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2020-04-24
Pan, Huan, Lian, Honghui, Na, Chunning.  2019.  Vulnerability Analysis of Smart Grid under Community Attack Style. IECON 2019 - 45th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. 1:5971—5976.
The smart grid consists of two parts, one is the physical power grid, the other is the information network. In order to study the cascading failure, the vulnerability analysis of the smart grid is done under a kind of community attack style in this paper. Two types of information networks are considered, i.e. topology consistency and scale-free cyber networks, respectively. The concept of control center is presented and the controllable power nodes and observable power lines are defined. Minimum load reduction model(MLRM) is given and described as a linear programming problem. A index is introduced to assess the vulnerability. New England 39 nodes system is applied to simulate the cascading failure process to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MLRM where community the attack methods include attack the power lines among and in power communities.
2019-03-25
Pournaras, E., Ballandies, M., Acharya, D., Thapa, M., Brandt, B..  2018.  Prototyping Self-Managed Interdependent Networks - Self-Healing Synergies against Cascading Failures. 2018 IEEE/ACM 13th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS). :119–129.
The interconnection of networks between several techno-socio-economic sectors such as energy, transport, and communication, questions the manageability and resilience of the digital society. System interdependencies alter the fundamental dynamics that govern isolated systems, which can unexpectedly trigger catastrophic instabilities such as cascading failures. This paper envisions a general-purpose, yet simple prototyping of self-management software systems that can turn system interdependencies from a cause of instability to an opportunity for higher resilience. Such prototyping proves to be challenging given the highly interdisciplinary scope of interdependent networks. Different system dynamics and organizational constraints such as the distributed nature of interdependent networks or the autonomy and authority of system operators over their controlled infrastructure perplex the design for a general prototyping approach, which earlier work has not yet addressed. This paper contributes such a modular design solution implemented as an open source software extension of SFINA, the Simulation Framework for Intelligent Network Adaptations. The applicability of the software artifact is demonstrated with the introduction of a novel self-healing mechanism for interdependent power networks, which optimizes power flow exchanges between a damaged and a healer network to mitigate power cascading failures. Results show a significant decrease in the damage spread by self-healing synergies, while the degree of interconnectivity between the power networks indicates a tradeoff between links survivability and load served. The contributions of this paper aspire to bring closer several research communities working on modeling and simulation of different domains with an economic and societal impact on the resilience of real-world interdependent networks.
2018-05-24
Chen, L., Yue, D., Dou, C., Ge, H., Lu, J., Yang, X..  2017.  Cascading Failure Initially from Power Grid in Interdependent Networks. 2017 IEEE Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System Integration (EI2). :1–5.

The previous consideration of power grid focuses on the power system itself, however, the recent work is aiming at both power grid and communication network, this coupling networks are firstly called as interdependent networks. Prior study on modeling interdependent networks always extracts main features from real networks, the model of network A and network B are completely symmetrical, both degree distribution in intranetwork and support pattern in inter-network, but in reality this circumstance is hard to attain. In this paper, we deliberately set both networks with same topology in order to specialized research the support pattern between networks. In terms of initial failure from power grid or communication network, we find the remaining survival fraction is greatly disparate, and the failure initially from power grid is more harmful than failure initially from communication network, which all show the vulnerability of interdependency and meantime guide us to pay more attention to the protection measures for power grid.

2017-11-27
Yanbing, J., Ruiqiong, L., Shanxi, H. X., Peng, W..  2016.  Risk assessment of cascading failures in power grid based on complex network theory. 2016 14th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision (ICARCV). :1–6.

Cascading failure is an intrinsic threat of power grid to cause enormous cost of society, and it is very challenging to be analyzed. The risk of cascading failure depends both on its probability and the severity of consequence. It is impossible to analyze all of the intrinsic attacks, only the critical and high probability initial events should be found to estimate the risk of cascading failure efficiently. To recognize the critical and high probability events, a cascading failure analysis model for power transmission grid is established based on complex network theory (CNT) in this paper. The risk coefficient of transmission line considering the betweenness, load rate and changeable outage probability is proposed to determine the initial events of power grid. The development tendency of cascading failure is determined by the network topology, the power flow and boundary conditions. The indicators of expected percentage of load loss and line cut are used to estimate the risk of cascading failure caused by the given initial malfunction of power grid. Simulation results from the IEEE RTS-79 test system show that the risk of cascading failure has close relations with the risk coefficient of transmission lines. The value of risk coefficient could be useful to make vulnerability assessment and to design specific action to reduce the topological weakness and the risk of cascading failure of power grid.

2015-05-01
Yihai Zhu, Jun Yan, Yufei Tang, Yan Sun, Haibo He.  2014.  The sequential attack against power grid networks. Communications (ICC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :616-621.

The vulnerability analysis is vital for safely running power grids. The simultaneous attack, which applies multiple failures simultaneously, does not consider the time domain in applying failures, and is limited to find unknown vulnerabilities of power grid networks. In this paper, we discover a new attack scenario, called the sequential attack, in which the failures of multiple network components (i.e., links/nodes) occur at different time. The sequence of such failures can be carefully arranged by attackers in order to maximize attack performances. This attack scenario leads to a new angle to analyze and discover vulnerabilities of grid networks. The IEEE 39 bus system is adopted as test benchmark to compare the proposed attack scenario with the existing simultaneous attack scenario. New vulnerabilities are found. For example, the sequential failure of two links, e.g., links 26 and 39 in the test benchmark, can cause 80% power loss, whereas the simultaneous failure of them causes less than 10% power loss. In addition, the sequential attack is demonstrated to be statistically stronger than the simultaneous attack. Finally, several metrics are compared and discussed in terms of whether they can be used to sharply reduce the search space for identifying strong sequential attacks.

Jun Yan, Haibo He, Yan Sun.  2014.  Integrated Security Analysis on Cascading Failure in Complex Networks. Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on. 9:451-463.

The security issue of complex networks has drawn significant concerns recently. While pure topological analyzes from a network security perspective provide some effective techniques, their inability to characterize the physical principles requires a more comprehensive model to approximate failure behavior of a complex network in reality. In this paper, based on an extended topological metric, we proposed an approach to examine the vulnerability of a specific type of complex network, i.e., the power system, against cascading failure threats. The proposed approach adopts a model called extended betweenness that combines network structure with electrical characteristics to define the load of power grid components. By using this power transfer distribution factor-based model, we simulated attacks on different components (buses and branches) in the grid and evaluated the vulnerability of the system components with an extended topological cascading failure simulator. Influence of different loading and overloading situations on cascading failures was also evaluated by testing different tolerance factors. Simulation results from a standard IEEE 118-bus test system revealed the vulnerability of network components, which was then validated on a dc power flow simulator with comparisons to other topological measurements. Finally, potential extensions of the approach were also discussed to exhibit both utility and challenge in more complex scenarios and applications.