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R P, Jagadeesh Chandra Bose, Singi, Kapil, Kaulgud, Vikrant, Phokela, Kanchanjot Kaur, Podder, Sanjay.  2019.  Framework for Trustworthy Software Development. 2019 34th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering Workshop (ASEW). :45–48.
Intelligent software applications are becoming ubiquitous and pervasive affecting various aspects of our lives and livelihoods. At the same time, the risks to which these systems expose the organizations and end users are growing dramatically. Trustworthiness of software applications is becoming a paramount necessity. Trust is to be regarded as a first-class citizen in the total product life cycle and should be addressed across all stages of software development. Trust can be looked at from two facets: one at an algorithmic level (e.g., bias-free, discrimination-aware, explainable and interpretable techniques) and the other at a process level by making development processes more transparent, auditable, and adhering to regulations and best practices. In this paper, we address the latter and propose a blockchain enabled governance framework for building trustworthy software. Our framework supports the recording, monitoring, and analysis of various activities throughout the application development life cycle thereby bringing in transparency and auditability. It facilitates the specification of regulations and best practices and verifies for its adherence raising alerts of non-compliance and prescribes remedial measures.
Repetto, M., Carrega, A., Lamanna, G..  2019.  An architecture to manage security services for cloud applications. 2019 4th International Conference on Computing, Communications and Security (ICCCS). :1—8.
The uptake of virtualization and cloud technologies has pushed novel development and operation models for the software, bringing more agility and automation. Unfortunately, cyber-security paradigms have not evolved at the same pace and are not yet able to effectively tackle the progressive disappearing of a sharp security perimeter. In this paper, we describe a novel cyber-security architecture for cloud-based distributed applications and network services. We propose a security orchestrator that controls pervasive, lightweight, and programmable security hooks embedded in the virtual functions that compose the cloud application, pursuing better visibility and more automation in this domain. Our approach improves existing management practice for service orchestration, by decoupling the management of the business logic from that of security. We also describe the current implementation stage for a programmable monitoring, inspection, and enforcement framework, which represents the ground technology for the realization of the whole architecture.
Ranaweera, Pasika, Jurcut, Anca Delia, Liyanage, Madhusanka.  2019.  Realizing Multi-Access Edge Computing Feasibility: Security Perspective. 2019 IEEE Conference on Standards for Communications and Networking (CSCN). :1–7.
Internet of Things (IoT) and 5G are emerging technologies that prompt a mobile service platform capable of provisioning billions of communication devices which enable ubiquitous computing and ambient intelligence. These novel approaches are guaranteeing gigabit-level bandwidth, ultra-low latency and ultra-high storage capacity for their subscribers. To achieve these limitations, ETSI has introduced the paradigm of Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) for creating efficient data processing architecture extending the cloud computing capabilities in the Radio Access Network (RAN). Despite the gained enhancements to the mobile network, MEC is subjected to security challenges raised from the heterogeneity of IoT services, intricacies in integrating virtualization technologies, and maintaining the performance guarantees of the mobile networks (i.e. 5G). In this paper, we are identifying the probable threat vectors in a typical MEC deployment scenario that comply with the ETSI standards. We analyse the identified threat vectors and propose solutions to mitigate them.
Alioto, Massimo, Taneja, Sachin.  2019.  Enabling Ubiquitous Hardware Security via Energy-Efficient Primitives and Systems : (Invited Paper). 2019 IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC). :1–8.
