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Zondo, S., Ogudo, K., Umenne, P..  2020.  Design of a Smart Home System Using Bluetooth Protocol. 2020 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, Computing and Data Communication Systems (icABCD). :1—5.
Home automation is an intelligent, functional as a unit system that facilitates home processes without unnecessarily complicating the user's life. Devices can be connected, which in turn connect and talk through a centralized control unit, which are accessible via mobile phones. These devices include lights, appliances, security systems, alarms and many other sensors and devices. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Bluetooth based smart home automation system which uses a Peripheral interface controller (PIC) microcontroller (16F1937) as the main processer and the appliances are connected to the peripheral ports of the microcontroller via relays. The circuit in the project was designed in Diptrace software. The PCB layout design was completed. The fully functional smart home prototype was built and demonstrated to functional.
Sanila, A., Mahapatra, B., Turuk, A. K..  2020.  Performance Evaluation of RPL protocol in a 6LoWPAN based Smart Home Environment. 2020 International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering and Applications (ICCSEA). :1–6.
The advancement in technologies like IoT, device-to-device communication lead to concepts like smart home and smart cities, etc. In smart home architecture, different devices such as home appliances, personal computers, surveillance cameras, etc. are connected to the Internet and enable the user to monitor and control irrespective of time and location. IPv6-enabled 6LoWPAN is a low-power, low-range communication protocol designed and developed for the short-range IoT applications. 6LoWPAN is based on IEEE 802.15.4 protocol and IPv6 network protocol for low range wireless applications. Although 6LoWPAN supports different routing protocols, RPL is the widely used routing protocol for low power and lossy networks. In this work, we have taken an IoT enabled smart home environment, in which 6LoWPAN is used as a communication and RPL as a routing protocol. The performance of this proposed network model is analyzed based on the different performance metrics such as latency, PDR, and throughput. The proposed model is simulated using Cooja simulator running over the Contiki OS. Along with the Cooja simulator, the network analyzer tool Wireshark is used to analyze the network behaviors.
Kumar, R., Sarupria, G., Panwala, V., Shah, S., Shah, N..  2020.  Power Efficient Smart Home with Voice Assistant. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—5.

The popularity and demand of home automation has increased exponentially in recent years because of the ease it provides. Recently, development has been done in this domain and few systems have been proposed that either use voice assistants or application for controlling the electrical appliances. However; less emphasis is laid on power efficiency and this system cannot be integrated with the existing appliances and hence, the entire system needs to be upgraded adding to a lot of additional cost in purchasing new appliances. In this research, the objective is to design such a system that emphasises on power efficiency as well as can be integrated with the already existing appliances. NodeMCU, along with Raspberry Pi, Firebase realtime database, is used to create a system that accomplishes such endeavours and can control relays, which can control these appliances without the need of replacing them. The experiments in this paper demonstrate triggering of electrical appliances using voice assistant, fire alarm on the basis of flame sensor and temperature sensor. Moreover; use of android application was presented for operating electrical appliances from a remote location. Lastly, the system can be modified by adding security cameras, smart blinds, robot vacuums etc.

Shaikh, F., Bou-Harb, E., Neshenko, N., Wright, A. P., Ghani, N..  2018.  Internet of Malicious Things: Correlating Active and Passive Measurements for Inferring and Characterizing Internet-Scale Unsolicited IoT Devices. IEEE Communications Magazine. 56:170—177.

Advancements in computing, communication, and sensing technologies are making it possible to embed, control, and gather vital information from tiny devices that are being deployed and utilized in practically every aspect of our modernized society. From smart home appliances to municipal water and electric industrial facilities to our everyday work environments, the next Internet frontier, dubbed IoT, is promising to revolutionize our lives and tackle some of our nations' most pressing challenges. While the seamless interconnection of IoT devices with the physical realm is envisioned to bring a plethora of critical improvements in many aspects and diverse domains, it will undoubtedly pave the way for attackers that will target and exploit such devices, threatening the integrity of their data and the reliability of critical infrastructure. Further, such compromised devices will undeniably be leveraged as the next generation of botnets, given their increased processing capabilities and abundant bandwidth. While several demonstrations exist in the literature describing the exploitation procedures of a number of IoT devices, the up-to-date inference, characterization, and analysis of unsolicited IoT devices that are currently deployed "in the wild" is still in its infancy. In this article, we address this imperative task by leveraging active and passive measurements to report on unsolicited Internet-scale IoT devices. This work describes a first step toward exploring the utilization of passive measurements in combination with the results of active measurements to shed light on the Internet-scale insecurities of the IoT paradigm. By correlating results of Internet-wide scanning with Internet background radiation traffic, we disclose close to 14,000 compromised IoT devices in diverse sectors, including critical infrastructure and smart home appliances. To this end, we also analyze their generated traffic to create effective mitigation signatures that could be deployed in local IoT realms. To support largescale empirical data analytics in the context of IoT, we make available the inferred and extracted IoT malicious raw data through an authenticated front-end service. The outcomes of this work confirm the existence of such compromised devices on an Internet scale, while the generated inferences and insights are postulated to be employed for inferring other similarly compromised IoT devices, in addition to contributing to IoT cyber security situational awareness.

