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Morales-Caporal, Roberto, Reyes-Galaviz, Adrián S., Federico Casco-Vásquez, J., Martínez-Hernández, Haydee P..  2020.  Development and Implementation of a Relay Switch Based on WiFi Technology. 2020 17th International Conference on Electrical Engineering, Computing Science and Automatic Control (CCE). :1—6.
This article presents the design and development of a relay switch (RS) to handle electrical loads up to 20A using WiFi technology. The hardware design and the implementation methodology are explained, both for the power supply and for the wireless communication that are embedded in the same small printed circuit board. In the same way, the design of the implemented firmware to operate the developed RS is shown. An ESP-12E module is used to achieve wireless communication of the RS, which can be manipulated through a web page using an MQTT protocol or via and iOS or Arduino app. The developed RS presents at least three differentiators in relation to other similar devices on the market: it can handle a higher electrical load, has a design in accordance with national and international security standards and can use different cybersecurity strategies for wireless communication with the purpose of safe and reliable use. Experimental results using a lamp and a single-phase motor as electrical loads demonstrate an excellent performance and reliability of the developed relay switch.
Gallenmüller, Sebastian, Naab, Johannes, Adam, Iris, Carle, Georg.  2020.  5G QoS: Impact of Security Functions on Latency. NOMS 2020 - 2020 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. :1—9.
Network slicing is considered a key enabler to 5th Generation (5G) communication networks. Mobile network operators may deploy network slices-complete logical networks customized for specific services expecting a certain Quality of Service (QoS). New business models like Network Slice-as-a-Service offerings to customers from vertical industries require negotiated Service Level Agreements (SLA), and network providers need automated enforcement mechanisms to assure QoS during instantiation and operation of slices. In this paper, we focus on ultra-reliable low-latency communication (URLLC). We propose a software architecture for security functions based on off-the-shelf hardware and open-source software and demonstrate, through a series of measurements, that the strict requirements of URLLC services can be achieved. As a real-world example, we perform our experiments using the intrusion prevention system (IPS) Snort to demonstrate the impact of security functions on latency. Our findings lead to the creation of a model predicting the system load that still meets the URLLC latency requirement. We fully disclose the artifacts presented in this paper including pcap traces, measurement tools, and plotting scripts at
MILLAR, KYLE, CHENG, ADRIEL, CHEW, HONG GUNN, LIM, CHENG-CHEW.  2020.  Operating System Classification: A Minimalist Approach. 2020 International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics (ICMLC). :143—150.
Operating system (OS) classification is of growing importance to network administrators and cybersecurity analysts alike. The composition of OSs on a network allows for a better quality of device management to be achieved. Additionally, it can be used to identify devices that pose a security risk to the network. However, the sheer number and diversity of OSs that comprise modern networks have vastly increased this management complexity. We leverage insights from social networking theory to provide an encryption-invariant OS classification technique that is quick to train and widely deployable on various network configurations. In particular, we show how an affiliation graph can be used as an input to a machine learning classifier to predict the OS of a device using only the IP addresses for which the device communicates with.We examine the effectiveness of our approach through an empirical analysis of 498 devices on a university campus’ wireless network. In particular, we show our methodology can classify different OS families (i.e., Apple, Windows, and Android OSs) with an accuracy of 99.3%. Furthermore, we extend this study by: 1) examining distinct OSs (e.g., iOS, OS X, and Windows 10); 2) investigating the interval of time required to make an accurate prediction; and, 3) determining the effectiveness of our approach after six months.
McKeown, Sean, Russell, Gordon.  2020.  Forensic Considerations for the High Efficiency Image File Format (HEIF). 2020 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1—8.
The High Efficiency File Format (HEIF) was adopted by Apple in 2017 as their favoured means of capturing images from their camera application, with Android devices such as the Galaxy S10 providing support more recently. The format is positioned to replace JPEG as the de facto image compression file type, touting many modern features and better compression ratios over the aging standard. However, while millions of devices across the world are already able to produce HEIF files, digital forensics research has not given the format much attention. As HEIF is a complex container format, much different from traditional still picture formats, this leaves forensics practitioners exposed to risks of potentially mishandling evidence. This paper describes the forensically relevant features of the HEIF format, including those which could be used to hide data, or cause issues in an investigation, while also providing commentary on the state of software support for the format. Finally, suggestions for current best-practice are provided, before discussing the requirements of a forensically robust HEIF analysis tool.
