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2019-08-26
Zhang, Y., Ya\u gan, O..  2018.  Modeling and Analysis of Cascading Failures in Interdependent Cyber-Physical Systems. 2018 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :4731-4738.

Integrated cyber-physical systems (CPSs), such as the smart grid, are becoming the underpinning technology for major industries. A major concern regarding such systems are the seemingly unexpected large scale failures, which are often attributed to a small initial shock getting escalated due to intricate dependencies within and across the individual counterparts of the system. In this paper, we develop a novel interdependent system model to capture this phenomenon, also known as cascading failures. Our framework consists of two networks that have inherently different characteristics governing their intra-dependency: i) a cyber-network where a node is deemed to be functional as long as it belongs to the largest connected (i.e., giant) component; and ii) a physical network where nodes are given an initial flow and a capacity, and failure of a node results with redistribution of its flow to the remaining nodes, upon which further failures might take place due to overloading. Furthermore, it is assumed that these two networks are inter-dependent. For simplicity, we consider a one-to-one interdependency model where every node in the cyber-network is dependent upon and supports a single node in the physical network, and vice versa. We provide a thorough analysis of the dynamics of cascading failures in this interdependent system initiated with a random attack. The system robustness is quantified as the surviving fraction of nodes at the end of cascading failures, and is derived in terms of all network parameters involved. Analytic results are supported through an extensive numerical study. Among other things, these results demonstrate the ability of our model to capture the unexpected nature of large-scale failures, and provide insights on improving system robustness.

2019-07-01
Zabetian-Hosseini, A., Mehrizi-Sani, A., Liu, C..  2018.  Cyberattack to Cyber-Physical Model of Wind Farm SCADA. IECON 2018 - 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :4929–4934.

In recent years, there has been a significant increase in wind power penetration into the power system. As a result, the behavior of the power system has become more dependent on wind power behavior. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems responsible for monitoring and controlling wind farms often have vulnerabilities that make them susceptible to cyberattacks. These vulnerabilities allow attackers to exploit and intrude in the wind farm SCADA system. In this paper, a cyber-physical system (CPS) model for the information and communication technology (ICT) model of the wind farm SCADA system integrated with SCADA of the power system is proposed. Cybersecurity of this wind farm SCADA system is discussed. Proposed cyberattack scenarios on the system are modeled and the impact of these cyberattacks on the behavior of the power systems on the IEEE 9-bus modified system is investigated. Finally, an anomaly attack detection algorithm is proposed to stop the attack of tripping of all wind farms. Case studies validate the performance of the proposed CPS model of the test system and the attack detection algorithm.

