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2019-11-19
Wang, Jiye, Sun, Yuyan, Miao, Siwei, Shi, Zhiqiang, Sun, Limin.  2018.  Vulnerability and Protocol Association of Device Firmware in Power Grid. 2018 Electrical Power, Electronics, Communications, Controls and Informatics Seminar (EECCIS). :259-263.

The intelligent power grid is composed of a large number of industrial control equipment, and most of the industrial control equipment has security holes, which are vulnerable to malicious attacks and affect the normal operation of the power grid. By analyzing the security vulnerability of the firmware of industrial control equipment, the vulnerability can be detected in advance and the power grid's ability to resist attack can be improved. In this paper, a kind of industrial control device firmware protocol vulnerabilities associated technology, through the technology of information extraction from the mass grid device firmware device attributes and extract the industrial control system, the characteristics of the construction of industrial control system device firmware and published vulnerability information correlation, faster in the industrial control equipment safety inspection found vulnerabilities.

Nasiruzzaman, A. B. M., Akter, M. N., Mahmud, M. A., Pota, H. R..  2018.  Network Theory Based Power Grid Criticality Assessment. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES). :1-5.

A process of critical transmission lines identification in presented here. The criticality is based on network flow, which is essential for power grid connectivity monitoring as well as vulnerability assessment. The proposed method can be utilized as a supplement of traditional situational awareness tool in the energy management system of the power grid control center. At first, a flow network is obtained from topological as well as functional features of the power grid. Then from the duality property of a linear programming problem, the maximum flow problem is converted to a minimum cut problem. Critical transmission lines are identified as a solution of the dual problem. An overall set of transmission lines are identified from the solution of the network flow problem. Simulation of standard IEEE test cases validates the application of the method in finding critical transmission lines of the power grid.

Sun, Yunhe, Yang, Dongsheng, Meng, Lei, Gao, Xiaoting, Hu, Bo.  2018.  Universal Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Power Grid Based on Complex Networks. 2018 Chinese Control And Decision Conference (CCDC). :136-141.

Traditionally, power grid vulnerability assessment methods are separated to the study of nodes vulnerability and edges vulnerability, resulting in the evaluation results are not accurate. A framework for vulnerability assessment is still required for power grid. Thus, this paper proposes a universal method for vulnerability assessment of power grid by establishing a complex network model with uniform weight of nodes and edges. The concept of virtual edge is introduced into the distinct weighted complex network model of power system, and the selection function of edge weight and virtual edge weight are constructed based on electrical and physical parameters. In addition, in order to reflect the electrical characteristics of power grids more accurately, a weighted betweenness evaluation index with transmission efficiency is defined. Finally, the method has been demonstrated on the IEEE 39 buses system, and the results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Fei, Jiaxuan, Shi, Congcong, Yuan, Xuechong, Zhang, Rui, Chen, Wei, Yang, Yi.  2019.  Reserch on Cyber Attack of Key Measurement and Control Equipment in Power Grid. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Energy Internet (ICEI). :31-36.

The normal operation of key measurement and control equipment in power grid (KMCEPG) is of great significance for safe and stable operation of power grid. Firstly, this paper gives a systematic overview of KMCEPG. Secondly, the cyber security risks of KMCEPG on the main station / sub-station side, channel side and terminal side are analyzed and the related vulnerabilities are discovered. Thirdly, according to the risk analysis results, the attack process construction technology of KMCEPG is proposed, which provides the test process and attack ideas for the subsequent KMCEPG-related attack penetration. Fourthly, the simulation penetration test environment is built, and a series of attack tests are carried out on the terminal key control equipment by using the attack flow construction technology proposed in this paper. The correctness of the risk analysis and the effectiveness of the attack process construction technology are verified. Finally, the attack test results are analyzed, and the attack test cases of terminal critical control devices are constructed, which provide the basis for the subsequent attack test. The attack flow construction technology and attack test cases proposed in this paper improve the network security defense capability of key equipment of power grid, ensure the safe and stable operation of power grid, and have strong engineering application value.

Ying, Huan, Zhang, Yanmiao, Han, Lifang, Cheng, Yushi, Li, Jiyuan, Ji, Xiaoyu, Xu, Wenyuan.  2019.  Detecting Buffer-Overflow Vulnerabilities in Smart Grid Devices via Automatic Static Analysis. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :813-817.

