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2022-06-09
Shoba, V., Parameswari, R..  2021.  Data Security and Privacy Preserving with Augmented Homomorphic Re-Encryption Decryption (AHRED) Algorithm in Big Data Analytics. 2021 Third International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). :451–457.
The process of Big data storage has become challenging due to the expansion of extensive data; data providers will offer encrypted data and upload to Big data. However, the data exchange mechanism is unable to accommodate encrypted data. Particularly when a large number of users share the scalable data, the scalability becomes extremely limited. Using a contemporary privacy protection system to solve this issue and ensure the security of encrypted data, as well as partially homomorphic re-encryption and decryption (PHRED). This scheme has the flexibility to share data by ensuring user's privacy with partially trusted Big Data. It can access to strong unforgeable scheme it make the transmuted cipher text have public and private key verification combined identity based Augmented Homomorphic Re Encryption Decryption(AHRED) on paillier crypto System with Laplacian noise filter the performance of the data provider for privacy preserving big data.
Souror, Samia, El-Fishawy, Nawal, Badawy, Mohammed.  2021.  SCKHA: A New Stream Cipher Algorithm Based on Key Hashing and Splitting Technique. 2021 International Conference on Electronic Engineering (ICEEM). :1–7.
Cryptographic algorithms are playing an important role in the information security field. Strong and unbreakable algorithms provide high security and good throughput. The strength of any encryption algorithm is basically based on the degree of difficulty to obtain the encryption key by such cyber-attacks as brute. It is supposed that the bigger the key size, the more difficult it is to compute the key. But increasing the key size will increase both the computational complexity and the processing time of algorithms. In this paper, we proposed a reliable, effective, and more secure symmetric stream cipher algorithm for encryption and decryption called Symmetric Cipher based on Key Hashing Algorithm (SCKHA). The idea of this algorithm is based on hashing and splitting the encryption symmetric key. Hashing the key will hide the encrypted key to prevent any intruder from forging the hash code, and, thus, it satisfies the purpose of security, authentication, and integrity for a message on the network. In addition, the algorithm is secure against a brute-force attack by increasing the resources it takes for testing each possible key. Splitting the hashed value of the encryption key will divide the hashed key into two key chunks. The encryption process performed using such one chunk based on some calculations on the plaintext. This algorithm has three advantages that are represented in computational simplicity, security and efficiency. Our algorithm is characterized by its ability to search on the encrypted data where the plaintext character is represented by two ciphertext characters (symbols).
2022-05-05
Bouteghrine, Belqassim, Tanougast, Camel, Sadoudi, Said.  2021.  Fast and Efficient Chaos-Based Algorithm for Multimedia Data Encryption. 2021 International Conference on Electrical, Computer, Communications and Mechatronics Engineering (ICECCME). :1—5.
With the evolution of the communication technology, fast and efficient tools for secure exchanged data are highly required. Through this research work, we introduce a simplified and fast chaos-based scheme for multimedia data encryption and in particular for color image encryption application. The new algorithm is based on an extracted four-dimension (4-D) discrete time map. The proposed 4-D chaos system includes seven (07) nonlinear terms and four (04) controllers to generate a robust chaos that can satisfy the encryption requirements. The performance of this image encryption algorithm are analyzed with the help of four important factors which are key space, correlation, complexity and running time. Results of the security analysis compared to some of similar proposals, show that our encryption scheme is more effective in terms of key stream cipher space, correlation, complexity and running time.
2022-04-26
Pisharody, Sandeep, Bernays, Jonathan, Gadepally, Vijay, Jones, Michael, Kepner, Jeremy, Meiners, Chad, Michaleas, Peter, Tse, Adam, Stetson, Doug.  2021.  Realizing Forward Defense in the Cyber Domain. 2021 IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (HPEC). :1–7.

With the recognition of cyberspace as an operating domain, concerted effort is now being placed on addressing it in the whole-of-domain manner found in land, sea, undersea, air, and space domains. Among the first steps in this effort is applying the standard supporting concepts of security, defense, and deterrence to the cyber domain. This paper presents an architecture that helps realize forward defense in cyberspace, wherein adversarial actions are repulsed as close to the origin as possible. However, substantial work remains in making the architecture an operational reality including furthering fundamental research cyber science, conducting design trade-off analysis, and developing appropriate public policy frameworks.