2019-03-25
Pournaras, E., Ballandies, M., Acharya, D., Thapa, M., Brandt, B..  2018.  Prototyping Self-Managed Interdependent Networks - Self-Healing Synergies against Cascading Failures. 2018 IEEE/ACM 13th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS). :119–129.
The interconnection of networks between several techno-socio-economic sectors such as energy, transport, and communication, questions the manageability and resilience of the digital society. System interdependencies alter the fundamental dynamics that govern isolated systems, which can unexpectedly trigger catastrophic instabilities such as cascading failures. This paper envisions a general-purpose, yet simple prototyping of self-management software systems that can turn system interdependencies from a cause of instability to an opportunity for higher resilience. Such prototyping proves to be challenging given the highly interdisciplinary scope of interdependent networks. Different system dynamics and organizational constraints such as the distributed nature of interdependent networks or the autonomy and authority of system operators over their controlled infrastructure perplex the design for a general prototyping approach, which earlier work has not yet addressed. This paper contributes such a modular design solution implemented as an open source software extension of SFINA, the Simulation Framework for Intelligent Network Adaptations. The applicability of the software artifact is demonstrated with the introduction of a novel self-healing mechanism for interdependent power networks, which optimizes power flow exchanges between a damaged and a healer network to mitigate power cascading failures. Results show a significant decrease in the damage spread by self-healing synergies, while the degree of interconnectivity between the power networks indicates a tradeoff between links survivability and load served. The contributions of this paper aspire to bring closer several research communities working on modeling and simulation of different domains with an economic and societal impact on the resilience of real-world interdependent networks.
2019-02-22
Guo, Y., Gong, Y., Njilla, L. L., Kamhoua, C. A..  2018.  A Stochastic Game Approach to Cyber-Physical Security with Applications to Smart Grid. IEEE INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :33-38.
This paper proposes a game-theoretic approach to analyze the interactions between an attacker and a defender in a cyber-physical system (CPS) and develops effective defense strategies. In a CPS, the attacker launches cyber attacks on a number of nodes in the cyber layer, trying to maximize the potential damage to the underlying physical system while the system operator seeks to defend several nodes in the cyber layer to minimize the physical damage. Given that CPS attacking and defending is often a continual process, a zero-sum Markov game is proposed in this paper to model these interactions subject to underlying uncertainties of real-world events and actions. A novel model is also proposed in this paper to characterize the interdependence between the cyber layer and the physical layer in a CPS and quantify the impact of the cyber attack on the physical damage in the proposed game. To find the Nash equilibrium of the Markov game, we design an efficient algorithm based on value iteration. The proposed general approach is then applied to study the wide-area monitoring and protection issue in smart grid. Extensive simulations are conducted based on real-world data, and results show the effectiveness of the defending strategies derived from the proposed approach.
2019-01-21
Hasan, S., Ghafouri, A., Dubey, A., Karsai, G., Koutsoukos, X..  2018.  Vulnerability analysis of power systems based on cyber-attack and defense models. 2018 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.
Reliable operation of power systems is a primary challenge for the system operators. With the advancement in technology and grid automation, power systems are becoming more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. The main goal of adversaries is to take advantage of these vulnerabilities and destabilize the system. This paper describes a game-theoretic approach to attacker / defender modeling in power systems. In our models, the attacker can strategically identify the subset of substations that maximize damage when compromised. However, the defender can identify the critical subset of substations to protect in order to minimize the damage when an attacker launches a cyber-attack. The algorithms for these models are applied to the standard IEEE-14, 39, and 57 bus examples to identify the critical set of substations given an attacker and a defender budget.
2018-09-05
Hossain, M. A., Merrill, H. M., Bodson, M..  2017.  Evaluation of metrics of susceptibility to cascading blackouts. 2017 IEEE Power and Energy Conference at Illinois (PECI). :1–5.
In this paper, we evaluate the usefulness of metrics that assess susceptibility to cascading blackouts. The metrics are computed using a matrix of Line Outage Distribution Factors (LODF, or DFAX matrix). The metrics are compared for several base cases with different load levels of the Western Interconnection (WI). A case corresponding to the September 8, 2011 pre-blackout state is used to compute these metrics and relate them to the origin of the cascading blackout. The correlation between the proposed metrics is determined to check redundancy. The analysis is also used to find vulnerable and critical hot spots in the power system.
2018-05-24
Kwon, Y., Kim, H. K., Koumadi, K. M., Lim, Y. H., Lim, J. I..  2017.  Automated Vulnerability Analysis Technique for Smart Grid Infrastructure. 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.

A smart grid is a fully automated power electricity network, which operates, protects and controls all its physical environments of power electricity infrastructure being able to supply energy in an efficient and reliable way. As the importance of cyber-physical system (CPS) security is growing, various vulnerability analysis methodologies for general systems have been suggested, whereas there has been few practical research targeting the smart grid infrastructure. In this paper, we highlight the significance of security vulnerability analysis in the smart grid environment. Then we introduce various automated vulnerability analysis techniques from executable files. In our approach, we propose a novel binary-based vulnerability discovery method for AMI and EV charging system to automatically extract security-related features from the embedded software. Finally, we present the test result of vulnerability discovery applied for AMI and EV charging system in Korean smart grid environment.

Huang, P., Wang, Y., Yan, G..  2017.  Vulnerability Analysis of Electrical Cyber Physical Systems Using a Simulation Platform. IECON 2017 - 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :489–494.

