Visible to the public Biblio

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Chibaya, Colin, Jowa, Viola Jubile, Rupere, Taurayi.  2020.  A HES for Low Speed Processors. 2020 2nd International Multidisciplinary Information Technology and Engineering Conference (IMITEC). :1—6.
Adaptation of e-commerce in third world countries requires more secure computing facilities. Online data is vulnerable and susceptible to active attacks. Hundreds of security mechanisms and services have been proposed to curb this challenge. However, available security mechanisms, sufficiently strong, are heavy for the machines used. To secure online data where machines' processing power and memory are deficient, a Hybrid Encryption Standard (HES) is proposed. The HES is built on the Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm and its siblings. The component units of the DES are redesigned towards reduced demands for processing power and memory. Precisely, white box designs of IP tables, PC tables, Expansion tables, Rotation tables, S-boxes and P-boxes are proposed, all aimed at reducing the processing time and memory demands. Evaluation of the performance of the HES algorithm against the performance of the traditional DES algorithm reveal that the HES out-performs the DES with regards to speed, memory demands, and general acceptance by novice practitioners in the cryptography field. In addition, reproducibility and flexibility are attractive features of the HES over the DES.
Engram, S., Ligatti, J..  2020.  Through the Lens of Code Granularity: A Unified Approach to Security Policy Enforcement. 2020 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security (AINS). :41—46.

A common way to characterize security enforcement mechanisms is based on the time at which they operate. Mechanisms operating before a program's execution are static mechanisms, and mechanisms operating during a program's execution are dynamic mechanisms. This paper introduces a different perspective and classifies mechanisms based on the granularity of program code that they monitor. Classifying mechanisms in this way provides a unified view of security mechanisms and shows that all security mechanisms can be encoded as dynamic mechanisms that operate at different levels of program code granularity. The practicality of the approach is demonstrated through a prototype implementation of a framework for enforcing security policies at various levels of code granularity on Java bytecode applications.

Ben-Yaakov, Y., Meyer, J., Wang, X., An, B..  2020.  User detection of threats with different security measures. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Human-Machine Systems (ICHMS). :1—6.

Cyber attacks and the associated costs made cybersecurity a vital part of any system. User behavior and decisions are still a major part in the coping with these risks. We developed a model of optimal investment and human decisions with security measures, given that the effectiveness of each measure depends partly on the performance of the others. In an online experiment, participants classified events as malicious or non-malicious, based on the value of an observed variable. Prior to making the decisions, they had invested in three security measures - a firewall, an IDS or insurance. In three experimental conditions, maximal investment in only one of the measures was optimal, while in a fourth condition, participants should not have invested in any of the measures. A previous paper presents the analysis of the investment decisions. This paper reports users' classifications of events when interacting with these systems. The use of security mechanisms helped participants gain higher scores. Participants benefited in particular from purchasing IDS and/or Cyber Insurance. Participants also showed higher sensitivity and compliance with the alerting system when they could benefit from investing in the IDS. Participants, however, did not adjust their behavior optimally to the security settings they had chosen. The results demonstrate the complex nature of risk-related behaviors and the need to consider human abilities and biases when designing cyber security systems.

Santos, L. S. dos, Nascimento, P. R. M., Bento, L. M. S., Machado, R. C. S., Amorim, C. L..  2020.  Development of security mechanisms for a remote sensing system based on opportunistic and mesh networks. 2020 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 IoT. :418–422.
The present work describes a remote environment monitoring system based on the paradigms of mesh networks and opportunistic networks, whereby a sensor node can explore “con-nectivity windows” to transmit information that will eventually reach another network participants. We discuss the threats to the system's security and propose security mechanisms for the system ensuring the integrity and availability of monitoring information, something identified as critical to its proper operation.
Giraldo, J., Kafash, S. H., Ruths, J., Cárdenas, A. A..  2020.  DARIA: Designing Actuators to Resist Arbitrary Attacks Against Cyber-Physical Systems. 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :339–353.

In the past decade we have seen an active research community proposing attacks and defenses to Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). Most of these attacks and defenses have been heuristic in nature, limiting the attacker to a set of predefined operations, and proposing defenses with unclear security guarantees. In this paper, we propose a generic adversary model that can capture any type of attack (our attacker is not constrained to follow specific attacks such as replay, delay, or bias) and use it to design security mechanisms with provable security guarantees. In particular, we propose a new secure design paradigm we call DARIA: Designing Actuators to Resist arbItrary Attacks. The main idea behind DARIA is the design of physical limits to actuators in order to prevent attackers from arbitrarily manipulating the system, irrespective of their point of attack (sensors or actuators) or the specific attack algorithm (bias, replay, delays, etc.). As far as we are aware, we are the first research team to propose the design of physical limits to actuators in a control loop in order to keep the system secure against attacks. We demonstrate the generality of our proposal on simulations of vehicular platooning and industrial processes.