As a modern power transmission network, smart grid connects plenty of terminal devices. However, along with the growth of devices are the security threats. Different from the previous separated environment, an adversary nowadays can destroy the power system by attacking these devices. Therefore, it's critical to ensure the security and safety of terminal devices. To achieve this goal, detecting the pre-existing vulnerabilities of the device program and enhance the terminal security, are of great importance and necessity. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that detects existing buffer-overflow vulnerabilities of terminal devices via automatic static analysis (ASA). We utilize the static analysis to extract the device program information and build corresponding program models. By further matching the generated program model with pre-defined vulnerability patterns, we achieve vulnerability detection and error reporting. The evaluation results demonstrate that our method can effectively detect buffer-overflow vulnerabilities of smart terminals with a high accuracy and a low false positive rate.

Wang, Bo, Wang, Xunting.  2018.  Vulnerability Assessment Method for Cyber Physical Power System Considering Node Heterogeneity. 2018 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT Asia). :1109-1113.
In order to make up for the shortcomings of traditional evaluation methods neglecting node difference, a vulnerability assessment method considering node heterogeneity for cyber physical power system (CPPS) is proposed. Based on the entropy of the power flow and complex network theory, we establish heterogeneity evaluation index system for CPPS, which considers the survivability of island survivability and short-term operation of the communication network. For mustration, hierarchical CPPS model and distributed CPPS model are established respectively based on partitioning characteristic and different relationships of power grid and communication network. Simulation results show that distributed system is more robust than hierarchical system of different weighting factor whether under random attack or deliberate attack and a hierarchical system is more sensitive to the weighting factor. The proposed method has a better recognition effect on the equilibrium of the network structure and can assess the vulnerability of CPPS more accurately.
Khaledian, Parviz, Johnson, Brian K., Hemati, Saied.  2018.  Power Grid Security Improvement by Remedial Action Schemes Using Vulnerability Assessment Based on Fault Chains and Power Flow. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems (PMAPS). :1-6.

The risk of large-scale blackouts and cascading failures in power grids can be due to vulnerable transmission lines and lack of proper remediation techniques after recognizing the first failure. In this paper, we assess the vulnerability of a system using fault chain theory and a power flow-based method, and calculate the probability of large-scale blackout. Further, we consider a Remedial Action Scheme (RAS) to reduce the vulnerability of the system and to harden the critical components against intentional attacks. To identify the most critical lines more efficiently, a new vulnerability index is presented. The effectiveness of the new index and the impact of the applied RAS is illustrated on the IEEE 14-bus test system.

Bontupalli, Venkataramesh, Yakopcic, Chris, Hasan, Raqibul, Taha, Tarek M..  2018.  Efficient Memristor-Based Architecture for Intrusion Detection and High-Speed Packet Classification. J. Emerg. Technol. Comput. Syst.. 14:41:1-41:27.

Deep packet inspection (DPI) is a critical component to prevent intrusion detection. This requires a detailed analysis of each network packet header and body. Although this is often done on dedicated high-power servers in most networked systems, mobile systems could potentially be vulnerable to attack if utilized on an unprotected network. In this case, having DPI hardware on the mobile system would be highly beneficial. Unfortunately, DPI hardware is generally area and power consuming, making its implementation difficult in mobile systems. We developed a memristor crossbar-based approach, inspired by memristor crossbar neuromorphic circuits, for a low-power, low-area, and high-throughput DPI system that examines both the header and body of a packet. Two key types of circuits are presented: static pattern matching and regular expression circuits. This system is able to reduce execution time and power consumption due to its high-density grid and massive parallelism. Independent searches are performed using low-power memristor crossbar arrays giving rise to a throughput of 160Gbps with no loss in the classification accuracy.

Wang, Chenguang, Cai, Yici, Wang, Haoyi, Zhou, Qiang.  2018.  Electromagnetic Equalizer: An Active Countermeasure Against EM Side-Channel Attack. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer-Aided Design. :112:1-112:8.