Security down to hardware (HW) has become a fundamental requirement in highly-connected and ubiquitously deployed systems, as a result of the recent discovery of a wide range of vulnerabilities in commercial devices, as well as the affordability of several attacks that were traditionally considered unlikely. HW security is now a fundamental requirement in view of the massive attack surface that they expose, and the substantial power penalty entailed by solutions at higher levels of abstraction.In large-scale networks of connected devices, attacks need to be counteracted at low cost down to individual nodes, which need to be identified or authenticated securely, and protect confidentiality and integrity of the data that is sensed, stored, processed and wirelessly exchanged. In many security-sensitive applications, physical attacks against individual chips need to be counteracted to truly enable an end-to-end chain of trust from nodes to cloud and actuation (i.e., always-on security). These requirements have motivated the on-going global research and development effort to assure hardware security at low cost and power penalty down to low-end devices (i.e., ubiquitous security).This paper provides a fresh overview of the fundamentals, the design requirements and the state of the art in primitives for HW security. Challenges and future directions are discussed using recent silicon demonstrations as case studies.
Chowdhury, Mohammad Jabed Morshed, Colman, Alan, Kabir, Muhammad Ashad, Han, Jun, Sarda, Paul.  2019.  Continuous Authorization in Subject-Driven Data Sharing Using Wearable Devices. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :327–333.
Sharing personal data with other people or organizations over the web has become a common phenomena of our modern life. This type of sharing is usually managed by access control mechanisms that include access control model and policies. However, these models are designed from the organizational perspective and do not provide sufficient flexibility and control to the individuals. Therefore, individuals often cannot control sharing of their personal data based on their personal context. In addition, the existing context-aware access control models usually check contextual condition once at the beginning of the access and do not evaluate the context during an on-going access. Moreover, individuals do not have control to define how often they want to evaluate the context condition for an ongoing access. Wearable devices such as Fitbit and Apple Smart Watch have recently become increasingly popular. This has made it possible to gather an individual's real-time contextual information (e.g., location, blood-pressure etc.) which can be used to enforce continuous authorization to the individual's data resources. In this paper, we introduce a novel data sharing policy model for continuous authorization in subject-driven data sharing. A software prototype has been implemented employing a wearable device to demonstrate continuous authorization. Our continuous authorization framework provides more control to the individuals by enabling revocation of on-going access to shared data if the specified context condition becomes invalid.
Li, Nan, Varadharajan, Vijay, Nepal, Surya.  2019.  Context-Aware Trust Management System for IoT Applications with Multiple Domains. 2019 IEEE 39th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :1138–1148.
The Internet of Things (IoT) provides connectivity between heterogeneous devices in different applications, such as smart wildlife, supply chain and traffic management. Trust management system (TMS) assesses the trustworthiness of service with respect to its quality. Under different context information, a service provider may be trusted in one context but not in another. The existing context-aware trust models usually store trust values under different contexts and search the closest (to a given context) record to evaluate the trustworthiness of a service. However, it is not suitable for distributed resource-constrained IoT devices which have small memory and low power. Reputation systems are applied in many trust models where trustor obtains recommendations from others. In context-based trust evaluation, it requires interactive queries to find relevant information from remote devices. The communication overhead and energy consumption are issues in low power networks like 6LoWPAN. In this paper, we propose a new context-aware trust model for lightweight IoT devices. The proposed model provides a trustworthiness overview of a service provider without storing past behavior records, that is, constant size storage. The proposed model allows a trustor to decide the significance of context items. This could result in distinctive decisions under the same trustworthiness record. We also show the performance of the proposed model under different attacks.
Chollet, Stéphanie, Pion, Laurent, Barbot, Nicolas, Michel, Clément.  2018.  Secure IoT for a Pervasive Platform. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops). :113-118.