Semwal, S., Badoni, M., Saxena, N..  2019.  Smart Meters for Domestic Consumers: Innovative Methods for Identifying Appliances using NIALM. 2019 Women Institute of Technology Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (WITCON ECE). :81—90.
A country drives by their people and the electricity energy, the availability of the electricity power reflects the strength of that country. All most everything depends on the electricity energy, So it is become very important that we use the available energy very efficiently, and here the energy management come in the picture and Non Intrusive appliance Load monitoring (NIALM) is the part of energy management, in which the energy consumption by the particular load is monitored without any intrusion of wire/circuit. In literature, NIALM has been discussed as a monitoring process for conservation of energy using single point sensing (SPS) for extraction of aggregate signal of the appliances' features, ignoring the second function of demand response (DR) assuming that it would be manual or sensor-based. This assumption is not implementable in developing countries like India, because of requirement of extra cost of sensors, and privacy concerns. Surprisingly, despite decades of research on NIALM, none of the suggested procedures has resulted in commercial application. This paper highlights the causes behind non- commercialization, and proposes a viable and easy solution worthy of commercial exploitation both for monitoring and DR management for outage reduction in respect of Indian domestic consumers. Using a approach of multi point sensing (MPS), combined with Independent Component Analysis (ICA), experiments has been done in laboratory environment and CPWD specification has been followed.
Ahmad, Ibtihaj, Zarrar, Muhammad Kaab, Saeed, Takreem, Rehman, Saad.  2018.  Security Aspects of Cyber Physical Systems. 2018 1st International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1–6.
Cyber Physical System (CPS) is one of the emerging technologies of the day due to its large number of applications. Its applications extends to automotive, commercial, medical, home appliances and manufacturing industries. Mass research is being conducted in this area including design models, signal processing, control system models, communication models and security. One of the most important aspects of these is security and privacy of CPS. There are a number of vulnerabilities and threats that can be used by an attacker to exploit a cyber physical system. This paper provides a brief review of current security threats, vulnerabilities and its solutions for CPS. For the sake of simplicity the security threats have been divided into two classes i.e. control security and information security. Based on this division various attack methods and their possible solutions have been discussed.
Ambassa, P. L., Kayem, A. V. D. M., Wolthusen, S. D., Meinel, C..  2018.  Privacy Risks in Resource Constrained Smart Micro-Grids. 2018 32nd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA). :527-532.

In rural/remote areas, resource constrained smart micro-grid (RCSMG) architectures can offer a cost-effective power management and supply alternative to national power grid connections. RCSMG architectures handle communications over distributed lossy networks to minimize operation costs. However, the unreliable nature of lossy networks makes privacy an important consideration. Existing anonymisation works on data perturbation work mainly by distortion with additive noise. Apply these solutions to RCSMGs is problematic, because deliberate noise additions must be distinguishable both from system and adversarial generated noise. In this paper, we present a brief survey of privacy risks in RCSMGs centered on inference, and propose a method of mitigating these risks. The lesson here is that while RCSMGs give users more control over power management and distribution, good anonymisation is essential to protecting personal information on RCSMGs.

Chang, S. H., William, T., Wu, W. Z., Cheng, B. C., Chen, H., Hsu, P. H..  2017.  Design of an Authentication and Key Management System for a Smart Meter Gateway in AMI. 2017 IEEE 6th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics (GCCE). :1–2.

By applying power usage statistics from smart meters, users are able to save energy in their homes or control smart appliances via home automation systems. However, owing to security and privacy concerns, it is recommended that smart meters (SM) should not have direct communication with smart appliances. In this paper, we propose a design for a smart meter gateway (SMGW) associated with a two-phase authentication mechanism and key management scheme to link a smart grid with smart appliances. With placement of the SMGW, we can reduce the design complexity of SMs as well as enhance the strength of security.