Electromagnetic (EM) analysis is to reveal the secret information by analyzing the EM emission from a cryptographic device. EM analysis (EMA) attack is emerging as a serious threat to hardware security. It has been noted that the on-chip power grid (PG) has a security implication on EMA attack by affecting the fluctuations of supply current. However, there is little study on exploiting this intrinsic property as an active countermeasure against EMA. In this paper, we investigate the effect of PG on EM emission and propose an active countermeasure against EMA, i.e. EM Equalizer (EME). By adjusting the PG impedance, the current waveform can be flattened, equalizing the EM profile. Therefore, the correlation between secret data and EM emission is significantly reduced. As a first attempt to the co-optimization for power and EM security, we extend the EME method by fixing the vulnerability of power analysis. To verify the EME method, several cryptographic designs are implemented. The measurement to disclose (MTD) is improved by 1138x with area and power overheads of 0.62% and 1.36%, respectively.

2019-07-01
Liu, Changming, Zou, Deqing, Luo, Peng, Zhu, Bin B., Jin, Hai.  2018.  A Heuristic Framework to Detect Concurrency Vulnerabilities. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :529-541.

With a growing demand of concurrent software to exploit multi-core hardware capability, concurrency vulnerabilities have become an inevitable threat to the security of today's IT industry. Existing concurrent program detection schemes focus mainly on detecting concurrency errors such as data races, atomicity violation, etc., with little attention paid to detect concurrency vulnerabilities that may be exploited to infringe security. In this paper, we propose a heuristic framework that combines both static analysis and fuzz testing to detect targeted concurrency vulnerabilities such as concurrency buffer overflow, double free, and use-after-free. The static analysis locates sensitive concurrent operations in a concurrent program, categorizes each finding into a potential type of concurrency vulnerability, and determines the execution order of the sensitive operations in each finding that would trigger the suspected concurrency vulnerability. The results are then plugged into the fuzzer with the execution order fixed by the static analysis in order to trigger the suspected concurrency vulnerabilities. In order to introduce more variance which increases possibility that the concurrency errors can be triggered, we also propose manipulation of thread scheduling priority to enable a fuzzer such as AFL to effectively explore thread interleavings in testing a concurrent program. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fuzzer that is capable of effectively exploring concurrency errors. In evaluating the proposed heuristic framework with a benchmark suit of six real-world concurrent C programs, the framework detected two concurrency vulnerabilities for the proposed concurrency vulnerability detection, both being confirmed to be true positives, and produced three new crashes for the proposed interleaving exploring fuzzer that existing fuzzers could not produce. These results demonstrate the power and effectiveness of the proposed heuristic framework in detecting concurrency errors and vulnerabilities.

2018-05-24
Tosh, D. K., Shetty, S., Liang, X., Kamhoua, C. A., Kwiat, K. A., Njilla, L..  2017.  Security Implications of Blockchain Cloud with Analysis of Block Withholding Attack. 2017 17th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing (CCGRID). :458–467.

The blockchain technology has emerged as an attractive solution to address performance and security issues in distributed systems. Blockchain's public and distributed peer-to-peer ledger capability benefits cloud computing services which require functions such as, assured data provenance, auditing, management of digital assets, and distributed consensus. Blockchain's underlying consensus mechanism allows to build a tamper-proof environment, where transactions on any digital assets are verified by set of authentic participants or miners. With use of strong cryptographic methods, blocks of transactions are chained together to enable immutability on the records. However, achieving consensus demands computational power from the miners in exchange of handsome reward. Therefore, greedy miners always try to exploit the system by augmenting their mining power. In this paper, we first discuss blockchain's capability in providing assured data provenance in cloud and present vulnerabilities in blockchain cloud. We model the block withholding (BWH) attack in a blockchain cloud considering distinct pool reward mechanisms. BWH attack provides rogue miner ample resources in the blockchain cloud for disrupting honest miners' mining efforts, which was verified through simulations.

Ding, P., Wang, Y., Yan, G., Li, W..  2017.  DoS Attacks in Electrical Cyber-Physical Systems: A Case Study Using TrueTime Simulation Tool. 2017 Chinese Automation Congress (CAC). :6392–6396.

Recent years, the issue of cyber security has become ever more prevalent in the analysis and design of electrical cyber-physical systems (ECPSs). In this paper, we present the TrueTime Network Library for modeling the framework of ECPSs and focuses on the vulnerability analysis of ECPSs under DoS attacks. Model predictive control algorithm is used to control the ECPS under disturbance or attacks. The performance of decentralized and distributed control strategies are compared on the simulation platform. It has been proved that DoS attacks happen at dada collecting sensors or control instructions actuators will influence the system differently.