Maxa, Jean-Aimé, Ben Mahmoud, Mohamed Slim, Larrieu, Nicolas.  2019.  Performance evaluation of a new secure routing protocol for UAV Ad hoc Network. 2019 IEEE/AIAA 38th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC). :1–10.

UAANET (UAV Ad hoc Network) is defined as an autonomous system made of swarm of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) and GCS (Ground Control Station). Compared to other types of MANET (Mobile Ad hoc network), UAANET have some unique features and bring several challenges. One of them is the design of routing protocol. It must be efficient for creating routes between nodes and dynamically adjusting to the rapidly changing topology. It must also be secure to protect the integrity of the network against malicious attackers. In this paper, we will present the architecture and the performance evaluation (based on both real-life experimental and emulation studies) of a secure routing protocol called SUAP (Secure UAV Ad hoc routing Protocol). SUAP ensures routing services between nodes to exchange real-time traffic and also guarantees message authentication and integrity to protect the network integrity. Additional security mechanisms were added to detect Wormhole attacks. Wormhole attacks represent a high level of risk for UAV ad hoc network and this is the reason why we choose to focus on this specific multi node attack. Through performance evaluation campaign, our results show that SUAP ensures the expected security services against different types of attacks while providing an acceptable quality of service for real-time data exchanges.

Masood, Raziqa, Pandey, Nitin, Rana, Q. P..  2017.  An approach of dredging the interconnected nodes and repudiating attacks in cloud network. 2017 4th IEEE Uttar Pradesh Section International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Electronics (UPCON). :49–53.
In cloud computing environment, there are malignant nodes which create a huge problem to transfer data in communication. As there are so many models to prevent the data over the network, here we try to prevent or make secure to the network by avoiding mallicious nodes in between the communication. So the probabiliostic approach what we use here is a coherent tool to supervise the security challenges in the cloud environment. The matter of security for cloud computing is a superficial quality of service from cloud service providers. Even, cloud computing dealing everyday with new challenges, which is in process to well investigate. This research work draws the light on aspect regarding with the cloud data transmission and security by identifying the malignanat nodes in between the communication. Cloud computing network shared the common pool of resources like hardware, framework, platforms and security mechanisms. therefore Cloud Computing cache the information and deliver the secure transaction of data, so privacy and security has become the bone of contention which hampers the process to execute safely. To ensure the security of data in cloud environment, we proposed a method by implementing white box cryptography on RSA algorithm and then we work on the network, and find the malignant nodes which hampering the communication by hitting each other in the network. Several existing security models already have been deployed with security attacks. A probabilistic authentication and authorization approach is introduced to overcome this attack easily. It observes corrupted nodes before hitting with maximum probability. here we use a command table to conquer the malignant nodes. then we do the comparative study and it shows the probabilistic authentication and authorization protocol gives the performance much better than the old ones.
Rumez, Marcel, Dürrwang, Jürgen, Brecht, Tim, Steinshorn, Timo, Neugebauer, Peter, Kriesten, Reiner, Sax, Eric.  2019.  CAN Radar: Sensing Physical Devices in CAN Networks based on Time Domain Reflectometry. 2019 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC). :1–8.
The presence of security vulnerabilities in automotive networks has already been shown by various publications in recent years. Due to the specification of the Controller Area Network (CAN) as a broadcast medium without security mechanisms, attackers are able to read transmitted messages without being noticed and to inject malicious messages. In order to detect potential attackers within a network or software system as early as possible, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) are prevalent. Many approaches for vehicles are based on techniques which are able to detect deviations from specified CAN network behaviour regarding protocol or payload properties. However, it is challenging to detect attackers who secretly connect to CAN networks and do not actively participate in bus traffic. In this paper, we present an approach that is capable of successfully detecting unknown CAN devices and determining the distance (cable length) between the attacker device and our sensing unit based on Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technique. We evaluated our approach on a real vehicle network.
Kadebu, Prudence, Thada, Vikas, Chiurunge, Panashe.  2018.  Natural Language Processing and Deep Learning Towards Security Requirements Classification. 2018 3rd International Conference on Contemporary Computing and Informatics (IC3I). :135–140.
Security Requirements classification is an important area to the Software Engineering community in order to build software that is secure, robust and able to withstand attacks. This classification facilitates proper analysis of security requirements so that adequate security mechanisms are incorporated in the development process. Machine Learning techniques have been used in Security Requirements classification to aid in the process that lead to ensuring that correct security mechanisms are designed corresponding to the Security Requirements classifications made to eliminate the risk of security being incorporated in the late stages of development. However, these Machine Learning techniques have been found to have problems including, handcrafting of features, overfitting and failure to perform well with high dimensional data. In this paper we explore Natural Language Processing and Deep Learning to determine if this can be applied to Security Requirements classification.
de Matos Patrocínio dos Santos, Bernardo, Dzogovic, Bruno, Feng, Boning, Do, Van Thuan, Jacot, Niels, van Do, Thanh.  2019.  Towards Achieving a Secure Authentication Mechanism for IoT Devices in 5G Networks. 2019 6th IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud)/ 2019 5th IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing and Scalable Cloud (EdgeCom). :130–135.