Nowadays, the proliferation of smart, communication-enable devices is opening up many new opportunities of pervasive applications. A major requirement of pervasive applications is to be secured. The complexity to secure pervasive systems is to address a end-to-end security level: from the device to the services according to the entire life cycle of devices, applications and platform. In this article, we propose a solution combining both hardware and software elements to secure communications between devices and pervasive platform based on certificates issued from a Public Key Infrastructure. Our solution is implemented and validated with a real device extended by a secure element and our own Public Key Infrastructure.

Trunov, Artem S., Voronova, Lilia I., Voronov, Vyacheslav I., Ayrapetov, Dmitriy P..  2018.  Container Cluster Model Development for Legacy Applications Integration in Scientific Software System. 2018 IEEE International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT QM IS). :815–819.
Feature of modern scientific information systems is their integration with computing applications, providing distributed computer simulation and intellectual processing of Big Data using high-efficiency computing. Often these software systems include legacy applications in different programming languages, with non-standardized interfaces. To solve the problem of applications integration, containerization systems are using that allow to configure environment in the shortest time to deploy software system. However, there are no such systems for computer simulation systems with large number of nodes. The article considers the actual task of combining containers into a cluster, integrating legacy applications to manage the distributed software system MD-SLAG-MELT v.14, which supports high-performance computing and visualization of the computer experiments results. Testing results of the container cluster including automatic load sharing module for MD-SLAG-MELT system v.14. are given.
Arfaoui, A., Kribeche, A., Boudia, O. R. M., Letaifa, A. Ben, Senouci, S. M., Hamdi, M..  2018.  Context-Aware Authorization and Anonymous Authentication in Wireless Body Area Networks. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–7.

With the pervasiveness of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the rapid progress of wireless communications, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have attracted significant interest from the research community in recent years. As a promising networking paradigm, it is adopted to improve the healthcare services and create a highly reliable ubiquitous healthcare system. However, the flourish of WBANs still faces many challenges related to security and privacy preserving. In such pervasive environment where the context conditions dynamically and frequently change, context-aware solutions are needed to satisfy the users' changing needs. Therefore, it is essential to design an adaptive access control scheme that can simultaneously authorize and authenticate users while considering the dynamic context changes. In this paper, we propose a context-aware access control and anonymous authentication approach based on a secure and efficient Hybrid Certificateless Signcryption (H-CLSC) scheme. The proposed scheme combines the merits of Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Signcryption (CP-ABSC) and Identity-Based Broadcast Signcryption (IBBSC) in order to satisfy the security requirements and provide an adaptive contextual privacy. From a security perspective, it achieves confidentiality, integrity, anonymity, context-aware privacy, public verifiability, and ciphertext authenticity. Moreover, the key escrow and public key certificate problems are solved through this mechanism. Performance analysis demonstrates the efficiency and the effectiveness of the proposed scheme compared to benchmark schemes in terms of functional security, storage, communication and computational cost.

Yu, Z., Du, H., Xiao, D., Wang, Z., Han, Q., Guo, B..  2018.  Recognition of Human Computer Operations Based on Keystroke Sensing by Smartphone Microphone. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. 5:1156–1168.

Human computer operations such as writing documents and playing games have become popular in our daily lives. These activities (especially if identified in a non-intrusive manner) can be used to facilitate context-aware services. In this paper, we propose to recognize human computer operations through keystroke sensing with a smartphone. Specifically, we first utilize the microphone embedded in a smartphone to sense the input audio from a computer keyboard. We then identify keystrokes using fingerprint identification techniques. The determined keystrokes are then corrected with a word recognition procedure, which utilizes the relations of adjacent letters in a word. Finally, by fusing both semantic and acoustic features, a classification model is constructed to recognize four typical human computer operations: 1) chatting; 2) coding; 3) writing documents; and 4) playing games. We recruited 15 volunteers to complete these operations, and evaluated the proposed approach from multiple aspects in realistic environments. Experimental results validated the effectiveness of our approach.

Castiglione, A., Choo, K. Raymond, Nappi, M., Ricciardi, S..  2017.  Context Aware Ubiquitous Biometrics in Edge of Military Things. IEEE Cloud Computing. 4:16–20.

Edge computing can potentially play a crucial role in enabling user authentication and monitoring through context-aware biometrics in military/battlefield applications. For example, in Internet of Military Things (IoMT) or Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT),an increasing number of ubiquitous sensing and computing devices worn by military personnel and embedded within military equipment (combat suit, instrumented helmets, weapon systems, etc.) are capable of acquiring a variety of static and dynamic biometrics (e.g., face, iris, periocular, fingerprints, heart-rate, gait, gestures, and facial expressions). Such devices may also be capable of collecting operational context data. These data collectively can be used to perform context-adaptive authentication in-the-wild and continuous monitoring of soldier's psychophysical condition in a dedicated edge computing architecture.