Zhang, T., Wang, Y., Liang, X., Zhuang, Z., Xu, W..  2017.  Cyber Attacks in Cyber-Physical Power Systems: A Case Study with GPRS-Based SCADA Systems. 2017 29th Chinese Control And Decision Conference (CCDC). :6847–6852.

With the integration of computing, communication, and physical processes, the modern power grid is becoming a large and complex cyber physical power system (CPPS). This trend is intended to modernize and improve the efficiency of the power grid, yet it makes the CPPS vulnerable to potential cascading failures caused by cyber-attacks, e.g., the attacks that are originated by the cyber network of CPPS. To prevent these risks, it is essential to analyze how cyber-attacks can be conducted against the CPPS and how they can affect the power systems. In light of that General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) has been widely used in CPPS, this paper provides a case study by examining possible cyber-attacks against the cyber-physical power systems with GPRS-based SCADA system. We analyze the vulnerabilities of GPRS-based SCADA systems and focus on DoS attacks and message spoofing attacks. Furthermore, we show the consequence of these attacks against power systems by a simulation using the IEEE 9-node system, and the results show the validity of cascading failures propagated through the systems under our proposed attacks.

Paul, S., Ni, Z..  2017.  Vulnerability Analysis for Simultaneous Attack in Smart Grid Security. 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.

Power grid infrastructures have been exposed to several terrorists and cyber attacks from different perspectives and have resulted in critical system failures. Among different attack strategies, simultaneous attack is feasible for the attacker if enough resources are available at the moment. In this paper, vulnerability analysis for simultaneous attack is investigated, using a modified cascading failure simulator with reduced calculation time than the existing methods. A new damage measurement matrix is proposed with the loss of generation power and time to reach the steady-state condition. The combination of attacks that can result in a total blackout in the shortest time are considered as the strongest simultaneous attack for the system from attacker's viewpoint. The proposed approach can be used for general power system test cases. In this paper, we conducted the experiments on W&W 6 bus system and IEEE 30 bus system for demonstration of the result. The modified simulator can automatically find the strongest attack combinations for reaching maximum damage in terms of generation power loss and time to reach black-out.

Kwon, Y., Kim, H. K., Koumadi, K. M., Lim, Y. H., Lim, J. I..  2017.  Automated Vulnerability Analysis Technique for Smart Grid Infrastructure. 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.

A smart grid is a fully automated power electricity network, which operates, protects and controls all its physical environments of power electricity infrastructure being able to supply energy in an efficient and reliable way. As the importance of cyber-physical system (CPS) security is growing, various vulnerability analysis methodologies for general systems have been suggested, whereas there has been few practical research targeting the smart grid infrastructure. In this paper, we highlight the significance of security vulnerability analysis in the smart grid environment. Then we introduce various automated vulnerability analysis techniques from executable files. In our approach, we propose a novel binary-based vulnerability discovery method for AMI and EV charging system to automatically extract security-related features from the embedded software. Finally, we present the test result of vulnerability discovery applied for AMI and EV charging system in Korean smart grid environment.

Huang, P., Wang, Y., Yan, G..  2017.  Vulnerability Analysis of Electrical Cyber Physical Systems Using a Simulation Platform. IECON 2017 - 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :489–494.

This paper considers a framework of electrical cyber-physical systems (ECPSs) in which each bus and branch in a power grid is equipped with a controller and a sensor. By means of measuring the damages of cyber attacks in terms of cutting off transmission lines, three solution approaches are proposed to assess and deal with the damages caused by faults or cyber attacks. Splitting incident is treated as a special situation in cascading failure propagation. A new simulation platform is built for simulating the protection procedure of ECPSs under faults. The vulnerability of ECPSs under faults is analyzed by experimental results based on IEEE 39-bus system.

Chen, L., Yue, D., Dou, C., Ge, H., Lu, J., Yang, X..  2017.  Cascading Failure Initially from Power Grid in Interdependent Networks. 2017 IEEE Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System Integration (EI2). :1–5.

