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Korkmaz, Yusuf, Huseinovic, Alvin, Bisgin, Halil, Mrdović, Saša, Uludag, Suleyman.  2022.  Using Deep Learning for Detecting Mirroring Attacks on Smart Grid PMU Networks. 2022 International Balkan Conference on Communications and Networking (BalkanCom). :84–89.
Similar to any spoof detection systems, power grid monitoring systems and devices are subject to various cyberattacks by determined and well-funded adversaries. Many well-publicized real-world cyberattacks on power grid systems have been publicly reported. Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) networks with Phasor Data Concentrators (PDCs) are the main building blocks of the overall wide area monitoring and situational awareness systems in the power grid. The data between PMUs and PDC(s) are sent through the legacy networks, which are subject to many attack scenarios under with no, or inadequate, countermeasures in protocols, such as IEEE 37.118-2. In this paper, we consider a stealthier data spoofing attack against PMU networks, called a mirroring attack, where an adversary basically injects a copy of a set of packets in reverse order immediately following their original positions, wiping out the correct values. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time in the literature, we consider a more challenging attack both in terms of the strategy and the lower percentage of spoofed attacks. As part of our countermeasure detection scheme, we make use of novel framing approach to make application of a 2D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based approach which avoids the computational overhead of the classical sample-based classification algorithms. Our experimental evaluation results show promising results in terms of both high accuracy and true positive rates even under the aforementioned stealthy adversarial attack scenarios.
Alanzi, Mataz, Challa, Hari, Beleed, Hussain, Johnson, Brian K., Chakhchoukh, Yacine, Reen, Dylan, Singh, Vivek Kumar, Bell, John, Rieger, Craig, Gentle, Jake.  2022.  Synchrophasors-based Master State Awareness Estimator for Cybersecurity in Distribution Grid: Testbed Implementation & Field Demonstration. 2022 IEEE Power & Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.
The integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and expansion of complex network in the distribution grid requires an advanced two-level state estimator to monitor the grid health at micro-level. The distribution state estimator will improve the situational awareness and resiliency of distributed power system. This paper implements a synchrophasors-based master state awareness (MSA) estimator to enhance the cybersecurity in distribution grid by providing a real-time estimation of system operating states to control center operators. In this paper, the implemented MSA estimator utilizes only phasor measurements, bus magnitudes and angles, from phasor measurement units (PMUs), deployed in local substations, to estimate the system states and also detects data integrity attacks, such as load tripping attack that disconnects the load. To validate the proof of concept, we implement this methodology in cyber-physical testbed environment at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Electric Grid Security Testbed. Further, to address the "valley of death" and support technology commercialization, field demonstration is also performed at the Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (CITRC) at the INL. Our experimental results reveal a promising performance in detecting load tripping attack and providing an accurate situational awareness through an alert visualization dashboard in real-time.
Madbhavi, Rahul, Srinivasan, Babji.  2022.  Enhancing Performance of Compressive Sensing-based State Estimators using Dictionary Learning. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Power Systems Technology (POWERCON). :1–6.
Smart grids integrate computing and communication infrastructure with conventional power grids to improve situational awareness, control, and safety. Several technologies such as automatic fault detection, automated reconfiguration, and outage management require close network monitoring. Therefore, utilities utilize sensing equipment such as PMUs (phasor measurement units), smart meters, and bellwether meters to obtain grid measurements. However, the expansion in sensing equipment results in an increased strain on existing communication infrastructure. Prior works overcome this problem by exploiting the sparsity of power consumption data in the Haar, Hankel, and Toeplitz transformation bases to achieve sub-Nyquist compression. However, data-driven dictionaries enable superior compression ratios and reconstruction accuracy by learning the sparsifying basis. Therefore, this work proposes using dictionary learning to learn the sparsifying basis of smart meter data. The smart meter data sent to the data centers are compressed using a random projection matrix prior to transmission. These measurements are aggregated to obtain the compressed measurements at the primary nodes. Compressive sensing-based estimators are then utilized to estimate the system states. This approach was validated on the IEEE 33-node distribution system and showed superior reconstruction accuracy over conventional transformation bases and over-complete dictionaries. Voltage magnitude and angle estimation error less than 0.3% mean absolute percentage error and 0.04 degree mean absolute error, respectively, were achieved at compression ratios as high as eight.
Chinthavali, Supriya, Hasan, S.M.Shamimul, Yoginath, Srikanth, Xu, Haowen, Nugent, Phil, Jones, Terry, Engebretsen, Cozmo, Olatt, Joseph, Tansakul, Varisara, Christopher, Carter et al..  2022.  An Alternative Timing and Synchronization Approach for Situational Awareness and Predictive Analytics. 2022 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :172–177.