2022-04-01
Kamal, Naheel Faisal, Malluhi, Qutaibah.  2021.  Client-Based Secure IoT Data Sharing using Untrusted Clouds. 2021 IEEE 7th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). :409—414.
IoT systems commonly rely on cloud services. However, utilizing cloud providers can be problematic in terms of data security. Data stored in the cloud need to be secured from unauthorized malicious nodes and from the cloud providers themselves. Using a simple symmetric cipher can encrypt the data before uploading and decrypt it while retrieving. However, such a solution can be only applied between two parties with no support for multiple nodes. Whereas in IoT scenarios, many smart devices communicate and share data with each other. This paper proposes a solution that tackles the issue of sharing data securely between IoT devices by implementing a system that allows secure sharing of encrypted data in untrusted clouds. The implementation of the system performs the computation on connectionless clients with no involvement of the cloud server nor any third party. The cloud server is only used as a passive storage server. Analysis of the implemented prototype demonstrates that the system can be used in real-life applications with relatively small overhead. Based on the used hardware, key generation takes about 60 nanoseconds and the storage overhead is only a few kilobytes for large number of files and/or users.
2022-01-10
Padma, Bh, Chandravathi, D, Pratibha, Lanka.  2021.  Defense Against Frequency Analysis In Elliptic Curve Cryptography Using K-Means Clustering. 2021 International Conference on Computing, Communication, and Intelligent Systems (ICCCIS). :64–69.
Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is a revolution in asymmetric key cryptography which is based on the hardness of discrete logarithms. ECC offers lightweight encryption as it presents equal security for smaller keys, and reduces processing overhead. But asymmetric schemes are vulnerable to several cryptographic attacks such as plaintext attacks, known cipher text attacks etc. Frequency analysis is a type of cipher text attack which is a passive traffic analysis scenario, where an opponent studies the frequency or occurrence of single letter or groups of letters in a cipher text to predict the plain text part. Block cipher modes are not used in asymmetric key encryption because encrypting many blocks with an asymmetric scheme is literally slow and CBC propagates transmission errors. Therefore, in this research we present a new approach to defence against frequency analysis in ECC using K-Means clustering to defence against Frequency Analysis. In this proposed methodology, security of ECC against frequency analysis is achieved by clustering the points of the curve and selecting different cluster for encoding a text each time it is encrypted. This technique destroys the regularities in the cipher text and thereby guards against cipher text attacks.
Rachmawati, Dian, Budiman, Mohammad Andri, Habibi, Wiro Tirta.  2021.  Three-Pass Protocol Scheme for Securing Image Files Using the Hill Cipher 3x3 Algorithm. 2021 International Conference on Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Business Analytics (DATABIA). :130–135.
There will be a fatal risk when the submitted file is stolen or altered by someone else during the file submission process. To maintain the security of sending files from sender to recipient, it is necessary to secure files. The science of maintaining the security of messages is called cryptography. The authors were interested in examining the Three Pass Protocol scheme in this study because it eliminated the necessity for sender and receiver to exchange keys during the operation of the Hill Cipher 3x3 algorithm. The Hill Cipher algorithm was chosen because the key has an inverse and matrix-shaped value. Then the key used must be checked whether it has a GCD (Greatest Common Divisor) grade 1 or not and will be shaped like matrix. System implementation using the Java programming language using Android Studio software. System testing is done by encrypting and decrypting files. System testing results illustrate that the process encryption and decryption by the sender is faster than the recipient, so the encryption and decryption time needed directly proportional; the larger the pixel size of the image on the image file used, the longer it takes.
2021-12-21
Zhang, Fengqing, Jiang, Xiaoning.  2021.  The Zero Trust Security Platform for Data Trusteeship. 2021 4th International Conference on Advanced Electronic Materials, Computers and Software Engineering (AEMCSE). :1014–1017.
