an intrusion-tolerant SCADA system in two realistic environments: a red team experiment in 2017 and a power plant test deployment in 2018. These experiences resulted in technical lessons related to developing an intrusion-tolerant system with a real deployable application, preparing a system for deployment in a hostile environment, and supporting protocol assumptions in that hostile environment. We also discuss some meta-lessons regarding the cultural aspects of transitioning academic research into practice in the power industry.

2020-02-26
Abraham, Jacob A..  2019.  Resiliency Demands on Next Generation Critical Embedded Systems. 2019 IEEE 25th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS). :135–138.

Emerging intelligent systems have stringent constraints including cost and power consumption. When they are used in critical applications, resiliency becomes another key requirement. Much research into techniques for fault tolerance and dependability has been successfully applied to highly critical systems, such as those used in space, where cost is not an overriding constraint. Further, most resiliency techniques were focused on dealing with failures in the hardware and bugs in the software. The next generation of systems used in critical applications will also have to be tolerant to test escapes after manufacturing, soft errors and transients in the electronics, hardware bugs, hardware and software Trojans and viruses, as well as intrusions and other security attacks during operation. This paper will assess the impact of these threats on the results produced by a critical system, and proposed solutions to each of them. It is argued that run-time checks at the application-level are necessary to deal with errors in the results.

2020-02-10
Zheng, Junjun, Okamura, Hiroyuki, Dohi, Tadashi.  2019.  Security Evaluation of a VM-Based Intrusion-Tolerant System with Pull-Type Patch Management. 2019 IEEE 19th International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE). :156–163.

Computer security has gained more and more attention in a public over the last years, since computer systems are suffering from significant and increasing security threats that cause security breaches by exploiting software vulnerabilities. The most efficient way to ensure the system security is to patch the vulnerable system before a malicious attack occurs. Besides the commonly-used push-type patch management, the pull-type patch management is also adopted. The main issues in the pull-type patch management are two-fold; when to check the vulnerability information and when to apply a patch? This paper considers the security patch management for a virtual machine (VM) based intrusion tolerant system (ITS), where the system undergoes the patch management with a periodic vulnerability checking strategy, and evaluates the system security from the availability aspect. A composite stochastic reward net (SRN) model is applied to capture the attack behavior of adversary and the defense behaviors of system. Two availability measures; interval availability and point-wise availability are formulated to quantify the system security via phase expansion. The proposed approach and metrics not only enable us to quantitatively assess the system security, but also provide insights on the patch management. In numerical experiments, we evaluate effects of the intrusion rate and the number of vulnerability checking on the system security.

2020-01-21
Zhan, Xin, Yuan, Huabing, Wang, Xiaodong.  2019.  Research on Block Chain Network Intrusion Detection System. 2019 International Conference on Computer Network, Electronic and Automation (ICCNEA). :191–196.

With the development of computer technology and the popularization of network, network brings great convenience to colleagues and risks to people from all walks of life all over the world. The data in the network world is growing explosively. Various kinds of intrusions are emerging in an endless stream. The means of network intrusion are becoming more and more complex. The intrusions occur at any time and the security threats become more and more serious. Defense alone cannot meet the needs of system security. It is also necessary to monitor the behavior of users in the network at any time and detect new intrusions that may occur at any time. This will not only make people's normal network needs cannot be guaranteed, but also face great network risks. So that people not only rely on defensive means to protect network security, this paper explores block chain network intrusion detection system. Firstly, the characteristics of block chain are briefly introduced, and the challenges of block chain network intrusion security and privacy are proposed. Secondly, the intrusion detection system of WLAN is designed experimentally. Finally, the conclusion analysis of block chain network intrusion detection system is discussed.

2017-12-28
Chatti, S., Ounelli, H..  2017.  Fault Tolerance in a Cloud of Databases Environment. 2017 31st International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA). :166–171.

We will focused the concept of serializability in order to ensure the correct processing of transactions. However, both serializability and relevant properties within transaction-based applications might be affected. Ensure transaction serialization in corrupt systems is one of the demands that can handle properly interrelated transactions, which prevents blocking situations that involve the inability to commit either transaction or related sub-transactions. In addition some transactions has been marked as malicious and they compromise the serialization of running system. In such context, this paper proposes an approach for the processing of transactions in a cloud of databases environment able to secure serializability in running transactions whether the system is compromised or not. We propose also an intrusion tolerant scheme to ensure the continuity of the running transactions. A case study and a simulation result are shown to illustrate the capabilities of the suggested system.

Mondal, S. K., Sabyasachi, A. S., Muppala, J. K..  2017.  On Dependability, Cost and Security Trade-Off in Cloud Data Centers. 2017 IEEE 22nd Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing (PRDC). :11–19.