Accurate and synchronized timing information is required by power system operators for controlling the grid infrastructure (relays, Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), etc.) and determining asset positions. Satellite-based global positioning system (GPS) is the primary source of timing information. However, GPS disruptions today (both intentional and unintentional) can significantly compromise the reliability and security of our electric grids. A robust alternate source for accurate timing is critical to serve both as a deterrent against malicious attacks and as a redundant system in enhancing the resilience against extreme events that could disrupt the GPS network. To achieve this, we rely on the highly accurate, terrestrial atomic clock-based network for alternative timing and synchronization. In this paper, we discuss an experimental setup for an alternative timing approach. The data obtained from this experimental setup is continuously monitored and analyzed using various time deviation metrics. We also use these metrics to compute deviations of our clock with respect to the National Institute of Standards and Technologys (NIST) GPS data. The results obtained from these metric computations are elaborately discussed. Finally, we discuss the integration of the procedures involved, like real-time data ingestion, metric computation, and result visualization, in a novel microservices-based architecture for situational awareness.

Wshah, Safwan, Shadid, Reem, Wu, Yuhao, Matar, Mustafa, Xu, Beilei, Wu, Wencheng, Lin, Lei, Elmoudi, Ramadan.  2020.  Deep Learning for Model Parameter Calibration in Power Systems. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Power Systems Technology (POWERCON). :1–6.
In power systems, having accurate device models is crucial for grid reliability, availability, and resiliency. Existing model calibration methods based on mathematical approaches often lead to multiple solutions due to the ill-posed nature of the problem, which would require further interventions from the field engineers in order to select the optimal solution. In this paper, we present a novel deep-learning-based approach for model parameter calibration in power systems. Our study focused on the generator model as an example. We studied several deep-learning-based approaches including 1-D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Gated Recurrent Units (GRU), which were trained to estimate model parameters using simulated Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) data. Quantitative evaluations showed that our proposed methods can achieve high accuracy in estimating the model parameters, i.e., achieved a 0.0079 MSE on the testing dataset. We consider these promising results to be the basis for further exploration and development of advanced tools for model validation and calibration.
Knesek, Kolten, Wlazlo, Patrick, Huang, Hao, Sahu, Abhijeet, Goulart, Ana, Davis, Kate.  2021.  Detecting Attacks on Synchrophasor Protocol Using Machine Learning Algorithms. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :102—107.
Phasor measurement units (PMUs) are used in power grids across North America to measure the amplitude, phase, and frequency of an alternating voltage or current. PMU's use the IEEE C37.118 protocol to send telemetry to phasor data collectors (PDC) and human machine interface (HMI) workstations in a control center. However, the C37.118 protocol utilizes the internet protocol stack without any authentication mechanism. This means that the protocol is vulnerable to false data injection (FDI) and false command injection (FCI). In order to study different scenarios in which C37.118 protocol's integrity and confidentiality can be compromised, we created a testbed that emulates a C37.118 communication network. In this testbed we conduct FCI and FDI attacks on real-time C37.118 data packets using a packet manipulation tool called Scapy. Using this platform, we generated C37.118 FCI and FDI datasets which are processed by multi-label machine learning classifier algorithms, such as Decision Tree (DT), k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), and Naive Bayes (NB), to find out how effective machine learning can be at detecting such attacks. Our results show that the DT classifier had the best precision and recall rate.
Danilczyk, William, Sun, Yan Lindsay, He, Haibo.  2021.  Smart Grid Anomaly Detection using a Deep Learning Digital Twin. 2020 52nd North American Power Symposium (NAPS). :1—6.