Zheng, P., Chen, B., Lu, X., Zhou, X..  2017.  Privacy-utility trade-off for smart meter data considering tracing household power usage. 2017 IEEE 2nd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :939–943.

As the key component of the smart grid, smart meters fill in the gap between electrical utilities and household users. Todays smart meters are capable of collecting household power information in real-time, providing precise power dispatching control services for electrical utilities and informing real-time power price for users, which significantly improve the user experiences. However, the use of data also brings a concern about privacy leakage and the trade-off between data usability and user privacy becomes an vital problem. Existing works propose privacy-utility trade-off frameworks against statistical inference attack. However, these algorithms are basing on distorted data, and will produce cumulative errors when tracing household power usage and lead to false power state estimation, mislead dispatching control, and become an obstacle for practical application. Furthermore, previous works consider power usage as discrete variables in their optimization problems while realistic smart meter data is continuous variable. In this paper, we propose a mechanism to estimate the trade-off between utility and privacy on a continuous time-series distorted dataset, where we extend previous optimization problems to continuous variables version. Experiments results on smart meter dataset reveal that the proposed mechanism is able to prevent inference to sensitive appliances, preserve insensitive appliances, as well as permit electrical utilities to trace household power usage periodically efficiently.

Iqbal, H., Ma, J., Mu, Q., Ramaswamy, V., Raymond, G., Vivanco, D., Zuena, J..  2017.  Augmenting Security of Internet-of-Things Using Programmable Network-Centric Approaches: A Position Paper. 2017 26th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN). :1–6.

Advances in nanotechnology, large scale computing and communications infrastructure, coupled with recent progress in big data analytics, have enabled linking several billion devices to the Internet. These devices provide unprecedented automation, cognitive capabilities, and situational awareness. This new ecosystem–termed as the Internet-of-Things (IoT)–also provides many entry points into the network through the gadgets that connect to the Internet, making security of IoT systems a complex problem. In this position paper, we argue that in order to build a safer IoT system, we need a radically new approach to security. We propose a new security framework that draws ideas from software defined networks (SDN), and data analytics techniques; this framework provides dynamic policy enforcements on every layer of the protocol stack and can adapt quickly to a diverse set of industry use-cases that IoT deployments cater to. Our proposal does not make any assumptions on the capabilities of the devices - it can work with already deployed as well as new types of devices, while also conforming to a service-centric architecture. Even though our focus is on industrial IoT systems, the ideas presented here are applicable to IoT used in a wide array of applications. The goal of this position paper is to initiate a dialogue among standardization bodies and security experts to help raise awareness about network-centric approaches to IoT security.

Togan, M., Chifor, B. C., Florea, I., Gugulea, G..  2017.  A smart-phone based privacy-preserving security framework for IoT devices. 2017 9th International Conference on Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence (ECAI). :1–7.

Internet of Things (IoT) devices are getting increasingly popular, becoming a core element for the next generations of informational architectures: smart city, smart factory, smart home, smart health-care and many others. IoT systems are mainly comprised of embedded devices with limited computing capabilities while having a cloud component which processes the data and delivers it to the end-users. IoT devices access the user private data, thus requiring robust security solution which must address features like usability and scalability. In this paper we discuss about an IoT authentication service for smart-home devices using a smart-phone as security anchor, QR codes and attribute based cryptography (ABC). Regarding the fact that in an IoT ecosystem some of the IoT devices and the cloud components may be considered untrusted, we propose a privacy preserving attribute based access control protocol to handle the device authentication to the cloud service. For the smart-phone centric authentication to the cloud component, we employ the FIDO UAF protocol and we extend it, by adding an attributed based privacy preserving component.

Zhu, X., Badr, Y., Pacheco, J., Hariri, S..  2017.  Autonomic Identity Framework for the Internet of Things. 2017 International Conference on Cloud and Autonomic Computing (ICCAC). :69–79.

The Internet of Things (IoT) will connect not only computers and mobile devices, but it will also interconnect smart buildings, houses, and cities, as well as electrical grids, gas plants, and water networks, automobiles, airplanes, etc. IoT will lead to the development of a wide range of advanced information services that are pervasive, cost-effective, and can be accessed from anywhere and at any time. However, due to the exponential number of interconnected devices, cyber-security in the IoT is a major challenge. It heavily relies on the digital identity concept to build security mechanisms such as authentication and authorization. Current centralized identity management systems are built around third party identity providers, which raise privacy concerns and present a single point of failure. In addition, IoT unconventional characteristics such as scalability, heterogeneity and mobility require new identity management systems to operate in distributed and trustless environments, and uniquely identify a particular device based on its intrinsic digital properties and its relation to its human owner. In order to deal with these challenges, we present a Blockchain-based Identity Framework for IoT (BIFIT). We show how to apply our BIFIT to IoT smart homes to achieve identity self-management by end users. In the context of smart home, the framework autonomously extracts appliances signatures and creates blockchain-based identifies for their appliance owners. It also correlates appliances signatures (low level identities) and owners identifies in order to use them in authentication credentials and to make sure that any IoT entity is behaving normally.