Yousef, K. M. A., AlMajali, A., Hasan, R., Dweik, W., Mohd, B..  2017.  Security risk assessment of the PeopleBot mobile robot research platform. 2017 International Conference on Electrical and Computing Technologies and Applications (ICECTA). :1–5.
Nowadays, robots are widely ubiquitous and integral part in our daily lives, which can be seen almost everywhere in industry, hospitals, military, etc. To provide remote access and control, usually robots are connected to local network or to the Internet through WiFi or Ethernet. As such, it is of great importance and of a critical mission to maintain the safety and the security access of such robots. Security threats may result in completely preventing the access and control of the robot. The consequences of this may be catastrophic and may cause an immediate physical damage to the robot. This paper aims to present a security risk assessment of the well-known PeopleBot; a mobile robot platform from Adept MobileRobots Company. Initially, we thoroughly examined security threats related to remote accessing the PeopleBot robot. We conducted an impact-oriented analysis approach on the wireless communication medium; the main method considered to remotely access the PeopleBot robot. Numerous experiments using SSH and server-client applications were conducted, and they demonstrated that certain attacks result in denying remote access service to the PeopleBot robot. Consequently and dangerously the robot becomes unavailable. Finally, we suggested one possible mitigation and provided useful conclusions to raise awareness of possible security threats on the robotic systems; especially when the robots are involved in critical missions or applications.
Chowdhury, S. K., Sen, M..  2017.  Attacks and mitigation techniques on mobile ad hoc network \#x2014; A survey. 2017 International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICEI). :11–18.

A mobile ad hoc network is a type of ad hoc network in which node changes it locations and configures them. It uses wireless medium to communicate with other networks. It also does not possess centralized authority and each node has the ability to perform some tasks. Nodes in this type of network has a routing table depending on which it finds the optimal way to send packets in forward direction but link failure should be updated in node table to encompass that. In civilian environment like meeting rooms, cab networking etc, in military search and rescue operations it has huge application.

Manishankar, S., Arjun, C. S., Kumar, P. R. A..  2017.  An authorized security middleware for managing on demand infrastructure in cloud. 2017 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control (I2C2). :1–5.
Recent increases in the field of infrastructure has led to the emerging of cloud computing a virtualized computing platform. This technology provides a lot of pros like rapid elasticity, ubiquitous network access and on-demand access etc. Compare to other technologies cloud computing provides many essential services. As the elasticity and scalability increases the chance for vulnerability of the system is also high. There are many known and unknown security risks and challenges present in this environment. In this research an environment is proposed which can handle security issues and deploys various security levels. The system handles the security of various infrastructure like VM and also handles the Dynamic infrastructure request control. One of the key feature of proposed approach is Dual authorization in which all account related data will be authorized by two privileged administrators of the cloud. The auto scalability feature of the cloud is be made secure for on-demand service request handling by providing an on-demand scheduler who will process the on-demand request and assign the required infrastructure. Combining these two approaches provides a secure environment for cloud users as well as handle On-demand Infrastructure request.
Ding, W., Wang, J., Lu, K., Zhao, R., Wang, X., Zhu, Y..  2017.  Optimal Cache Management and Routing for Secure Content Delivery in Information-Centric Networks with Network Coding. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing with Applications and 2017 IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications (ISPA/IUCC). :267–274.