Joseph, Asha, John Singh, K.  2020.  A GDPR Compliant Proposal to Provide Security in Android and iOS Devices. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Engineering (ic-ETITE). :1—8.
The Security available in personal computers and laptops are not possible in mobile communication, since there is no controlling software such as an operating system. The European Union General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) will require many organisations throughout the European Union to comply with new requirements that are intended to protect their user's personal data. The responsibilities of the organizations and the penalties related to the protection of personal data of the users are proved to be both organisationally and technically challenging. Under the GDPR's 'privacy by design' and 'privacy by default' requirements, organizations need to prove that they are in control of user data and have taken steps to protect it. There are a large number of organizations that makes use of mobile devices to process personal data of their customers. GDPR mandates that the organization shall be able to manage all devices that handles sensitive data so that the company can implement group updates, restrict apps and networks, and enforce security measures. In this work, we propose a Mobile Device Management solution using the built-in frameworks of Android and iOS mobile platforms which is compatible and incorporates GDPR articles relevant to a small to medium sized organization.
Aljedaani, Bakheet, Ahmad, Aakash, Zahedi, Mansooreh, Babar, M. Ali.  2020.  An Empirical Study on Developing Secure Mobile Health Apps: The Developers' Perspective. 2020 27th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC). :208—217.
Mobile apps exploit embedded sensors and wireless connectivity of a device to empower users with portable computations, context-aware communication, and enhanced interaction. Specifically, mobile health apps (mHealth apps for short) are becoming integral part of mobile and pervasive computing to improve the availability and quality of healthcare services. Despite the offered benefits, mHealth apps face a critical challenge, i.e., security of health-critical data that is produced and consumed by the app. Several studies have revealed that security specific issues of mHealth apps have not been adequately addressed. The objectives of this study are to empirically (a) investigate the challenges that hinder development of secure mHealth apps, (b) identify practices to develop secure apps, and (c) explore motivating factors that influence secure development. We conducted this study by collecting responses of 97 developers from 25 countries - across 06 continents - working in diverse teams and roles to develop mHealth apps for Android, iOS, and Windows platform. Qualitative analysis of the survey data is based on (i) 8 critical challenges, (ii) taxonomy of best practices to ensure security, and (iii) 6 motivating factors that impact secure mHealth apps. This research provides empirical evidence as practitioners' view and guidelines to develop emerging and next generation of secure mHealth apps.
Feng, Li, Tao, Chen, Bin, Wang, Jianye, Zhang, Song, Qing.  2020.  Research on Information Security Technology of Mobile Application in Electric Power Industry. 2020 Asia-Pacific Conference on Image Processing, Electronics and Computers (IPEC). :51—54.
With the continuous popularization of smart terminals, Android and IOS systems are the most mainstream mobile operating systems in the market, and their application types and application numbers are constantly increasing. As an open system, the security issues of Android application emerge in endlessly, such as the reverse decompilation of installation package, malicious code injection, application piracy, interface hijacking, SMS hijacking and input monitoring. These security issues will also appear on mobile applications in the power industry, which will not only result in the embezzlement of applied knowledge copyrights but also lead to serious leakage of users' information and even economic losses. It may even result in the remote malicious control of key facilities, which will cause serious social issues. Under the background of the development of smart grid information construction, also with the application and promotion of power services in mobile terminals, information security protection for mobile terminal applications and interactions with the internal system of the power grid has also become an important research direction. While analyzing the risks faced by mobile applications, this article also enumerates and analyzes the necessary measures for risk resolution.
Qadir, Abdalbasit Mohammed, Cooper, Peter.  2020.  GPS-based Mobile Cross-platform Cargo Tracking System with Web-based Application. 2020 8th International Symposium on Digital Forensics and Security (ISDFS). :1—7.