Cloud storage is a low-cost and convenient storage method, but the nature of cloud storage determines the existence of security risks for data uploaded by users. In order to ensure the security of users' data in third-party cloud platforms, a zero trust security platform for data trusteeship is proposed. The platform introduces the concept of zero trust, which meets the needs of users to upload sensitive data to untrusted third-party cloud platforms by implementing multiple functional modules such as sensitivity analysis service, cipher index service, attribute encryption service.
2021-11-08
Ruchkin, V., Soldatov, G., Fulin, V., Kostrov, B., Ruchkina, E..  2020.  Macros for Coding Information Encryption Amp; Decryption in Trusted Platform Module. 2020 International Multi-Conference on Industrial Engineering and Modern Technologies (FarEastCon). :1–5.
This article describes the process assembling of Encryption & Decryption In Trusted Platform Module of encoding information in NM640X \textregistered. Encoding of information, carried out in assembly language according to Gost 28147-89. It is a realisation of standard GOST 28147-89- Russian state symmetric key block cipher. GOST 28147-89 has 64-bit to access the kernel, trust, and allocated memory in the BlockSize and 256-bit KeySize.
2021-10-04
Ghorashi, Seyed Ramin, Zia, Tanveer, Jiang, Yinhao.  2020.  Optimisation of Lightweight Klein Encryption Algorithm With 3 S-box. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops). :1–5.
Internet of Things (IoT) have offered great opportunities for the growth of smart objects in the last decade. Smart devices are deployed in many fields such as smart cities, healthcare and agriculture. One of the applications of IoT is Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) that require inexpensive and space-economic design for remote sensing and communication capabilities. This, unfortunately, lead to their inherent security vulnerabilities. Lightweight cryptography schemes are designed to counter many attacks in low-powered devices such as the IoT and WSN. These schemes can provide support for data encryption and key management while maintaining some level of efficiency. Most of these block ciphers provide good security. However, due to the complex cryptographic scheme's efficiency and optimisation is an issue. In this work, we focus on a new lightweight encryption scheme called the Klein block cipher. The algorithms of Klein block cipher are analysed for performance and security optimisations. A new algorithm which consists of 3-layer substitute box is proposed to reduce the need for resource consumption but maintain the security.
2021-09-30
Engels, Susanne, Schellenberg, Falk, Paar, Christof.  2020.  SPFA: SFA on Multiple Persistent Faults. 2020 Workshop on Fault Detection and Tolerance in Cryptography (FDTC). :49–56.
For classical fault analysis, a transient fault is required to be injected during runtime, e.g., only at a specific round. Instead, Persistent Fault Analysis (PFA) introduces a powerful class of fault attacks that allows for a fault to be present throughout the whole execution. One limitation of original PFA as introduced by Zhang et al. at CHES'18 is that the adversary needs know (or brute-force) the faulty values prior to the analysis. While this was addressed at a follow-up work at CHES'20, the solution is only applicable to a single faulty value. Instead, we use the potency of Statistical Fault Analysis (SFA) in the persistent fault setting, presenting Statistical Persistent Fault Analysis (SPFA) as a more general approach of PFA. As a result, any or even a multitude of unknown faults that cause an exploitable bias in the targeted round can be used to recover the cipher's secret key. Indeed, the undesired faults in the other rounds that occur due the persistent nature of the attack converge to a uniform distribution as required by SFA. We verify the effectiveness of our attack against LED and AES.
Mestiri, Hassen, Salah, Yahia, Baroudi, Achref Addali.  2020.  A Secure Network Interface for on-Chip Systems. 2020 20th International Conference on Sciences and Techniques of Automatic Control and Computer Engineering (STA). :90–94.
This paper presents a self-securing decentralized on-chip network interface (NI) architecture to Multicore System-on-Chip (McSoC) platforms. To protect intra-chip communication within McSoC, security framework proposal resides in initiator and target NIs. A comparison between block cipher and lightweight cryptographic algorithms is then given, so we can figure out the most suitable cipher for network-on-chip (NoC) architectures. AES and LED security algorithms was a subject of this comparison. The designs are developed in Xilinx ISE 14.7 tool using VHDL language.
Charles, Subodha, Mishra, Prabhat.  2020.  Securing Network-on-Chip Using Incremental Cryptography. 2020 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI). :168–175.