Upon the new paradigm of Cellular Internet of Things, through the usage of technologies such as Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT), a massive amount of IoT devices will be able to use the mobile network infrastructure to perform their communications. However, it would be beneficial for these devices to use the same security mechanisms that are present in the cellular network architecture, so that their connections to the application layer could see an increase on security. As a way to approach this, an identity management and provisioning mechanism, as well as an identity federation between an IoT platform and the cellular network is proposed as a way to make an IoT device deemed worthy of using the cellular network and perform its actions.

Vieira, Leandro, Santos, Leonel, Gon\c calves, Ramiro, Rabadão, Carlos.  2019.  Identifying Attack Signatures for the Internet of Things: An IP Flow Based Approach. 2019 14th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI). :1–7.

At the time of more and more devices being connected to the internet, personal and sensitive information is going around the network more than ever. Thus, security and privacy regarding IoT communications, devices, and data are a concern due to the diversity of the devices and protocols used. Since traditional security mechanisms cannot always be adequate due to the heterogeneity and resource limitations of IoT devices, we conclude that there are still several improvements to be made to the 2nd line of defense mechanisms like Intrusion Detection Systems. Using a collection of IP flows, we can monitor the network and identify properties of the data that goes in and out. Since network flows collection have a smaller footprint than packet capturing, it makes it a better choice towards the Internet of Things networks. This paper aims to study IP flow properties of certain network attacks, with the goal of identifying an attack signature only by observing those properties.

Rizk, Dominick, Rizk, Rodrigue, Hsu, Sonya.  2019.  Applied Layered-Security Model to IoMT. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :227–227.

Nowadays, IoT has crossed all borders and become ubiquitous in everyday life. This emerging technology has a huge success in closing the gap between the digital and the real world. However, security and privacy become huge concerns especially in the medical field which prevent the healthcare industry from adopting it despite its benefits and potentials. This paper focuses on identifying potential security threats to the IoMT and presents the security mechanisms to remove any possible impediment from immune information security of IoMT. A summarized framework of the layered-security model is proposed followed by a specific assessment review of each layer.