The previous consideration of power grid focuses on the power system itself, however, the recent work is aiming at both power grid and communication network, this coupling networks are firstly called as interdependent networks. Prior study on modeling interdependent networks always extracts main features from real networks, the model of network A and network B are completely symmetrical, both degree distribution in intranetwork and support pattern in inter-network, but in reality this circumstance is hard to attain. In this paper, we deliberately set both networks with same topology in order to specialized research the support pattern between networks. In terms of initial failure from power grid or communication network, we find the remaining survival fraction is greatly disparate, and the failure initially from power grid is more harmful than failure initially from communication network, which all show the vulnerability of interdependency and meantime guide us to pay more attention to the protection measures for power grid.

Dey, A. K., Gel, Y. R., Poor, H. V..  2017.  Motif-Based Analysis of Power Grid Robustness under Attacks. 2017 IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (GlobalSIP). :1015–1019.

Network motifs are often called the building blocks of networks. Analysis of motifs is found to be an indispensable tool for understanding local network structure, in contrast to measures based on node degree distribution and its functions that primarily address a global network topology. As a result, networks that are similar in terms of global topological properties may differ noticeably at a local level. In the context of power grids, this phenomenon of the impact of local structure has been recently documented in fragility analysis and power system classification. At the same time, most studies of power system networks still tend to focus on global topo-logical measures of power grids, often failing to unveil hidden mechanisms behind vulnerability of real power systems and their dynamic response to malfunctions. In this paper a pilot study of motif-based analysis of power grid robustness under various types of intentional attacks is presented, with the goal of shedding light on local dynamics and vulnerability of power systems.

2018-05-01
Paudel, Sarita, Smith, Paul, Zseby, Tanja.  2017.  Attack Models for Advanced Persistent Threats in Smart Grid Wide Area Monitoring. Proceedings of the 2Nd Workshop on Cyber-Physical Security and Resilience in Smart Grids. :61–66.

Wide Area Monitoring Systems (WAMSs) provide an essential building block for Smart Grid supervision and control. Distributed Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) allow accurate clock-synchronized measurements of voltage and current phasors (amplitudes, phase angles) and frequencies. The sensor data from PMUs provide situational awareness in the grid, and are used as input for control decisions. A modification of sensor data can severely impact grid stability, overall power supply, and physical devices. Since power grids are critical infrastructures, WAMSs are tempting targets for all kinds of attackers, including well-organized and motivated adversaries such as terrorist groups or adversarial nation states. Such groups possess sufficient resources to launch sophisticated attacks. In this paper, we provide an in-depth analysis of attack possibilities on WAMSs. We model the dependencies and building blocks of Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) on WAMSs using attack trees. We consider the whole WAMS infrastructure, including aggregation and data collection points, such as Phasor Data Concentrators (PDCs), classical IT components, and clock synchronization. Since Smart Grids are cyber-physical systems, we consider physical perturbations, in addition to cyber attacks in our models. The models provide valuable information about the chain of cyber or physical attack steps that can be combined to build a sophisticated attack for reaching a higher goal. They assist in the assessment of physical and cyber vulnerabilities, and provide strategic guidance for the deployment of suitable countermeasures.

2018-04-04
Ran, L., Lu, L., Lin, H., Han, M., Zhao, D., Xiang, J., Yu, H., Ma, X..  2017.  An Experimental Study of Four Methods for Homology Analysis of Firmware Vulnerability. 2017 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Their Applications (DSA). :42–50.

In the production process of embedded device, due to the frequent reuse of third-party libraries or development kits, there are large number of same vulnerabilities that appear in more than one firmware. Homology analysis is often used in detecting this kind of vulnerabilities caused by code reuse or third-party reuse and in the homology analysis, the widely used methods are mainly Binary difference analysis, Normalized compression distance, String feature matching and Fuzz hash. But when we use these methods for homology analysis, we found that the detection result is not ideal and there is a high false positive rate. Focusing on this problem, we analyzed the application scenarios of these four methods and their limitations by combining different methods and different types of files and the experiments show that the combination of methods and files have a better performance in homology analysis.

2018-02-06
Gavgani, M. H., Eftekharnejad, S..  2017.  A Graph Model for Enhancing Situational Awareness in Power Systems. 2017 19th International Conference on Intelligent System Application to Power Systems (ISAP). :1–6.