Network-on-chip (NoC) has become the standard communication fabric for on-chip components in modern System-on-chip (SoC) designs. Since NoC has visibility to all communications in the SoC, it has been one of the primary targets for security attacks. While packet encryption can provide secure communication, it can introduce unacceptable energy and performance overhead due to the resource-constrained nature of SoC designs. In this paper, we propose a lightweight encryption scheme that is implemented on the network interface. Our approach improves the performance of encryption without compromising security using incremental cryptography, which exploits the unique NoC traffic characteristics. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed approach significantly (up to 57%, 30% on average) reduces the encryption time compared to traditional approaches with negligible (less than 2%) impact on area overhead.
2021-09-16
Ayoub, Ahmed A., Aagaard, Mark D..  2020.  Application-Specific Instruction Set Architecture for an Ultralight Hardware Security Module. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :69–79.
Due to the rapid growth of using Internet of Things (IoT) devices in the daily life, the need to achieve an acceptable level of security and privacy according to the real security risks for these devices is rising. Security risks may include privacy threats like gaining sensitive information from a device, and authentication problems from counterfeit or cloned devices. It becomes more challenging to add strong security features to extremely constrained devices compared to battery operated devices that have more computational and storage capabilities. We propose a novel application specific instruction-set architecture that allows flexibility on many design levels and achieves the required security level for the Electronic Product Code (EPC) passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag device. Our solution moves a major design effort from hardware to software, which largely reduces the final unit cost. The proposed architecture can be implemented with 4,662 gate equivalent units (GEs) for 65 nm CMOS technology excluding the memory and the cryptographic units. The synthesis results fulfill the requirements of extremely constrained devices and allow the inclusion of cryptographic units into the datapath of the proposed application-specific instruction set processor (ASIP).
2021-08-31
S, Sahana, Shankaraiah.  2020.  Securing Govt Research Content using QR Code Image. 2020 IEEE International Conference for Innovation in Technology (INOCON). :1—5.
Government division may be a crucial portion of the nation's economy. Security of government inquire about substance from all sorts of dangers is basic not as it were for trade coherence but too for supporting the economy of the country as a entirety. With the digitization of conventional records, government substances experience troublesome issues, such as government capacity and access. Research office spend significant time questioning the specified information when getting to Government investigate substance subtle elements, but the gotten information are not fundamentally rectify, and get to is some of the time limited. On this premise, this think about proposes a investigate substance which utilize ciphertext-based encryption to guarantee information privacy and get to control of record subtle elements. The investigate head may scramble the put away data for accomplishing get to control and keeping information secure. In this manner AES Rijndael calculation is utilized for encryption. This guarantees security for the data and empowers Protection.
Sannidhan, M S, Sudeepa, K B, Martis, Jason E, Bhandary, Abhir.  2020.  A Novel Key Generation Approach Based on Facial Image Features for Stream Cipher System. 2020 Third International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT). :956—962.
Security preservation is considered as one of the major concerns in this digital world, mainly for performing any online transactions. As the time progress, it witnesses an enormous amount of security threats and stealing different kind of digital information over the online network. In this regard, lots of cryptographic algorithms based on secret key generation techniques have been implemented to boost up the security aspect of network systems that preserve the confidentiality of digital information. Despite this, intelligent intruders are still able to crack the key generation technique, thus stealing the data. In this research article, we propose an innovative approach for generating a pseudo-pseudo-random key sequence that serves as a base for the encryption/decryption process. The key generation process is carried out by extracting the essential features from a facial image and based on the extracted features; a pseudo-random key sequence that acts as a primary entity for the efficient encryption/decryption process is generated. Experimental findings related to the pseudo-random key is validated through chi-square, runs up-down and performs a period of subsequence test. Outcomes of these have subsequently passed in achieving an ideal key.
Patnala, Tulasi Radhika, Jayanthi, D., Majji, Sankararao, Valleti, Manohar, Kothapalli, Srilekha, Karanam, Santoshachandra Rao.  2020.  A Modernistic way for KEY Generation for Highly Secure Data Transfer in ASIC Design Flow. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :892—897.