The power grid is considered to be the most critical piece of infrastructure in the United States because each of the other fifteen critical infrastructures, as defined by the Cyberse-curity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), require the energy sector to properly function. Due the critical nature of the power grid, the ability to detect anomalies in the power grid is of critical importance to prevent power outages, avoid damage to sensitive equipment and to maintain a working power grid. Over the past few decades, the modern power grid has evolved into a large Cyber Physical System (CPS) equipped with wide area monitoring systems (WAMS) and distributed control. As smart technology advances, the power grid continues to be upgraded with high fidelity sensors and measurement devices, such as phasor measurement units (PMUs), that can report the state of the system with a high temporal resolution. However, this influx of data can often become overwhelming to the legacy Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, as well as, the power system operator. In this paper, we propose using a deep learning (DL) convolutional neural network (CNN) as a module within the Automatic Network Guardian for ELectrical systems (ANGEL) Digital Twin environment to detect physical faults in a power system. The presented approach uses high fidelity measurement data from the IEEE 9-bus and IEEE 39-bus benchmark power systems to not only detect if there is a fault in the power system but also applies the algorithm to classify which bus contains the fault.

Jena, Prasanta Kumar, Ghosh, Subhojit, Koley, Ebha.  2021.  An Optimal PMU Placement Scheme for Detection of Malicious Attacks in Smart Grid. 2021 4th Biennial International Conference on Nascent Technologies in Engineering (ICNTE). :1—6.

State estimation is the core operation performed within the energy management system (EMS) of smart grid. Hence, the reliability and integrity of a smart grid relies heavily on the performance of sensor measurement dependent state estimation process. The increasing penetration of cyber control into the smart grid operations has raised severe concern for executing a secured state estimation process. The limitation with regard to monitoring large number of sensors allows an intruder to manipulate sensor information, as one of the soft targets for disrupting power system operations. Phasor measurement unit (PMU) can be adopted as an alternative to immunize the state estimation from corrupted conventional sensor measurements. However, the high installation cost of PMUs restricts its installation throughout the network. In this paper a graphical approach is proposed to identify minimum PMU placement locations, so as to detect any intrusion of malicious activity within the smart grid. The high speed synchronized PMU information ensures processing of secured set of sensor measurements to the control center. The results of PMU information based linear state estimation is compared with the conventional non-linear state estimation to detect any attack within the system. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme has been validated on IEEE 14 bus test system.

Kummerow, André, Rösch, Dennis, Nicolai, Steffen, Brosinsky, Christoph, Westermann, Dirk, Naumann, é.  2021.  Attacking dynamic power system control centers - a cyber-physical threat analysis. 2021 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :01—05.

In dynamic control centers, conventional SCADA systems are enhanced with novel assistance functionalities to increase existing monitoring and control capabilities. To achieve this, different key technologies like phasor measurement units (PMU) and Digital Twins (DT) are incorporated, which give rise to new cyber-security challenges. To address these issues, a four-stage threat analysis approach is presented to identify and assess system vulnerabilities for novel dynamic control center architectures. For this, a simplified risk assessment method is proposed, which allows a detailed analysis of the different system vulnerabilities considering various active and passive cyber-attack types. Qualitative results of the threat analysis are presented and discussed for different use cases at the control center and substation level.