Cross-platform development is becoming widely used by developers, and writing for separate platforms is being replaced by developing a single code base that will work across multiple platforms simultaneously, while reducing cost and time. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate cross-platform development by creating a cargo tracking system that will work on multiple platforms with web application by tracking cargo using Global Positioning System (GPS), since the transport business has played a vital role in the evolution of human civilization. In this system, Google Flutter technology is used to create a mobile application that works on both Android and iOS platforms at the same time, by providing maps to clients showing their cargo location using Google Map API, as well as providing a web-based application.
Nazarenko, Maxim A..  2020.  What is Mobile Operation System Quality? 2020 International Conference Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies (IT QM IS). :145—147.
There are some modern mobile operation systems. The main two of them are iOS and Android. However, in the past, there were two more commonly used ones: Windows Mobile and Symbian. Each of these systems has its own pros and cons, whereas none of them is the best or the worst one in different criterions. In this paper the main criterions of operation system quality are discussed. The paper defines what the mobile operating system quality is.
Shimmi, Samiha S., Dorai, Gokila, Karabiyik, Umit, Aggarwal, Sudhir.  2020.  Analysis of iOS SQLite Schema Evolution for Updating Forensic Data Extraction Tools. 2020 8th International Symposium on Digital Forensics and Security (ISDFS). :1—7.
Files in the backup of iOS devices can be a potential source of evidentiary data. Particularly, the iOS backup (obtained through a logical acquisition technique) is widely used by many forensic tools to sift through the data. A significant challenge faced by several forensic tool developers is the changes in the data organization of the iOS backup. This is due to the fact that the iOS operating system is frequently updated by Apple Inc. Many iOS application developers release periodical updates to iOS mobile applications. Both these reasons can cause significant changes in the way user data gets stored in the iOS backup files. Moreover, approximately once every couple years, there could be a major iOS release which can cause the reorganization of files and folders in the iOS backup. Directories in the iOS backup contain SQLite databases, plist files, XML files, text files, and media files. Android/iOS devices generally use SQLite databases since it is a lightweight database. Our focus in this paper is to analyze the SQLite schema evolution specific to iOS and assist forensic tool developers in keeping their tools compatible with the latest iOS version. Our recommendations for updating the forensic data extraction tools is based on the observation of schema changes found in successive iOS versions.
Alshaikh, Mansour, Zohdy, Mohamed.  2020.  Sentiment Analysis for Smartphone Operating System: Privacy and Security on Twitter Data. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Electro Information Technology (EIT). :366—369.
The aim of the study was to investigate the privacy and security of the user data on Twitter. For gathering the essential information, more than two million relevant tweets through the span of two years were used to conduct the study. In addition, we are classifying sentiment of Twitter data by exhibiting results of a machine learning by using the Naive Bayes algorithm. Although this algorithm is time consuming compared to the listing method yet can lead to effective estimation relatively. The tweets are extracted and pre-processed and then categorized them in neutral, negative and positive sentiments. By applying the chosen methodology, the study would end up in identifying the most effective mobile operating systems according to the sentiments of social media users. Additionally, the application of the algorithm needs to meet the privacy and security needs of Twitter users in order to optimize the use of social media intelligence. The approach will help in assessing the competitive intelligence of the Twitter data and the challenges in the form of privacy and- security of the user content and their contextual information simultaneously. The findings of the empirical research show that users are more concerned about the privacy and security of iOS compared to Android and Windows phone.
Bays, Jason, Karabiyik, Umit.  2019.  Forensic Analysis of Third Party Location Applications in Android and iOS. IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :1—6.
Location sharing applications are becoming increasingly common. These applications allow users to share their own locations and view contacts’ current locations on a map. Location applications are commonly used by friends and family members to view Global Positioning System (GPS) location of an individual, but valuable forensic evidence may exist in this data when stored locally on smartphones. This paper aims to discover forensic artifacts from two popular third-party location sharing applications on iOS and Android devices. Industry standard mobile forensic suites are utilized to discover if any locally stored data could be used to assist investigations reliant on knowing the past location of a suspect. Security issues raised regarding the artifacts found during our analysis is also discussed.