This paper considers a framework of electrical cyber-physical systems (ECPSs) in which each bus and branch in a power grid is equipped with a controller and a sensor. By means of measuring the damages of cyber attacks in terms of cutting off transmission lines, three solution approaches are proposed to assess and deal with the damages caused by faults or cyber attacks. Splitting incident is treated as a special situation in cascading failure propagation. A new simulation platform is built for simulating the protection procedure of ECPSs under faults. The vulnerability of ECPSs under faults is analyzed by experimental results based on IEEE 39-bus system.

Chen, L., Yue, D., Dou, C., Ge, H., Lu, J., Yang, X..  2017.  Cascading Failure Initially from Power Grid in Interdependent Networks. 2017 IEEE Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System Integration (EI2). :1–5.

The previous consideration of power grid focuses on the power system itself, however, the recent work is aiming at both power grid and communication network, this coupling networks are firstly called as interdependent networks. Prior study on modeling interdependent networks always extracts main features from real networks, the model of network A and network B are completely symmetrical, both degree distribution in intranetwork and support pattern in inter-network, but in reality this circumstance is hard to attain. In this paper, we deliberately set both networks with same topology in order to specialized research the support pattern between networks. In terms of initial failure from power grid or communication network, we find the remaining survival fraction is greatly disparate, and the failure initially from power grid is more harmful than failure initially from communication network, which all show the vulnerability of interdependency and meantime guide us to pay more attention to the protection measures for power grid.

2018-05-09
Hasan, S., Ghafouri, A., Dubey, A., Karsai, G., Koutsoukos, X..  2017.  Heuristics-based approach for identifying critical N \#x2014; k contingencies in power systems. 2017 Resilience Week (RWS). :191–197.

Reliable operation of electrical power systems in the presence of multiple critical N - k contingencies is an important challenge for the system operators. Identifying all the possible N - k critical contingencies to design effective mitigation strategies is computationally infeasible due to the combinatorial explosion of the search space. This paper describes two heuristic algorithms based on the iterative pruning of the candidate contingency set to effectively and efficiently identify all the critical N - k contingencies resulting in system failure. These algorithms are applied to the standard IEEE-14 bus system, IEEE-39 bus system, and IEEE-57 bus system to identify multiple critical N - k contingencies. The algorithms are able to capture all the possible critical N - k contingencies (where 1 ≤ k ≤ 9) without missing any dangerous contingency.

2018-04-02
Guan, X., Ma, Y., Hua, Y..  2017.  An Attack Intention Recognition Method Based on Evaluation Index System of Electric Power Information System. 2017 IEEE 2nd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :1544–1548.

With the increasing scale of the network, the power information system has many characteristics, such as large number of nodes, complicated structure, diverse network protocols and abundant data, which make the network intrusion detection system difficult to detect real alarms. The current security technologies cannot meet the actual power system network security operation and protection requirements. Based on the attacker ability, the vulnerability information and the existing security protection configuration, we construct the attack sub-graphs by using the parallel distributed computing method and combine them into the whole network attack graph. The vulnerability exploit degree, attacker knowledge, attack proficiency, attacker willingness and the confidence level of the attack evidence are used to construct the security evaluation index system of the power information network system to calculate the attack probability value of each node of the attack graph. According to the probability of occurrence of each node attack, the pre-order attack path will be formed and then the most likely attack path and attack targets will be got to achieve the identification of attack intent.