Information-Centric Network (ICN) is one of the most promising network architecture to handle the problem of rapid increase of data traffic because it allows in-network cache. ICNs with Linear Network Coding (LNC) can greatly improve the performance of content caching and delivery. In this paper, we propose a Secure Content Caching and Routing (SCCR) framework based on Software Defined Network (SDN) to find the optimal cache management and routing for secure content delivery, which aims to firstly minimize the total cost of cache and bandwidth consumption and then minimize the usage of random chunks to guarantee information theoretical security (ITS). Specifically, we firstly propose the SCCR problem and then introduce the main ideas of the SCCR framework. Next, we formulate the SCCR problem to two Linear Programming (LP) formulations and design the SCCR algorithm based on them to optimally solve the SCCR problem. Finally, extensive simulations are conducted to evaluate the proposed SCCR framework and algorithms.

Alexopoulos, N., Daubert, J., Mühlhäuser, M., Habib, S. M..  2017.  Beyond the Hype: On Using Blockchains in Trust Management for Authentication. 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS. :546–553.

Trust Management (TM) systems for authentication are vital to the security of online interactions, which are ubiquitous in our everyday lives. Various systems, like the Web PKI (X.509) and PGP's Web of Trust are used to manage trust in this setting. In recent years, blockchain technology has been introduced as a panacea to our security problems, including that of authentication, without sufficient reasoning, as to its merits.In this work, we investigate the merits of using open distributed ledgers (ODLs), such as the one implemented by blockchain technology, for securing TM systems for authentication. We formally model such systems, and explore how blockchain can help mitigate attacks against them. After formal argumentation, we conclude that in the context of Trust Management for authentication, blockchain technology, and ODLs in general, can offer considerable advantages compared to previous approaches. Our analysis is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to formally model and argue about the security of TM systems for authentication, based on blockchain technology. To achieve this result, we first provide an abstract model for TM systems for authentication. Then, we show how this model can be conceptually encoded in a blockchain, by expressing it as a series of state transitions. As a next step, we examine five prevalent attacks on TM systems, and provide evidence that blockchain-based solutions can be beneficial to the security of such systems, by mitigating, or completely negating such attacks.

Ehrlich, M., Wisniewski, L., Trsek, H., Mahrenholz, D., Jasperneite, J..  2017.  Automatic Mapping of Cyber Security Requirements to Support Network Slicing in Software-Defined Networks. 2017 22nd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA). :1–4.
The process of digitalisation has an advanced impact on social lives, state affairs, and the industrial automation domain. Ubiquitous networks and the increased requirements in terms of Quality of Service (QoS) create the demand for future-proof network management. Therefore, new technological approaches, such as Software-Defined Networks (SDN) or the 5G Network Slicing concept, are considered. However, the important topic of cyber security has mainly been ignored in the past. Recently, this topic has gained a lot of attention due to frequently reported security related incidents, such as industrial espionage, or production system manipulations. Hence, this work proposes a concept for adding cyber security requirements to future network management paradigms. For this purpose, various security related standards and guidelines are available. However, these approaches are mainly static, require a high amount of manual efforts by experts, and need to be performed in a steady manner. Therefore, the proposed solution contains a dynamic, machine-readable, automatic, continuous, and future-proof approach to model and describe cyber security QoS requirements for the next generation network management.
Ehrlich, M., Wisniewski, L., Trsek, H., Mahrenholz, D., Jasperneite, J..  2017.  Automatic Mapping of Cyber Security Requirements to Support Network Slicing in Software-Defined Networks. 2017 22nd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA). :1–4.
The process of digitalisation has an advanced impact on social lives, state affairs, and the industrial automation domain. Ubiquitous networks and the increased requirements in terms of Quality of Service (QoS) create the demand for future-proof network management. Therefore, new technological approaches, such as Software-Defined Networks (SDN) or the 5G Network Slicing concept, are considered. However, the important topic of cyber security has mainly been ignored in the past. Recently, this topic has gained a lot of attention due to frequently reported security related incidents, such as industrial espionage, or production system manipulations. Hence, this work proposes a concept for adding cyber security requirements to future network management paradigms. For this purpose, various security related standards and guidelines are available. However, these approaches are mainly static, require a high amount of manual efforts by experts, and need to be performed in a steady manner. Therefore, the proposed solution contains a dynamic, machine-readable, automatic, continuous, and future-proof approach to model and describe cyber security QoS requirements for the next generation network management.
Mispan, M. S., Halak, B., Zwolinski, M..  2017.  Lightweight Obfuscation Techniques for Modeling Attacks Resistant PUFs. 2017 IEEE 2nd International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :19–24.