Srisopha, Kamonphop, Phonsom, Chukiat, Lin, Keng, Boehm, Barry.  2019.  Same App, Different Countries: A Preliminary User Reviews Study on Most Downloaded iOS Apps. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (ICSME). :76—80.
Prior work on mobile app reviews has demonstrated that user reviews contain a wealth of information and are seen as a potential source of requirements. However, most of the studies done in this area mainly focused on mining and analyzing user reviews from the US App Store, leaving reviews of users from other countries unexplored. In this paper, we seek to understand if the perception of the same apps between users from other countries and that from the US differs through analyzing user reviews. We retrieve 300,643 user reviews of the 15 most downloaded iOS apps of 2018, published directly by Apple, from nine English-speaking countries over the course of 5 months. We manually classify 3,358 reviews into several software quality and improvement factors. We leverage a random forest based algorithm to identify factors that can be used to differentiate reviews between the US and other countries. Our preliminary results show that all countries have some factors that are proportionally inconsistent with the US.
He, Yongzhong, Zhao, Xiaojuan, Wang, Chao.  2019.  Privacy Mining of Large-scale Mobile Usage Data. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Power, Intelligent Computing and Systems (ICPICS). :81—86.
While enjoying the convenience brought by mobile phones, users have been exposed to high risk of private information leakage. It is known that many applications on mobile devices read private data and send them to remote servers. However how, when and in what scale the private data are leaked are not investigated systematically in the real-world scenario. In this paper, a framework is proposed to analyze the usage data from mobile devices and the traffic data from the mobile network and make a comprehensive privacy leakage detection and privacy inference mining on a large scale of realworld mobile data. Firstly, this paper sets up a training dataset and trains a privacy detection model on mobile traffic data. Then classical machine learning tools are used to discover private usage patterns. Based on our experiments and data analysis, it is found that i) a large number of private information is transmitted in plaintext, and even passwords are transmitted in plaintext by some applications, ii) more privacy types are leaked in Android than iOS, while GPS location is the most leaked privacy in both Android and iOS system, iii) the usage pattern is related to mobile device price. Through our experiments and analysis, it can be concluded that mobile privacy leakage is pervasive and serious.
Lorenzo, Fernando, McDonald, J. Todd, Andel, Todd R., Glisson, William B., Russ, Samuel.  2019.  Evaluating Side Channel Resilience in iPhone 5c Unlock Scenarios. 2019 SoutheastCon. :1—7.
iOS is one of the most secure operating systems based on policies created and enforced by Apple. Though not impervious or free from vulnerabilities, iOS has remained resilient to many attacks partially based on lower market share of devices, but primarily because of tight controls placed on iOS development and application deployment. Locked iOS devices pose a specific hard problem for both law enforcement and corporate IT dealing with malicious insiders or intrusion scenarios. The need to recover forensic data from locked iOS devices has been of public interest for some time. In this paper, we describe a case study analysis of the iPhone 5c model and our attempts to use electromagnetic (EM) fault-injection as a side channel means to unlock the device. Based on our study, we report on our unsuccessful attempts in unlocking a locked iPhone 5c using this side channel-based approach. As a contribution, we provide initial analysis of the iPhone 5c processor's spectral mapping under different states, a brief survey of published techniques related to iPhone unlock scenarios, and a set of lessons learned and recommended best practices for other researchers who are interested in future EM-based iOS studies.
Liu, Junqiu, Wang, Fei, Zhao, Shuang, Wang, Xin, Chen, Shuhui.  2019.  iMonitor, An APP-Level Traffic Monitoring and Labeling System for iOS Devices. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) and IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC). :211—218.