Pérez García, Julio César, Ortiz Guerra, Erik, Barriquello, Carlos Henrique, Dalla Costa, Marco Antônio, Reguera, Vitalio Alfonso.  2019.  Faster-Than-Nyquist Signaling for Physical Layer Security on Wireless Smart Grid. 2019 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference - Latin America (ISGT Latin America). :1–6.
Wireless networks offer great flexibility and ease of deployment for the rapid implementation of smart grids. However, these data network technologies are prone to security issues. Especially, the risk of eavesdropping attacks increases due to the inherent characteristics of the wireless medium. In this context, physical layer security can augment secrecy through appropriate coding and signal processing. In this paper we consider the use of faster-than-Nyquist signaling to introduce artificial noise in the wireless network segment of the smart grid; with the aim of reinforce the information security at the physical layer. The results show that the proposed scheme can significantly improves the secrecy rate of the channel. Guaranteeing, in coexistence with other security mechanisms and despite the presence of potential eavesdroppers, a reliable and secure flow of information for smart grids.
Koutroumpouchos, Nikos, Ntantogian, Christoforos, Menesidou, Sofia-Anna, Liang, Kaitai, Gouvas, Panagiotis, Xenakis, Christos, Giannetsos, Thanassis.  2019.  Secure Edge Computing with Lightweight Control-Flow Property-based Attestation. 2019 IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization (NetSoft). :84–92.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly evolving, while introducing several new challenges regarding security, resilience and operational assurance. In the face of an increasing attack landscape, it is necessary to cater for the provision of efficient mechanisms to collectively verify software- and device-integrity in order to detect run-time modifications. Towards this direction, remote attestation has been proposed as a promising defense mechanism. It allows a third party, the verifier, to ensure the integrity of a remote device, the prover. However, this family of solutions do not capture the real-time requirements of industrial IoT applications and suffer from scalability and efficiency issues. In this paper, we present a lightweight dynamic control-flow property-based attestation architecture (CFPA) that can be applied on both resource-constrained edge and cloud devices and services. It is a first step towards a new line of security mechanisms that enables the provision of control-flow attestation of only those specific, critical software components that are comparatively small, simple and limited in function, thus, allowing for a much more efficient verification. Our goal is to enhance run-time software integrity and trustworthiness with a scalable and decentralized solution eliminating the need for federated infrastructure trust. Based on our findings, we posit open issues and challenges, and discuss possible ways to address them, so that security do not hinder the deployment of intelligent edge computing systems.

Wang, Jingyuan, Xie, Peidai, Wang, Yongjun, Rong, Zelin.  2018.  A Survey of Return-Oriented Programming Attack, Defense and Its Benign Use. 2018 13th Asia Joint Conference on Information Security (AsiaJCIS). :83-88.

The return-oriented programming(ROP) attack has been a common access to exploit software vulnerabilities in the modern operating system(OS). An attacker can execute arbitrary code with the aid of ROP despite security mechanisms are involved in OS. In order to mitigate ROP attack, defense mechanisms are also drawn researchers' attention. Besides, research on the benign use of ROP become a hot spot in recent years, since ROP has a perfect resistance to static analysis, which can be adapted to hide some important code. The results in benign use also benefit from a low overhead on program size. The paper discusses the concepts of ROP attack as well as extended ROP attack in recent years. Corresponding defense mechanisms based on randomization, frequency, and control flow integrity are analyzed as well, besides, we also analyzed limitations in this defense mechanisms. Later, we discussed the benign use of ROP in steganography, code integrity verification, and software watermarking, which showed the significant promotion by adopting ROP. At the end of this paper, we looked into the development of ROP attack, the future of possible mitigation strategies and the potential for benign use.

Pfeffer, T., Herber, P., Druschke, L., Glesner, S..  2018.  Efficient and Safe Control Flow Recovery Using a Restricted Intermediate Language. 2018 IEEE 27th International Conference on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE). :235-240.

Approaches for the automatic analysis of security policies on source code level cannot trivially be applied to binaries. This is due to the lacking high-level semantics of low-level object code, and the fundamental problem that control-flow recovery from binaries is difficult. We present a novel approach to recover the control-flow of binaries that is both safe and efficient. The key idea of our approach is to use the information contained in security mechanisms to approximate the targets of computed branches. To achieve this, we first define a restricted control transition intermediate language (RCTIL), which restricts the number of possible targets for each branch to a finite number of given targets. Based on this intermediate language, we demonstrate how a safe model of the control flow can be recovered without data-flow analyses. Our evaluation shows that that makes our solution more efficient than existing solutions.

Sowah, R., Ofoli, A., Koumadi, K., Osae, G., Nortey, G., Bempong, A. M., Agyarkwa, B., Apeadu, K. O..  2018.  Design and Implementation of a Fire Detection andControl System with Enhanced Security and Safety for Automobiles Using Neuro-Fuzzy Logic. 2018 IEEE 7th International Conference on Adaptive Science Technology (ICAST). :1-8.