As societies are becoming more dependent on the power grids, the security issues and blackout threats are more emphasized. This paper proposes a new graph model for online visualization and assessment of power grid security. The proposed model integrates topology and power flow information to estimate and visualize interdependencies between the lines in the form of line dependency graph (LDG) and immediate threats graph (ITG). These models enable the system operator to predict the impact of line outage and identify the most vulnerable and critical links in the power system. Line Vulnerability Index (LVI) and Line Criticality Index (LCI) are introduced as two indices extracted from LDG to aid the operator in decision making and contingency selection. This package can be useful in enhancing situational awareness in power grid operation by visualization and estimation of system threats. The proposed approach is tested for security analysis of IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus systems and the results are discussed.

2017-11-27
Ashok, A., Krishnaswamy, S., Govindarasu, M..  2016.  PowerCyber: A remotely accessible testbed for Cyber Physical security of the Smart Grid. 2016 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.

Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) security testbeds serve as a platform for evaluating and validating novel CPS security tools and technologies, accelerating the transition of state-of-the-art research to industrial practice. The engineering of CPS security testbeds requires significant investments in money, time and modeling efforts to provide a scalable, high-fidelity, real-time attack-defense platform. Therefore, there is a strong need in academia and industry to create remotely accessible testbeds that support a range of use-cases pertaining to CPS security of the grid, including vulnerability assessments, impact analysis, product testing, attack-defense exercises, and operator training. This paper describes the implementation architecture, and capabilities of a remote access and experimental orchestration framework developed for the PowerCyber CPS security testbed at Iowa State University (ISU). The paper then describes several engineering challenges in the development of such remotely accessible testbeds for Smart Grid CPS security experimentation. Finally, the paper provides a brief case study with some screenshots showing a particular use case scenario on the remote access framework.

Pandey, R. K., Misra, M..  2016.  Cyber security threats \#x2014; Smart grid infrastructure. 2016 National Power Systems Conference (NPSC). :1–6.

Smart grid is an evolving new power system framework with ICT driven power equipment massively layered structure. The new generation sensors, smart meters and electronic devices are integral components of smart grid. However, the upcoming deployment of smart devices at different layers followed by their integration with communication networks may introduce cyber threats. The interdependencies of various subsystems functioning in the smart grid, if affected by cyber-attack, may be vulnerable and greatly reduce efficiency and reliability due to any one of the device not responding in real time frame. The cyber security vulnerabilities become even more evident due to the existing superannuated cyber infrastructure. This paper presents a critical review on expected cyber security threats in complex environment and addresses the grave concern of a secure cyber infrastructure and related developments. An extensive review on the cyber security objectives and requirements along with the risk evaluation process has been undertaken. The paper analyses confidentiality and privacy issues of entire components of smart power system. A critical evaluation on upcoming challenges with innovative research concerns is highlighted to achieve a roadmap of an immune smart grid infrastructure. This will further facilitate R&d; associated developments.

Biswas, S., Sarwat, A..  2016.  Vulnerabilities in two-area Automatic Generation Control systems under cyberattack. 2016 Resilience Week (RWS). :40–45.

The power grid is a prime target of cyber criminals and warrants special attention as it forms the backbone of major infrastructures that drive the nation's defense and economy. Developing security measures for the power grid is challenging since it is physically dispersed and interacts dynamically with associated cyber infrastructures that control its operation. This paper presents a mathematical framework to investigate stability of two area systems due to data attacks on Automatic Generation Control (AGC) system. Analytical and simulation results are presented to identify attack levels that could drive the AGC system to potentially become unstable.

Ghanbari, R., Jalili, M., Yu, X..  2016.  Analysis of cascaded failures in power networks using maximum flow based complex network approach. IECON 2016 - 42nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :4928–4932.

Power networks can be modeled as networked structures with nodes representing the bus bars (connected to generator, loads and transformers) and links representing the transmission lines. In this manuscript we study cascaded failures in power networks. As network structures we consider IEEE 118 bus network and a random spatial model network with similar properties to IEEE 118 bus network. A maximum flow based model is used to find the central edges. We study cascaded failures triggered by both random and targeted attacks to the edges. In the targeted attack the edge with the maximum centrality value is disconnected from the network. A number of metrics including the size of the largest connected component, the number of failed edges, the average maximum flow and the global efficiency are studied as a function of capacity parameter (edge critical load is proportional to its capacity parameter and nominal centrality value). For each case we identify the critical capacity parameter by which the network shows resilient behavior against failures. The experiments show that one should further protect the network for a targeted attack as compared to a random failure.