2018-02-14
Backes, M., Keefe, K., Valdes, A..  2017.  A microgrid ontology for the analysis of cyber-physical security. 2017 Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES). :1–6.
The IEC 61850 protocol suite for electrical sub-station automation enables substation configuration and design for protection, communication, and control. These power system applications can be formally verified through use of object models, common data classes, and message classes. The IEC 61850-7-420 DER (Distributed Energy Resource) extension further defines object classes for assets such as types of DER (e.g., energy storage, photovoltaic), DER unit controllers, and other DER-associated devices (e.g., inverter). These object classes describe asset-specific attributes such as state of charge, capacity limits, and ramp rate. Attributes can be fixed (rated capacity of the device) dynamic (state of charge), or binary (on or off, dispatched or off-line, operational or fault state). We sketch out a proposed ontology based on the 61850 and 61850-7-420 DER object classes to model threats against a micro-grid, which is an electrical system consisting of controllable loads and distributed generation that can function autonomously (in island mode) or connected to a larger utility grid. We consider threats against the measurements on which the control loop is based, as well as attacks against the control directives and the communication infrastructure. We use this ontology to build a threat model using the ADversary View Security Evaluation (ADVISE) framework, which enables identification of attack paths based on adversary objectives (for example, destabilize the entire micro-grid by reconnecting to the utility without synchronization) and helps identify defender strategies. Furthermore, the ADVISE method provides quantitative security metrics that can help inform trade-off decisions made by system architects and controls.
2017-11-27
Yanbing, J., Ruiqiong, L., Shanxi, H. X., Peng, W..  2016.  Risk assessment of cascading failures in power grid based on complex network theory. 2016 14th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision (ICARCV). :1–6.

Cascading failure is an intrinsic threat of power grid to cause enormous cost of society, and it is very challenging to be analyzed. The risk of cascading failure depends both on its probability and the severity of consequence. It is impossible to analyze all of the intrinsic attacks, only the critical and high probability initial events should be found to estimate the risk of cascading failure efficiently. To recognize the critical and high probability events, a cascading failure analysis model for power transmission grid is established based on complex network theory (CNT) in this paper. The risk coefficient of transmission line considering the betweenness, load rate and changeable outage probability is proposed to determine the initial events of power grid. The development tendency of cascading failure is determined by the network topology, the power flow and boundary conditions. The indicators of expected percentage of load loss and line cut are used to estimate the risk of cascading failure caused by the given initial malfunction of power grid. Simulation results from the IEEE RTS-79 test system show that the risk of cascading failure has close relations with the risk coefficient of transmission lines. The value of risk coefficient could be useful to make vulnerability assessment and to design specific action to reduce the topological weakness and the risk of cascading failure of power grid.

2017-02-27
Lever, K. E., Kifayat, K., Merabti, M..  2015.  Identifying interdependencies using attack graph generation methods. 2015 11th International Conference on Innovations in Information Technology (IIT). :80–85.

Information and communication technologies have augmented interoperability and rapidly advanced varying industries, with vast complex interconnected networks being formed in areas such as safety-critical systems, which can be further categorised as critical infrastructures. What also must be considered is the paradigm of the Internet of Things which is rapidly gaining prevalence within the field of wireless communications, being incorporated into areas such as e-health and automation for industrial manufacturing. As critical infrastructures and the Internet of Things begin to integrate into much wider networks, their reliance upon communication assets by third parties to ensure collaboration and control of their systems will significantly increase, along with system complexity and the requirement for improved security metrics. We present a critical analysis of the risk assessment methods developed for generating attack graphs. The failings of these existing schemas include the inability to accurately identify the relationships and interdependencies between the risks and the reduction of attack graph size and generation complexity. Many existing methods also fail due to the heavy reliance upon the input, identification of vulnerabilities, and analysis of results by human intervention. Conveying our work, we outline our approach to modelling interdependencies within large heterogeneous collaborative infrastructures, proposing a distributed schema which utilises network modelling and attack graph generation methods, to provide a means for vulnerabilities, exploits and conditions to be represented within a unified model.

Wei, L., Moghadasi, A. H., Sundararajan, A., Sarwat, A. I..  2015.  Defending mechanisms for protecting power systems against intelligent attacks. 2015 10th System of Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE). :12–17.

The power system forms the backbone of a modern society, and its security is of paramount importance to nation's economy. However, the power system is vulnerable to intelligent attacks by attackers who have enough knowledge of how the power system is operated, monitored and controlled. This paper proposes a game theoretic approach to explore and evaluate strategies for the defender to protect the power systems against such intelligent attacks. First, a risk assessment is presented to quantify the physical impacts inflicted by attacks. Based upon the results of the risk assessment, this paper represents the interactions between the attacker and the defender by extending the current zero-sum game model to more generalized game models for diverse assumptions concerning the attacker's motivation. The attacker and defender's equilibrium strategies are attained by solving these game models. In addition, a numerical illustration is demonstrated to warrant the theoretical outcomes.