Roy, Vishwajit, Noureen, Subrina Sultana, Atique, Sharif, Bayne, Stephen, Giesselmann, Michael.  2021.  Intrusion Detection from Synchrophasor Data propagation using Cyber Physical Platform. 2021 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability (SusTech). :1–5.
Some of the recent reports show that Power Grid is a target of attack and gradually the need for understanding the security of Grid network is getting a prime focus. The Department of Homeland Security has imposed focus on Cyber Threats on Power Grid in their "Cyber Security Strategy,2018" [1] . DHS has focused on innovations to manage risk attacks on Power System based national resources. Power Grid is a cyber physical system which consists of power flow and data transmission. The important part of a microgrid is the two-way power flow which makes the system complex on monitoring and control. In this paper, we have tried to study different types of attacks which change the data propagation of Synchrophasor, network communication interruption behavior and find the data propagation scenario due to attack. The focus of the paper is to develop a platform for Synchrophasor based data network attack study which is a part of Microgrid design. Different types of intrusion models were studied to observe change in Synchrophasor data pattern which will help for further prediction to improve Microgrid resiliency for different types of cyber-attack.
Anwar, Adnan, Abir, S. M. Abu Adnan.  2020.  Measurement Unit Placement Against Injection Attacks for the Secured Operation of an IIoT-Based Smart Grid. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :767–774.
Carefully constructed cyber-attacks directly influence the data integrity and the operational functionality of the smart energy grid. In this paper, we have explored the data integrity attack behaviour in a wide-area sensor-enabled IIoT-SCADA system. We have demonstrated that an intelligent cyber-attacker can inject false information through the sensor devices that may remain stealthy in the traditional detection module and corrupt estimated system states at the utility control centres. Next, to protect the operation, we defined a set of critical measurements that need to be protected for the resilient operation of the grid. Finally, we placed the measurement units using an optimal allocation strategy by ensuring that a limited number of nodes are protected against the attack while the system observability is satisfied. Under such scenarios, a wide range of experiments has been conducted to evaluate the performance considering IEEE 14-bus, 24 bus-reliability test system, 85-bus, 141-bus and 145-bus test systems. Results show that by ensuring the protection of around 25% of the total nodes, the IIoT-SCADA enabled energy grid can be protected against injection attacks while observability of the network is well-maintained.
Qu, Yanfeng, Chen, Gong, Liu, Xin, Yan, Jiaqi, Chen, Bo, Jin, Dong.  2020.  Cyber-Resilience Enhancement of PMU Networks Using Software-Defined Networking. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–7.
Phasor measurement unit (PMU) networks are increasingly deployed to offer timely and high-precision measurement of today's highly interconnected electric power systems. To enhance the cyber-resilience of PMU networks against malicious attacks and system errors, we develop an optimization-based network management scheme based on the software-defined networking (SDN) communication infrastructure to recovery PMU network connectivity and restore power system observability. The scheme enables fast network recovery by optimizing the path generation and installation process, and moreover, compressing the SDN rules to be installed on the switches. We develop a prototype system and perform system evaluation in terms of power system observability, recovery speed, and rule compression using the IEEE 30-bus system and IEEE 118-bus system.
Silva-Saravia, Horacio, Singh, Iknoor, Chynoweth, Joshua, Mateo, Norbo, Mejia, Manuel, Amadis, Simon, Alvarez, Rufino.  2020.  Islanding Detection and Resynchronization Based upon Wide-Area Monitoring and Situational Awareness in the Dominican Republic. 2020 IEEE PES Transmission Distribution Conference and Exhibition - Latin America (T D LA). :1–6.
This paper shows the benefits of synchrophasor technology for islanding detection and resynchronization in the control room at Empresa de Transmisión Eléctrica Dominicana (ETED) in the Dominican Republic. EPG's Real Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS®) deployed at ETED was tested during operator training with the event data after an islanding event occurred on October 26, 2019, which caused the ETED System to split into two islands. RTDMS's islanding detection algorithm quickly detected and identified the event. The islanding situation was not clear for operators during the time of the event with the use of traditional SCADA tools. The use of synchophasor technology also provides valuable information for a quick and safe resynchronization. By monitoring the system frequency in each island and voltage angle differences between islands, operators can know the exact time of circuit breaker closure for a successful resynchronization. Synchrophasors allow the resynchronization in a relatively short time, avoiding the risk of additional load loss, generator outages or even a wider system blackout.
Shahsavari, Alireza, Farajollahi, Mohammad, Stewart, Emma, Rad, Hamed Mohsenian.  2020.  Situational Awareness in Distribution Grid Using Micro-PMU Data: A Machine Learning Approach. 2020 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :1–1.