Building lightweight security for low-cost pervasive devices is a major challenge considering the design requirements of a small footprint and low power consumption. Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have emerged as a promising technology to provide a low-cost authentication for such devices. By exploiting intrinsic manufacturing process variations, PUFs are able to generate unique and apparently random chip identifiers. Strong-PUFs represent a variant of PUFs that have been suggested for lightweight authentication applications. Unfortunately, many of the Strong-PUFs have been shown to be susceptible to modelling attacks (i.e., using machine learning techniques) in which an adversary has access to challenge and response pairs. In this study, we propose an obfuscation technique during post-processing of Strong-PUF responses to increase the resilience against machine learning attacks. We conduct machine learning experiments using Support Vector Machines and Artificial Neural Networks on two Strong-PUFs: a 32-bit Arbiter-PUF and a 2-XOR 32-bit Arbiter-PUF. The predictability of the 32-bit Arbiter-PUF is reduced to $\approx$ 70% by using an obfuscation technique. Combining the obfuscation technique with 2-XOR 32-bit Arbiter-PUF helps to reduce the predictability to $\approx$ 64%. More reduction in predictability has been observed in an XOR Arbiter-PUF because this PUF architecture has a good uniformity. The area overhead with an obfuscation technique consumes only 788 and 1080 gate equivalents for the 32-bit Arbiter-PUF and 2-XOR 32-bit Arbiter-PUF, respectively.

Sain, M., Bruce, N., Kim, K. H., Lee, H. J..  2017.  A Communication Security Protocol for Ubiquitous Sensor Networks. 2017 19th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :228–231.

The data accessibility anytime and anywhere is nowadays the key feature for information technology enabled by the ubiquitous network system for huge applications. However, security and privacy are perceived as primary obstacles to its wide adoption when it is applied to the end user application. When sharing sensitive information, personal s' data protection is the paramount requirement for the security and privacy to ensure the trustworthiness of the service provider. To this end, this paper proposes communication security protocol to achieve data protection when a user is sending his sensitive data to the network through gateway. We design a cipher content and key exchange computation process. Finally, the performance analysis of the proposed scheme ensure the honesty of the gateway service provider, since the user has the ability to control who has access to his data by issuing a cryptographic access credential to data users.

Brunner, M., Sillaber, C., Breu, R..  2017.  Towards Automation in Information Security Management Systems. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security (QRS). :160–167.

Establishing and operating an Information Security Management System (ISMS) to protect information values and information systems is in itself a challenge for larger enterprises and small and medium sized businesses alike. A high level of automation is required to reduce operational efforts to an acceptable level when implementing an ISMS. In this paper we present the ADAMANT framework to increase automation in information security management as a whole by establishing a continuous risk-driven and context-aware ISMS that not only automates security controls but considers all highly interconnected information security management tasks. We further illustrate how ADAMANT is suited to establish an ISO 27001 compliant ISMS for small and medium-sized enterprises and how not only the monitoring of security controls but a majority of ISMS related activities can be supported through automated process execution and workflow enactment.

Bhattacharya, S., Kumar, C. R. S..  2017.  Ransomware: The CryptoVirus Subverting Cloud Security. 2017 International Conference on Algorithms, Methodology, Models and Applications in Emerging Technologies (ICAMMAET). :1–6.