2015-05-05
Linda, O., Wijayasekara, D., Manic, M., McQueen, M..  2014.  Optimal placement of Phasor Measurement Units in power grids using Memetic Algorithms. Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2014 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on. :2035-2041.

Wide area monitoring, protection and control for power network systems are one of the fundamental components of the smart grid concept. Synchronized measurement technology such as the Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) will play a major role in implementing these components and they have the potential to provide reliable and secure full system observability. The problem of Optimal Placement of PMUs (OPP) consists of locating a minimal set of power buses where the PMUs must be placed in order to provide full system observability. In this paper a novel solution to the OPP problem using a Memetic Algorithm (MA) is proposed. The implemented MA combines the global optimization power of genetic algorithms with local solution tuning using the hill-climbing method. The performance of the proposed approach was demonstrated on IEEE benchmark power networks as well as on a segment of the Idaho region power network. It was shown that the proposed solution using a MA features significantly faster convergence rate towards the optimum solution.
 

2015-05-01
Bhatia, R.K., Bodade, V..  2014.  Defining the framework for wireless-AMI security in smart grid. Green Computing Communication and Electrical Engineering (ICGCCEE), 2014 International Conference on. :1-5.

In smart grid, critical data like monitoring data, usage data, state estimation, billing data etc are regularly being talked among its elements. So, security of such a system, if violated, results in massive losses and damages. By compromising with security aspect of such a system is as good as committing suicide. Thus in this paper, we have proposed security mechanism in Advanced Metering Infrastructure of smart grid, formed as Mesh-Zigbee topology. This security mechanism involves PKI based Digital certificate Authentication and Intrusion detection system to protect the AMI from internal and external security attack.

Albasrawi, M.N., Jarus, N., Joshi, K.A., Sarvestani, S.S..  2014.  Analysis of Reliability and Resilience for Smart Grids. Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC), 2014 IEEE 38th Annual. :529-534.

Smart grids, where cyber infrastructure is used to make power distribution more dependable and efficient, are prime examples of modern infrastructure systems. The cyber infrastructure provides monitoring and decision support intended to increase the dependability and efficiency of the system. This comes at the cost of vulnerability to accidental failures and malicious attacks, due to the greater extent of virtual and physical interconnection. Any failure can propagate more quickly and extensively, and as such, the net result could be lowered reliability. In this paper, we describe metrics for assessment of two phases of smart grid operation: the duration before a failure occurs, and the recovery phase after an inevitable failure. The former is characterized by reliability, which we determine based on information about cascading failures. The latter is quantified using resilience, which can in turn facilitate comparison of recovery strategies. We illustrate the application of these metrics to a smart grid based on the IEEE 9-bus test system.

Shipman, C.M., Hopkinson, K.M., Lopez, J..  2015.  Con-Resistant Trust for Improved Reliability in a Smart-Grid Special Protection System. Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on. 30:455-462.

This paper applies a con-resistant trust mechanism to improve the performance of a communications-based special protection system to enhance its effectiveness and resiliency. Smart grids incorporate modern information technologies to increase reliability and efficiency through better situational awareness. However, with the benefits of this new technology come the added risks associated with threats and vulnerabilities to the technology and to the critical infrastructure it supports. The research in this paper uses con-resistant trust to quickly identify malicious or malfunctioning (untrustworthy) protection system nodes to mitigate instabilities. The con-resistant trust mechanism allows protection system nodes to make trust assessments based on the node's cooperative and defective behaviors. These behaviors are observed via frequency readings which are prediodically reported. The trust architecture is tested in experiments by comparing a simulated special protection system with a con-resistant trust mechanism to one without the mechanism via an analysis of the variance statistical model. Simulation results show promise for the proposed con-resistant trust mechanism.