The performance, dependability, and security of cloud service systems are vital for the ongoing operation, control, and support. Thus, controlled improvement in service requires a comprehensive analysis and systematic identification of the fundamental underlying constituents of cloud using a rigorous discipline. In this paper, we introduce a framework which helps identifying areas for potential cloud service enhancements. A cloud service cannot be completed if there is a failure in any of its underlying resources. In addition, resources are kept offline for scheduled maintenance. We use redundant resources to mitigate the impact of failures/maintenance for ensuring performance and dependability; which helps enhancing security as well. For example, at least 4 replicas are required to defend the intrusion of a single instance or a single malicious attack/fault as defined by Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT). Data centers with high performance, dependability, and security are outsourced to the cloud computing environment with greater flexibility of cost of owing the computing infrastructure. In this paper, we analyze the effectiveness of redundant resource usage in terms of dependability metric and cost of service deployment based on the priority of service requests. The trade-off among dependability, cost, and security under different redundancy schemes are characterized through the comprehensive analytical models.

Nguyen, Q. L., Sood, A..  2017.  Scalability of Cloud Based SCIT-MTD. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :581–582.

In order to support large volume of transactions and number of users, as estimated by the load demand modeling, a system needs to scale in order to continue to satisfy required quality attributes. In particular, for systems exposed to the Internet, scaling up may increase the attack surface susceptible to malicious intrusions. The new proactive approach based on the concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) should be considered as a complement to current cybersecurity protection. In this paper, we analyze the scalability of the Self Cleansing Intrusion Tolerance (SCIT) MTD approach using Cloud infrastructure services. By applying the model of MTD with continuous rotation and diversity to a multi-node or multi-instance system, we argue that the effectiveness of the approach is dependent on the share-nothing architecture pattern of the large system. Furthermore, adding more resources to the MTD mechanism can compensate to achieve the desired level of secure availability.

He, S., Shu, Y., Cui, X., Wei, C., Chen, J., Shi, Z..  2017.  A Trust Management Based Framework for Fault-Tolerant Barrier Coverage in Sensor Networks. 2017 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :1–6.

Barrier coverage has been widely adopted to prevent unauthorized invasion of important areas in sensor networks. As sensors are typically placed outdoors, they are susceptible to getting faulty. Previous works assumed that faulty sensors are easy to recognize, e.g., they may stop functioning or output apparently deviant sensory data. In practice, it is, however, extremely difficult to recognize faulty sensors as well as their invalid output. We, in this paper, propose a novel fault-tolerant intrusion detection algorithm (TrusDet) based on trust management to address this challenging issue. TrusDet comprises of three steps: i) sensor-level detection, ii) sink-level decision by collective voting, and iii) trust management and fault determination. In the Step i) and ii), TrusDet divides the surveillance area into a set of fine- grained subareas and exploits temporal and spatial correlation of sensory output among sensors in different subareas to yield a more accurate and robust performance of barrier coverage. In the Step iii), TrusDet builds a trust management based framework to determine the confidence level of sensors being faulty. We implement TrusDet on HC- SR501 infrared sensors and demonstrate that TrusDet has a desired performance.

Gangadhar, S., Sterbenz, J. P. G..  2017.  Machine learning aided traffic tolerance to improve resilience for software defined networks. 2017 9th International Workshop on Resilient Networks Design and Modeling (RNDM). :1–7.

Software Defined Networks (SDNs) have gained prominence recently due to their flexible management and superior configuration functionality of the underlying network. SDNs, with OpenFlow as their primary implementation, allow for the use of a centralised controller to drive the decision making for all the supported devices in the network and manage traffic through routing table changes for incoming flows. In conventional networks, machine learning has been shown to detect malicious intrusion, and classify attacks such as DoS, user to root, and probe attacks. In this work, we extend the use of machine learning to improve traffic tolerance for SDNs. To achieve this, we extend the functionality of the controller to include a resilience framework, ReSDN, that incorporates machine learning to be able to distinguish DoS attacks, focussing on a neptune attack for our experiments. Our model is trained using the MIT KDD 1999 dataset. The system is developed as a module on top of the POX controller platform and evaluated using the Mininet simulator.

Esteves-Verissimo, P., Völp, M., Decouchant, J., Rahli, V., Rocha, F..  2017.  Meeting the Challenges of Critical and Extreme Dependability and Security. 2017 IEEE 22nd Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing (PRDC). :92–97.

The world is becoming an immense critical information infrastructure, with the fast and increasing entanglement of utilities, telecommunications, Internet, cloud, and the emerging IoT tissue. This may create enormous opportunities, but also brings about similarly extreme security and dependability risks. We predict an increase in very sophisticated targeted attacks, or advanced persistent threats (APT), and claim that this calls for expanding the frontier of security and dependability methods and techniques used in our current CII. Extreme threats require extreme defenses: we propose resilience as a unifying paradigm to endow systems with the capability of dynamically and automatically handling extreme adversary power, and sustaining perpetual and unattended operation. In this position paper, we present this vision and describe our methodology, as well as the assurance arguments we make for the ultra-resilient components and protocols they enable, illustrated with case studies in progress.