In this paper, we propose the first traffic monitoring and labeling system for iOS devices, named iMonitor, which not just captures mobile network traffic in .pcap files, but also provides comprehensive APP-related and user-related information of captured packets. Through further analysis, one can obtain the exact APP or device where each packet comes from. The labeled traffic can be used in many research areas for mobile security, such as privacy leakage detection and user profiling. Given the implementation methodology of NetworkExtension framework of iOS 9+, APP labels of iMonitor are reliable enough so that labeled traffic can be regarded as training data for any traffic classification methods. Evaluations on real iPhones demonstrate that iMonitor has no notable impact upon user experience even with slight packet latency. Also, the experiment result supports our motivation that mobile traffic monitoring for iOS is absolutely necessary, as traffic generated by different OSes like Android and iOS are different and unreplaceable in researches.
Kellner, Ansgar, Horlboge, Micha, Rieck, Konrad, Wressnegger, Christian.  2019.  False Sense of Security: A Study on the Effectivity of Jailbreak Detection in Banking Apps. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :1—14.
People increasingly rely on mobile devices for banking transactions or two-factor authentication (2FA) and thus trust in the security provided by the underlying operating system. Simultaneously, jailbreaks gain tremendous popularity among regular users for customizing their devices. In this paper, we show that both do not go well together: Jailbreaks remove vital security mechanisms, which are necessary to ensure a trusted environment that allows to protect sensitive data, such as login credentials and transaction numbers (TANs). We find that all but one banking app, available in the iOS App Store, can be fully compromised by trivial means without reverse-engineering, manipulating the app, or other sophisticated attacks. Even worse, 44% of the banking apps do not even try to detect jailbreaks, revealing the prevalent, errant trust in the operating system's security. This study assesses the current state of security of banking apps and pleads for more advanced defensive measures for protecting user data.
Dangiwa, Bello Ahmed, Kumar, Smitha S.  2018.  A Business Card Reader Application for iOS devices based on Tesseract. 2018 International Conference on Signal Processing and Information Security (ICSPIS). :1–4.
As the accessibility of high-resolution smartphone camera has increased and an improved computational speed, it is now convenient to build Business Card Readers on mobile phones. The project aims to design and develop a Business Card Reader (BCR) Application for iOS devices, using an open-source OCR Engine - Tesseract. The system accuracy was tested and evaluated using a dataset of 55 digital business cards obtained from an online repository. The accuracy result of the system was up to 74% in terms of both text recognition and data detection. A comparative analysis was carried out against a commercial business card reader application and our application performed vastly reasonable.
Liu, Xianyu, Zheng, Min, Pan, Aimin, Lu, Quan.  2018.  Hardening the Core: Understanding and Detection of XNU Kernel Vulnerabilities. 2018 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W). :10–13.
The occurrence of security vulnerabilities in kernel, especially for macOS/iOS kernel XNU, has increased rapidly in recent years. Naturally, concerns were raised due to the high risks they would lead to, which in general are much more serious than common application vulnerabilities. However, discovering XNU kernel vulnerabilities is always very challenging, and the main approach in practice is still manual analysis, which obviously is not a scalable method. In this paper, we perform an in-depth empirical study on the 406 published XNU kernel vulnerabilities to identify distinguishing characteristics of them and then leverage the features to guide our vulnerability detection, i.e., locating suspicious functions. To further improve the efficiency of vulnerability detection, we present KInspector, a new and lightweight framework to detect XNU kernel vulnerabilities by leveraging feedback-based fuzzing techniques. We thoroughly evaluate our approach on XNU with various versions, and the results turn out to be quite promising: 21 N/0-day vulnerabilities have been discovered in our experiments.
Sudozai, M. A. K., Saleem, Shahzad.  2018.  Profiling of secure chat and calling apps from encrypted traffic. 2018 15th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST). :502–508.
Increased use of secure chat and voice/ video apps has transformed the social life. While the benefits and facilitations are seemingly limitless, so are the asscoiacted vulnerabilities and threats. Besides ensuring confidentiality requirements for common users, known facts of non-readable contents over the network make these apps more attractive for criminals. Though access to contents of cryptograhically secure sessions is not possible, network forensics of secure apps can provide interesting information which can be of great help during criminal invetigations. In this paper, we presented a novel framework of profiling the secure chat and voice/ video calling apps which can be employed to extract hidden patterns about the app, information of involved parties, activities of chatting, voice/ video calls, status indications and notifications while having no information of communication protocol of the app and its security architecture. Signatures of any secure app can be developed though our framework and can become base of a large scale solution. Our methodology is considered very important for different cases of criminal investigations and bussiness intelligence solutions for service provider networks. Our results are applicable to any mobile platform of iOS, android and windows.