Present day's data security plays a vital role in digital human life. Data is a valuable asset to any organization and hence its security from external attacks is very important. Information security is not only an important aspect but essential, to secure data from unapproved access. Data encryption, decryption and key management are the key factors in data protection. It is very important to have the right data security solution to meet the challenging threats. Cryptosystem implementation and random number generators are crucial for Cryptosystem applications such as security applications, space applications, military applications and smart cards et al. In this paper, we present the implementation of hybrid cryptosystem based on the True Random number Generator, pseudo Random number Generator and whitening the data by using the ASIC design flow.
2021-08-18
Jha, Pallavi, Zorkta, Haythem Yosef, Allawi, Dahham, Al-Nakkar, Maher Riad.  2020.  Improved Lightweight Encryption Algorithm (ILEA). 2020 International Conference for Emerging Technology (INCET). :1—4.
Lightweight cryptography concept has been a very hot topic for the last few years and considered as a new domain of encryption suitable for big data networks, small devices, phones, cards and embedded systems. These systems require low latency security and low power consuming [1]. An improved lightweight encryption algorithm ILEA is proposed in this paper. ILEA is based on PRINCE lightweight algorithm as his main core with two defacing balanced mixing layers added. ILEA presented in two programming languages: PYTHON, C++ with a comparative study with original PRINCE results and some of another lightweight algorithms.
Al-Aali, Yousuf, Boussakta, Said.  2020.  Lightweight block ciphers for resource-constrained devices. 2020 12th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP). :1—6.
Lightweight cryptography is a new branch of cryptography focused on providing security to resource-constraint devices such as wireless sensor networks (WSN), Radio-Frequency Identification (RFIDs) and other embedded systems. The factors considered in lightweight cryptography are mainly circuit area, memory requirement, processing time, latency, power, and energy consumption. This paper presents a discussion on common lightweight block ciphers in terms of different performance parameters, strength, design trends, limitations, and applications including the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) round 1 and 2 candidates. Analysis of these lightweight algorithms has offered an insight into this newly emerging field of cryptography.
Sravya, G., Kumar, Manchalla. O.V.P., Sudarsana Reddy, Y., Jamal, K., Mannem, Kiran.  2020.  The Ideal Block Ciphers - Correlation of AES and PRESENT in Cryptography. 2020 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Sustainable Systems (ICISS). :1107—1113.
In this digital era, the usage of technology has increased rapidly and led to the deployment of more innovative technologies for storing and transferring the generated data. The most important aspect of the emerging communication technologies is to ensure the safety and security of the generated huge amount of data. Hence, cryptography is considered as a pathway that can securely transfer and save the data. Cryptography comprises of ciphers that act like an algorithm, where the data is encrypted at the source and decrypted at the destination. This paper comprises of two ciphers namely PRESENT and AES ciphers. In the real-time applications, AES is no more relevant especially for segmenting the organizations that leverage RFID, Sensors and IoT devices. In order to overcome the strategic issues faced by these organization, PRESENT ciphers work appropriately with its super lightweight block figure, which has the equivalent significance to both security and equipment arrangements. This paper compares the AES (Advance encryption standard) symmetric block cipher with PRESENT symmetric block cipher to leverage in the industries mentioned earlier, where the huge consumption of resources becomes a significant factor. For the comparison of different ciphers, the results of area, timing analysis and the waveforms are taken into consideration.
Tsavos, Marios, Sklavos, Nicolas, Alexiou, George Ph..  2020.  Lightweight Security Data Streaming, Based on Reconfigurable Logic, for FPGA Platform. 2020 23rd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :277—280.
Alongside the rapid expansion of Internet of Things (IoT), and network evolution (5G, 6G technologies), comes the need for security of higher level and less hardware demanding modules. New cryptographic systems are developed, in order to satisfy the special needs of security, that have emerged in modern applications. In this paper, a novel lightweight data streaming system, is proposed, which operates in alternative modes. Each one of them, performs efficiently as one of three in total, stream ciphering modules. The operation of the proposed system, is based on reconfigurable logic. It aims at a lower hardware utilization and good performance, at the same time. In addition, in order to have a fair and detailed comparison, a second one design is also integrated and introduced. This one proposes a conventional architecture, consisting of the same three stream ciphering modes, implemented on the same device, as separate operation modules. The FPGA synthesis results prove that the proposed reconfigurable design achieves to minimize the area resources, from 18% to 30%, compared to the conventional one, while maintaining high performance values, for the supported modes.