Automobiles provide comfort and mobility to owners. While they make life more meaningful they also pose challenges and risks in their safety and security mechanisms. Some modern automobiles are equipped with anti-theft systems and enhanced safety measures to safeguard its drivers. But at times, these mechanisms for safety and secured operation of automobiles are insufficient due to various mechanisms used by intruders and car thieves to defeat them. Drunk drivers cause accidents on our roads and thus the need to safeguard the driver when he is intoxicated and render the car to be incapable of being driven. These issues merit an integrated approach to safety and security of automobiles. In the light of these challenges, an integrated microcontroller-based hardware and software system for safety and security of automobiles to be fixed into existing vehicle architecture, was designed, developed and deployed. The system submodules are: (1) Two-step ignition for automobiles, namely: (a) biometric ignition and (b) alcohol detection with engine control, (2) Global Positioning System (GPS) based vehicle tracking and (3) Multisensor-based fire detection using neuro-fuzzy logic. All submodules of the system were implemented using one microcontroller, the Arduino Mega 2560, as the central control unit. The microcontroller was programmed using C++11. The developed system performed quite well with the tests performed on it. Given the right conditions, the alcohol detection subsystem operated with a 92% efficiency. The biometric ignition subsystem operated with about 80% efficiency. The fire detection subsystem operated with a 95% efficiency in locations registered with the neuro-fuzzy system. The vehicle tracking subsystem operated with an efficiency of 90%.

Pillutla, H., Arjunan, A..  2018.  A Brief Review of Fuzzy Logic and Its Usage Towards Counter-Security Issues. 2018 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking (WiSPNET). :1-6.

Nowadays, most of the world's population has become much dependent on computers for banking, healthcare, shopping, and telecommunication. Security has now become a basic norm for computers and its resources since it has become inherently insecure. Security issues like Denial of Service attacks, TCP SYN Flooding attacks, Packet Dropping attacks and Distributed Denial of Service attacks are some of the methods by which unauthorized users make the resource unavailable to authorized users. There are several security mechanisms like Intrusion Detection System, Anomaly detection and Trust model by which we can be able to identify and counter the abuse of computer resources by unauthorized users. This paper presents a survey of several security mechanisms which have been implemented using Fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic is one of the rapidly developing technologies, which is used in a sophisticated control system. Fuzzy logic deals with the degree of truth rather than the Boolean logic, which carries the values of either true or false. So instead of providing only two values, we will be able to define intermediate values.

Shaik, M. A..  2018.  Protecting Agents from Malicious Hosts using Trusted Platform Modules (TPM). 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (ICICCT). :559–564.

Software agents represent an assured computing paradigm that tends to emerge to be an elegant technology to solve present day problems. The eminent Scientific Community has proved us with the usage or implementation of software agent's usage approach that simplifies the proposed solution in various types to solve the traditional computing problems arise. The proof of the same is implemented in several applications that exist based on this area of technology where the software agents have maximum benefits but on the same hand absence of the suitable security mechanisms that endures for systems that are based on representation of barriers exists in the paradigm with respect to present day industry. As the application proposing present security mechanisms is not a trivial one as the agent based system builders or developers who are not often security experts as they subsequently do not count on the area of expertise. This paper presents a novel approach for protecting the infrastructure for solving the issues considered to be malicious host in mobile agent system by implementing a secure protocol to migrate agents from host to host relying in various elements based on the enhanced Trusted Platforms Modules (TPM) for processing data. We use enhanced extension to the Java Agent Development framework (JADE) in our proposed system and a migrating protocol is used to validate the proposed framework (AVASPA).

Hoeller, A., Toegl, R..  2018.  Trusted Platform Modules in Cyber-Physical Systems: On the Interference Between Security and Dependability. 2018 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :136–144.

Cyber physical systems are the key innovation driver for many domains such as automotive, avionics, industrial process control, and factory automation. However, their interconnection potentially provides adversaries easy access to sensitive data, code, and configurations. If attackers gain control, material damage or even harm to people must be expected. To counteract data theft, system manipulation and cyber-attacks, security mechanisms must be embedded in the cyber physical system. Adding hardware security in the form of the standardized Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is a promising approach. At the same time, traditional dependability features such as safety, availability, and reliability have to be maintained. To determine the right balance between security and dependability it is essential to understand their interferences. This paper supports developers in identifying the implications of using TPMs on the dependability of their system.We highlight potential consequences of adding TPMs to cyber-physical systems by considering the resulting safety, reliability, and availability. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of enhancing the dependability of TPM services by applying traditional redundancy techniques.

Tewari, A., Gupta, B. B..  2018.  A Robust Anonymity Preserving Authentication Protocol for IoT Devices. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1–5.

In spite of being a promising technology which will make our lives a lot easier we cannot be oblivious to the fact IoT is not safe from online threat and attacks. Thus, along with the growth of IoT we also need to work on its aspects. Taking into account the limited resources that these devices have it is important that the security mechanisms should also be less complex and do not hinder the actual functionality of the device. In this paper, we propose an ECC based lightweight authentication for IoT devices which deploy RFID tags at the physical layer. ECC is a very efficient public key cryptography mechanism as it provides privacy and security with lesser computation overhead. We also present a security and performance analysis to verify the strength of our proposed approach.