Pandey, Ashutosh, Khan, Rijwan, Srivastava, Akhilesh Kumar.  2018.  Challenges in Automation of Test Cases for Mobile Payment Apps. 2018 4th International Conference on Computational Intelligence Communication Technology (CICT). :1–4.
Software Engineering is a field of new challenges every day. With every passing day, new technologies emerge. There was an era of web Applications, but the time has changed and most of the web Applications are available as Mobile Applications as well. The Mobile Applications are either android based or iOS based. To deliver error free, secure and reliable Application, it is necessary to test the Applications properly. Software testing is a phase of software development life cycle, where we test an Application in all aspects. Nowadays different type of tools are available for testing an Application automatically but still we have too many challenges for applying test cases on a given Application. In this paper the authors will discuss the challenges of automation of test cases for a Mobile based payment Application.
Galuppo, Raúl Ignacio, Luna, Carlos, Betarte, Gustavo.  2018.  Security in iOS and Android: A Comparative Analysis. 2018 37th International Conference of the Chilean Computer Science Society (SCCC). :1–8.
This paper presents a detailed analysis of some relevant security features of iOS and Android -the two most popular operating systems for mobile devices- from the perspective of user privacy. In particular, permissions that can be modified at run time on these platforms are analyzed. Additionally, a framework is introduced for permission analysis, a hybrid mobile application that can run on both iOS and Android. The framework, which can be extended, places special emphasis on the relationship between the user's privacy and the permission system.
Gorodnichev, Mikhail G., Kochupalov, Alexander E., Gematudinov, Rinat A..  2018.  Asynchronous Rendering of Texts in iOS Applications. 2018 IEEE International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT QM IS). :643–645.
This article is devoted to new asynchronous methods for rendering text information in mobile applications for iOS operating system.
Adetunji, Akinbobola Oluwaseun, Butakov, Sergey, Zavarsky, Pavol.  2018.  Automated Security Configuration Checklist for Apple iOS Devices Using SCAP v1.2. 2018 International Conference on Platform Technology and Service (PlatCon). :1–6.
The security content automation includes configurations of large number of systems, installation of patches securely, verification of security-related configuration settings, compliance with security policies and regulatory requirements, and ability to respond quickly when new threats are discovered [1]. Although humans are important in information security management, humans sometimes introduce errors and inconsistencies in an organization due to manual nature of their tasks [2]. Security Content Automation Protocol was developed by the U.S. NIST to automate information security management tasks such as vulnerability and patch management, and to achieve continuous monitoring of security configurations in an organization. In this paper, SCAP is employed to develop an automated security configuration checklist for use in verifying Apple iOS device configuration against the defined security baseline to enforce policy compliance in an enterprise.
Dar, Muneer Ahmad, Nisar Bukhari, Syed, Khan, Ummer Iqbal.  2018.  Evaluation of Security and Privacy of Smartphone Users. 2018 Fourth International Conference on Advances in Electrical, Electronics, Information, Communication and Bio-Informatics (AEEICB). :1–4.

The growing use of smart phones has also given opportunity to the intruders to create malicious apps thereby the security and privacy concerns of a novice user has also grown. This research focuses on the privacy concerns of a user who unknowingly installs a malicious apps created by the programmer. In this paper we created an attack scenario and created an app capable of compromising the privacy of the users. After accepting all the permissions by the user while installing the app, the app allows us to track the live location of the Android device and continuously sends the GPS coordinates to the server. This spying app is also capable of sending the call log details of the user. This paper evaluates two leading smart phone operating systems- Android and IOS to find out the flexibility provided by the two operating systems to their programmers to create the malicious apps.