Aiswarya Meenakshi, P., Veera Santhya, R., Sherine Jenny, R., Sudhakar, R..  2020.  Implementation and Cryptanalysis of Lightweight Block Ciphers. 2020 4th International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI)(48184). :253—258.
Encryption has become an important need for each and every data transmission. Large amount of delicate data is transferred regularly through different computer networks such as e-banking, email applications and file exchange. Cryptanalysis is study of analyzing the hidden information in the system. The process of cryptanalysis could be done by various features such as power, sound, electromagnetic radiation etc. Lightweight cryptography plays an important role in the IoT devices. It includes various appliances, vehicles, smart sensors and RFID-tags (RFID). PRESENT is one such algorithm, designed for resource constrained devices. This requires less memory and consumes less power. The project propounds a model in which the cryptographic keys are analyzed by the trace of power.
Pandey, Jai Gopal, Laddha, Ayush, Samaddar, Sashwat Deb.  2020.  A Lightweight VLSI Architecture for RECTANGLE Cipher and its Implementation on an FPGA. 2020 24th International Symposium on VLSI Design and Test (VDAT). :1—6.
Block ciphers are one of the most fundamental building blocks for information and network security. In recent years, the need for lightweight ciphers has dramatically been increased due to their wide use in low-cost cryptosystems, wireless networks and resource-constrained embedded devices including RFIDs, sensor nodes, smart cards etc. In this paper, an efficient lightweight architecture for RECTANGLE block cipher has been proposed. The architecture is suitable for extremely hardware-constrained environments and multiple platforms due to its support of bit-slice technique. The proposed architecture has been synthesized and implemented on Xilinx Virtex-5 xc5vlx110t-1ff1136 field programmable gate array (FPGA) device. Implementation results have been presented and compared with the existing architectures and have shown commensurable performance. Also, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) implementation of the architecture is done on SCL 180 nm CMOS technology where it consumes 2362 gate equivalent (GE).
Oda, Maya, Ueno, Rei, Inoue, Akiko, Minematsu, Kazuhiko, Homma, Naofumi.  2020.  PMAC++: Incremental MAC Scheme Adaptable to Lightweight Block Ciphers. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1—4.
This paper presents a new incremental parallelizable message authentication code (MAC) scheme adaptable to lightweight block ciphers for memory integrity verification. The highlight of the proposed scheme is to achieve both incremental update capability and sufficient security bound with lightweight block ciphers, which is a novel feature. We extend the conventional parallelizable MAC to realize the incremental update capability while keeping the original security bound. We prove that a comparable security bound can be obtained even if this change is incorporated. We also present a hardware architecture for the proposed MAC scheme with lightweight block ciphers and demonstrate the effectiveness through FPGA implementation. The evaluation results indicate that the proposed MAC hardware achieves 3.4 times improvement in the latency-area product for the tag update compared with the conventional MAC.
2021-08-17
Bhutta, Muhammad Nasir Mumtaz, Cruickshank, Haitham, Nadeem, Adnan.  2020.  A Framework for Key Management Architecture for DTN (KMAD): Requirements and Design. 2019 International Conference on Advances in the Emerging Computing Technologies (AECT). :1–4.
Key Management in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) still remains an unsolved complex problem. Due to peculiar characteristics of DTN, important challenges that make it difficult to design key management architecture are: 1) no systematic requirement analysis is undertaken to define its components, their composition and prescribed functions; and 2) no framework is available for its seamless integration with Bundle Security Protocol (BSP). This paper proposes a Key Management Architecture for DTN (KMAD) to address challenges in DTN key management. The proposed architecture not only provides guidelines for key management in DTN but also caters for seamless integration with BSP. The framework utilizes public key cryptography to provide required security services to enable exchange of keying material, and information about security policy and cipher suites. The framework also supports secure exchange of control and data information in DTNs.