Waraich, P. S., Batra, N..  2017.  Prevention of denial of service attack over vehicle ad hoc networks using quick response table. 2017 4th International Conference on Signal Processing, Computing and Control (ISPCC). :586–591.

Secure routing over VANET is a major issue due to its high mobility environment. Due to dynamic topology, routes are frequently updated and also suffers from link breaks due to the obstacles i.e. buildings, tunnels and bridges etc. Frequent link breaks can cause packet drop and thus result in degradation of network performance. In case of VANETs, it becomes very difficult to identify the reason of the packet drop as it can also occur due to the presence of a security threat. VANET is a type of wireless adhoc network and suffer from common attacks which exist for mobile adhoc network (MANET) i.e. Denial of Services (DoS), Black hole, Gray hole and Sybil attack etc. Researchers have already developed various security mechanisms for secure routing over MANET but these solutions are not fully compatible with unique attributes of VANET i.e. vehicles can communicate with each other (V2V) as well as communication can be initiated with infrastructure based network (V2I). In order to secure the routing for both types of communication, there is need to develop a solution. In this paper, a method for secure routing is introduced which can identify as well as eliminate the existing security threat.

Naik, T., Khatiwala, F., Sakadasariya, A..  2017.  Search for secure data transmission in MANET: A review. 2017 International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICEI). :573–575.

Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) comprise of independent ambulant nodes with no any stable infrastructure. All mobile nodes are co-operatively transfer their data packets to different mobile nodes in the network. Mobile nodes are depends on intermediate nodes when transmission range beyond limit i.e. multi hop network. As MANET is a highly dynamic network, mobile nodes can leave and join a network at anytime. Security is the biggest issue in MANET as MANET is infrastructure-less and autonomous. In MANET, correspondence between two mobile nodes is performed by routing protocols wherein every versatile node can make directly communication with other versatile node. In the event that both portable nodes are inside a transmission range of each other, then they can straightforwardly make communication with each other. Otherwise, transmission is done through the intermediate node. The nature of its wireless nature is also additionally turns into the purpose of its greatest vulnerability. In this manner, diminishing the confidence level of the system as it appropriate to availability, integrity, reliability and privacy concerns. There are different routing protocols for providing security that are designed based on various cryptographic techniques. To obtain a rapid knowledge of security design, we are giving a review on different cryptographic techniques to secure MANET. In this review, we presents security techniques and protocols related to cryptographic techniques.

Silva, B., Sabino, A., Junior, W., Oliveira, E., Júnior, F., Dias, K..  2017.  Performance Evaluation of Cryptography on Middleware-Based Computational Offloading. 2017 VII Brazilian Symposium on Computing Systems Engineering (SBESC). :205–210.
Mobile cloud computing paradigm enables cloud servers to extend the limited hardware resources of mobile devices improving availability and reliability of the services provided. Consequently, private, financial, business and critical data pass through wireless access media exposed to malicious attacks. Mobile cloud infrastructure requires new security mechanisms, at the same time as offloading operations need to maintain the advantages of saving processing and energy of the device. Thus, this paper implements a middleware-based computational offloading with cryptographic algorithms and evaluates two mechanisms (symmetric and asymmetric), to provide the integrity and authenticity of data that a smartphone offloads to mobile cloud servers. Also, the paper discusses the factors that impact on power consumption and performance on smartphones that's run resource-intensive applications.
Silva, M. R., Zeferino, C. A..  2017.  Confidentiality and Authenticity in a Platform Based on Network-on-Chip. 2017 VII Brazilian Symposium on Computing Systems Engineering (SBESC). :225–230.

In many-core systems, the processing elements are interconnected using Networks-on-Chip. An example of on-chip network is SoCIN, a low-cost interconnect architecture whose original design did not take into account security aspects. This network is vulnerable to eavesdropping and spoofing attacks, what limits its use in systems that require security. This work addresses this issue and aims to ensure the security properties of confidentiality and authenticity of SoCIN-based systems. For this, we propose the use of security mechanisms based on symmetric encryption at the network level using the AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) model. A reference multi-core platform was implemented and prototyped in programmable logic aiming at performing experiments to evaluate the implemented mechanisms. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solution in protecting the system against the target attacks. The impact on the network performance is acceptable and the silicon overhead is equivalent to other solutions found in the literature.