The recent development of distribution-level phasor measurement units, a.k.a. micro-PMUs, has been an important step towards achieving situational awareness in power distribution networks. The challenge however is to transform the large amount of data that is generated by micro-PMUs to actionable information and then match the information to use cases with practical value to system operators. This open problem is addressed in this paper. First, we introduce a novel data-driven event detection technique to pick out valuable portion of data from extremely large raw micro-PMU data. Subsequently, a datadriven event classifier is developed to effectively classify power quality events. Importantly, we use field expert knowledge and utility records to conduct an extensive data-driven event labeling. Moreover, certain aspects from event detection analysis are adopted as additional features to be fed into the classifier model. In this regard, a multi-class support vector machine (multi-SVM) classifier is trained and tested over 15 days of real-world data from two micro-PMUs on a distribution feeder in Riverside, CA. In total, we analyze 1.2 billion measurement points, and 10,700 events. The effectiveness of the developed event classifier is compared with prevalent multi-class classification methods, including k-nearest neighbor method as well as decision-tree method. Importantly, two real-world use-cases are presented for the proposed data analytics tools, including remote asset monitoring and distribution-level oscillation analysis.
Arunagirinathan, Paranietharan, Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh K..  2020.  Situational Awareness of Power System Stabilizers’ Performance in Energy Control Centers. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE). :1–8.
Undamped power system oscillations are detrimental to stable and security of the electric grid. Historically, poorly damped low frequency rotor oscillations have caused system blackouts or brownouts. It is required to monitor the oscillation damping controllers such as power system stabilizers' (PSS) performance at energy control centers as well as at power plant control centers. Phasor measurement units (PMUs) based time response and frequency response information on PSS performance is collected. A fuzzy logic system is developed to combine the time and frequency response information to derive the situational awareness on PSS performance on synchronous generator's oscillation(s). A two-area four-machine benchmark power system is simulated on a real-time digital simulator platform. Fuzzy logic system developed is evaluated for different system disturbances. Situational awareness on PSS performance on synchronous generator's oscillation(s) allows the control center operator to enhance the power system operation more stable and secure.
Sethi, Kamalakanta, Pradhan, Ankit, Bera, Padmalochan.  2020.  Attribute-Based Data Security with Obfuscated Access Policy for Smart Grid Applications. 2020 International Conference on COMmunication Systems NETworkS (COMSNETS). :503–506.
Smart grid employs intelligent transmission and distribution networks for effective and reliable delivery of electricity. It uses fine-grained electrical measurements to attain optimized reliability and stability by sharing these measurements among different entities of energy management systems of the grid. There are many stakeholders like users, phasor measurement units (PMU), and other entities, with changing requirements involved in the sharing of the data. Therefore, data security plays a vital role in the correct functioning of a power grid network. In this paper, we propose an attribute-based encryption (ABE) for secure data sharing in Smart Grid architectures as ABE enables efficient and secure access control. Also, the access policy is obfuscated to preserve privacy. We use Linear Secret Sharing (LSS) Scheme for supporting any monotone access structures, thereby enhancing the expressiveness of access policies. Finally, we also analyze the security, access policy privacy and collusion resistance properties along with efficiency analysis of our cryptosystem.
Lalouani, Wassila, Younis, Mohamed.  2020.  Machine Learning Enabled Secure Collection of Phasor Data in Smart Power Grid Networks. 2020 16th International Conference on Mobility, Sensing and Networking (MSN). :546–553.
In a smart power grid, phasor measurement devices provide critical status updates in order to enable stabilization of the grid against fluctuations in power demands and component failures. Particularly the trend is to employ a large number of phasor measurement units (PMUs) that are inter-networked through wireless links. We tackle the vulnerability of such a wireless PMU network to message replay and false data injection (FDI) attacks. We propose a novel approach for avoiding explicit data transmission through PMU measurements prediction. Our methodology is based on applying advanced machine learning techniques to forecast what values will be reported and associate a level of confidence in such prediction. Instead of sending the actual measurements, the PMU sends the difference between actual and predicted values along with the confidence level. By applying the same technique at the grid control or data aggregation unit, our approach implicitly makes such a unit aware of the actual measurements and enables authentication of the source of the transmission. Our approach is data-driven and varies over time; thus it increases the PMU network resilience against message replay and FDI attempts since the adversary's messages will violate the data prediction protocol. The effectiveness of approach is validated using datasets for the IEEE 14 and IEEE 39 bus systems and through security analysis.