Cloud computing presents unlimited prospects for Information Technology (IT) industry and business enterprises alike. Rapid advancement brings a dark underbelly of new vulnerabilities and challenges unfolding with alarming regularity. Although cloud technology provides a ubiquitous environment facilitating business enterprises to conduct business across disparate locations, security effectiveness of this platform interspersed with threats which can bring everything that subscribes to the cloud, to a halt raises questions. However advantages of cloud platforms far outweighs drawbacks and study of new challenges helps overcome drawbacks of this technology. One such emerging security threat is of ransomware attack on the cloud which threatens to hold systems and data on cloud network to ransom with widespread damaging implications. This provides huge scope for IT security specialists to sharpen their skillset to overcome this new challenge. This paper covers the broad cloud architecture, current inherent cloud threat mechanisms, ransomware vulnerabilities posed and suggested methods to mitigate it.

Moustafa, N., Creech, G., Sitnikova, E., Keshk, M..  2017.  Collaborative Anomaly Detection Framework for Handling Big Data of Cloud Computing. 2017 Military Communications and Information Systems Conference (MilCIS). :1–6.

With the ubiquitous computing of providing services and applications at anywhere and anytime, cloud computing is the best option as it offers flexible and pay-per-use based services to its customers. Nevertheless, security and privacy are the main challenges to its success due to its dynamic and distributed architecture, resulting in generating big data that should be carefully analysed for detecting network's vulnerabilities. In this paper, we propose a Collaborative Anomaly Detection Framework (CADF) for detecting cyber attacks from cloud computing environments. We provide the technical functions and deployment of the framework to illustrate its methodology of implementation and installation. The framework is evaluated on the UNSW-NB15 dataset to check its credibility while deploying it in cloud computing environments. The experimental results showed that this framework can easily handle large-scale systems as its implementation requires only estimating statistical measures from network observations. Moreover, the evaluation performance of the framework outperforms three state-of-the-art techniques in terms of false positive rate and detection rate.

Bhattacharjee, S. Das, Yuan, J., Jiaqi, Z., Tan, Y. P..  2017.  Context-aware graph-based analysis for detecting anomalous activities. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME). :1021–1026.

This paper proposes a context-aware, graph-based approach for identifying anomalous user activities via user profile analysis, which obtains a group of users maximally similar among themselves as well as to the query during test time. The main challenges for the anomaly detection task are: (1) rare occurrences of anomalies making it difficult for exhaustive identification with reasonable false-alarm rate, and (2) continuously evolving new context-dependent anomaly types making it difficult to synthesize the activities apriori. Our proposed query-adaptive graph-based optimization approach, solvable using maximum flow algorithm, is designed to fully utilize both mutual similarities among the user models and their respective similarities with the query to shortlist the user profiles for a more reliable aggregated detection. Each user activity is represented using inputs from several multi-modal resources, which helps to localize anomalies from time-dependent data efficiently. Experiments on public datasets of insider threats and gesture recognition show impressive results.

Chaisiri, S., Ko, R. K. L..  2016.  From Reactionary to Proactive Security: Context-Aware Security Policy Management and Optimization under Uncertainty. 2016 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ISPA. :535–543.

At the core of its nature, security is a highly contextual and dynamic challenge. However, current security policy approaches are usually static, and slow to adapt to ever-changing requirements, let alone catching up with reality. In a 2012 Sophos survey, it was stated that a unique malware is created every half a second. This gives a glimpse of the unsustainable nature of a global problem, any improvement in terms of closing the "time window to adapt" would be a significant step forward. To exacerbate the situation, a simple change in threat and attack vector or even an implementation of the so-called "bring-your-own-device" paradigm will greatly change the frequency of changed security requirements and necessary solutions required for each new context. Current security policies also typically overlook the direct and indirect costs of implementation of policies. As a result, technical teams often fail to have the ability to justify the budget to the management, from a business risk viewpoint. This paper considers both the adaptive and cost-benefit aspects of security, and introduces a novel context-aware technique for designing and implementing adaptive, optimized security policies. Our approach leverages the capabilities of stochastic programming models to optimize security policy planning, and our preliminary results demonstrate a promising step towards proactive, context-aware security policies.