Yihai Zhu, Jun Yan, Yufei Tang, Sun, Y.L., Haibo He.  2014.  Resilience Analysis of Power Grids Under the Sequential Attack. Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on. 9:2340-2354.

The modern society increasingly relies on electrical service, which also brings risks of catastrophic consequences, e.g., large-scale blackouts. In the current literature, researchers reveal the vulnerability of power grids under the assumption that substations/transmission lines are removed or attacked synchronously. In reality, however, it is highly possible that such removals can be conducted sequentially. Motivated by this idea, we discover a new attack scenario, called the sequential attack, which assumes that substations/transmission lines can be removed sequentially, not synchronously. In particular, we find that the sequential attack can discover many combinations of substation whose failures can cause large blackout size. Previously, these combinations are ignored by the synchronous attack. In addition, we propose a new metric, called the sequential attack graph (SAG), and a practical attack strategy based on SAG. In simulations, we adopt three test benchmarks and five comparison schemes. Referring to simulation results and complexity analysis, we find that the proposed scheme has strong performance and low complexity.

Yihai Zhu, Jun Yan, Yufei Tang, Yan Sun, Haibo He.  2014.  The sequential attack against power grid networks. Communications (ICC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :616-621.

The vulnerability analysis is vital for safely running power grids. The simultaneous attack, which applies multiple failures simultaneously, does not consider the time domain in applying failures, and is limited to find unknown vulnerabilities of power grid networks. In this paper, we discover a new attack scenario, called the sequential attack, in which the failures of multiple network components (i.e., links/nodes) occur at different time. The sequence of such failures can be carefully arranged by attackers in order to maximize attack performances. This attack scenario leads to a new angle to analyze and discover vulnerabilities of grid networks. The IEEE 39 bus system is adopted as test benchmark to compare the proposed attack scenario with the existing simultaneous attack scenario. New vulnerabilities are found. For example, the sequential failure of two links, e.g., links 26 and 39 in the test benchmark, can cause 80% power loss, whereas the simultaneous failure of them causes less than 10% power loss. In addition, the sequential attack is demonstrated to be statistically stronger than the simultaneous attack. Finally, several metrics are compared and discussed in terms of whether they can be used to sharply reduce the search space for identifying strong sequential attacks.

Jun Yan, Haibo He, Yan Sun.  2014.  Integrated Security Analysis on Cascading Failure in Complex Networks. Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on. 9:451-463.

The security issue of complex networks has drawn significant concerns recently. While pure topological analyzes from a network security perspective provide some effective techniques, their inability to characterize the physical principles requires a more comprehensive model to approximate failure behavior of a complex network in reality. In this paper, based on an extended topological metric, we proposed an approach to examine the vulnerability of a specific type of complex network, i.e., the power system, against cascading failure threats. The proposed approach adopts a model called extended betweenness that combines network structure with electrical characteristics to define the load of power grid components. By using this power transfer distribution factor-based model, we simulated attacks on different components (buses and branches) in the grid and evaluated the vulnerability of the system components with an extended topological cascading failure simulator. Influence of different loading and overloading situations on cascading failures was also evaluated by testing different tolerance factors. Simulation results from a standard IEEE 118-bus test system revealed the vulnerability of network components, which was then validated on a dc power flow simulator with comparisons to other topological measurements. Finally, potential extensions of the approach were also discussed to exhibit both utility and challenge in more complex scenarios and applications.

Xuezhong Guan, Jinlong Liu, Zhe Gao, Di Yu, Miao Cai.  2014.  Power grids vulnerability analysis based on combination of degree and betweenness. Control and Decision Conference (2014 CCDC), The 26th Chinese. :4829-4833.

This paper proposes an analysis method of power grids vulnerability based on complex networks. The method effectively combines the degree and betweenness of nodes or lines into a new index. Through combination of the two indexes, the new index can help to analyze the vulnerability of power grids. Attacking the line of the new index can obtain a smaller size of the largest cluster and global efficiency than that of the pure degree index or betweenness index. Finally, the fault simulation results of IEEE 118 bus system show that the new index can reveal the vulnerability of power grids more effectively.