Legaard, Lasse, Thomsen, Josephine Raun, Lorentzen, Christian Hannesbo, Techen, Jonas Peter.  2016.  Exploring SCI As Means of Interaction Through the Design Case of Vacuum Cleaning. Proceedings of the TEI '16: Tenth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction. :488–493.

This paper explores the opportunities for incorporating shape changing properties into everyday home appliances. Throughout a design research approach the vacuum cleaner is used as a design case with the overall aim of enhancing the user experience by transforming the appliance into a sensing object. Three fully functional prototypes were developed in order to illustrate how shape change can fit into the context of our homes. The shape changing functionalities are: 1) a digital power button that supports dynamic affordances, 2) an analog handle that mediates the amount of dust particles through haptic feedback and 3) a body that behaves in a lifelike manner dependent on the user treatment. We report the development and implementation of the functional prototypes as well as technical limitations and initial user reactions on the prototypes.

M. Clark, L. Lampe.  2015.  "Single-channel compressive sampling of electrical data for non-intrusive load monitoring". 2015 IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (GlobalSIP). :790-794.

Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) extracts information about how energy is being used in a building from electricity measurements collected at a single location. Obtaining measurements at only one location is attractive because it is inexpensive and convenient, but it can result in large amounts of data from high frequency electrical measurements. Different ways to compress or selectively measure this data are therefore required for practical implementations of NILM. We explore the use of random filtering and random demodulation, techniques that are closely related to compressed sensing, to offer a computationally simple way of compressing the electrical data. We show how these techniques can allow one to reduce the sampling rate of the electricity measurements, while requiring only one sampling channel and allowing accurate NILM performance. Our tests are performed using real measurements of electrical signals from a public data set, thus demonstrating their effectiveness on real appliances and allowing for reproducibility and comparison with other data management strategies for NILM.

Shahgoshtasbi, D., Jamshidi, M.M..  2014.  A New Intelligent Neuro #x2013;Fuzzy Paradigm for Energy-Efficient Homes. Systems Journal, IEEE. 8:664-673.

Demand response (DR), which is the action voluntarily taken by a consumer to adjust amount or timing of its energy consumption, has an important role in improving energy efficiency. With DR, we can shift electrical load from peak demand time to other periods based on changes in price signal. At residential level, automated energy management systems (EMS) have been developed to assist users in responding to price changes in dynamic pricing systems. In this paper, a new intelligent EMS (iEMS) in a smart house is presented. It consists of two parts: a fuzzy subsystem and an intelligent lookup table. The fuzzy subsystem is based on its fuzzy rules and inputs that produce the proper output for the intelligent lookup table. The second part, whose core is a new model of an associative neural network, is able to map inputs to desired outputs. The structure of the associative neural network is presented and discussed. The intelligent lookup table takes three types of inputs that come from the fuzzy subsystem, outside sensors, and feedback outputs. Whatever is trained in this lookup table are different scenarios in different conditions. This system is able to find the best energy-efficiency scenario in different situations.

Srivastava, P., Pande, S.S..  2014.  A novel architecture for identity management system using virtual appliance technology. Contemporary Computing (IC3), 2014 Seventh International Conference on. :171-175.

Identity management system has gained significance for any organization today for not only storing details of its employees but securing its sensitive information and safely managing access to its resources. This system being an enterprise based application has time taking deployment process, involving many complex and error prone steps. Also being globally used, its continuous running on servers lead to large carbon emissions. This paper proposes a novel architecture that integrates the Identity management system together with virtual appliance technology to reduce the overall deployment time of the system. It provides an Identity management system as pre-installed, pre-configured and ready to go solution that can be easily deployed even by a common user. The proposed architecture is implemented and the results have shown that there is decrease in deployment time and decrease in number of steps required in previous architecture. The hardware required by the application is also reduced as its deployed on virtual machine monitor platform, which can be installed on already used servers. This contributes to the green computing practices and gives costs benefits for enterprises. Also there is ease of migration of system from one server to another and the enterprises which do not want to depend on third party cloud for security and cost reasons, can easily deploy their identity management system in their own premises.