Pedramnia, Kiyana, Shojaei, Shayan.  2020.  Detection of False Data Injection Attack in Smart Grid Using Decomposed Nearest Neighbor Techniques. 2020 10th Smart Grid Conference (SGC). :1—6.
Smart grid communication system deeply rely on information technologies which makes it vulnerable to variable cyber-attacks. Among possible attacks, False Data Injection (FDI) Attack has created a severe threat to smart grid control system. Attackers can manipulate smart grid measurements such as collected data of phasor measurement units (PMU) by implementing FDI attacks. Detection of FDI attacks with a simple and effective approach, makes the system more reliable and prevents network outages. In this paper we propose a Decomposed Nearest Neighbor algorithm to detect FDI attacks. This algorithm improves traditional k-Nearest Neighbor by using metric learning. Also it learns the local-optima free distance metric by solving a convex optimization problem which makes it more accurate in decision making. We test the proposed method on PMU dataset and compare the results with other beneficial machine learning algorithms for FDI attack detection. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Shi, Jie, Foggo, Brandon, Kong, Xianghao, Cheng, Yuanbin, Yu, Nanpeng, Yamashita, Koji.  2020.  Online Event Detection in Synchrophasor Data with Graph Signal Processing. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1—7.
Online detection of anomalies is crucial to enhancing the reliability and resiliency of power systems. We propose a novel data-driven online event detection algorithm with synchrophasor data using graph signal processing. In addition to being extremely scalable, our proposed algorithm can accurately capture and leverage the spatio-temporal correlations of the streaming PMU data. This paper also develops a general technique to decouple spatial and temporal correlations in multiple time series. Finally, we develop a unique framework to construct a weighted adjacency matrix and graph Laplacian for product graph. Case studies with real-world, large-scale synchrophasor data demonstrate the scalability and accuracy of our proposed event detection algorithm. Compared to the state-of-the-art benchmark, the proposed method not only achieves higher detection accuracy but also yields higher computational efficiency.
Sarkar, M. Z. I., Ratnarajah, T..  2010.  Information-theoretic security in wireless multicasting. International Conference on Electrical Computer Engineering (ICECE 2010). :53–56.
In this paper, a wireless multicast scenario is considered in which the transmitter sends a common message to a group of client receivers through quasi-static Rayleigh fading channel in the presence of an eavesdropper. The communication between transmitter and each client receiver is said to be secured if the eavesdropper is unable to decode any information. On the basis of an information-theoretic formulation of the confidential communications between transmitter and a group of client receivers, we define the expected secrecy sum-mutual information in terms of secure outage probability and provide a complete characterization of maximum transmission rate at which the eavesdropper is unable to decode any information. Moreover, we find the probability of non-zero secrecy mutual information and present an analytical expression for ergodic secrecy multicast mutual information of the proposed model.
Kummerow, A., Monsalve, C., Rösch, D., Schäfer, K., Nicolai, S..  2020.  Cyber-physical data stream assessment incorporating Digital Twins in future power systems. 2020 International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and Technologies (SEST). :1—6.

Reliable and secure grid operations become more and more challenging in context of increasing IT/OT convergence and decreasing dynamic margins in today's power systems. To ensure the correct operation of monitoring and control functions in control centres, an intelligent assessment of the different information sources is necessary to provide a robust data source in case of critical physical events as well as cyber-attacks. Within this paper, a holistic data stream assessment methodology is proposed using an expert knowledge based cyber-physical situational awareness for different steady and transient system states. This approach goes beyond existing techniques by combining high-resolution PMU data with SCADA information as well as Digital Twin and AI based anomaly detection functionalities.

Sehatbakhsh, N., Yilmaz, B. B., Zajic, A., Prvulovic, M..  2020.  A New Side-Channel Vulnerability on Modern Computers by Exploiting Electromagnetic Emanations from the Power Management Unit. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA). :123—138.

This paper presents a new micro-architectural vulnerability on the power management units of modern computers which creates an electromagnetic-based side-channel. The key observations that enable us to discover this sidechannel are: 1) in an effort to manage and minimize power consumption, modern microprocessors have a number of possible operating modes (power states) in which various sub-systems of the processor are powered down, 2) for some of the transitions between power states, the processor also changes the operating mode of the voltage regulator module (VRM) that supplies power to the affected sub-system, and 3) the electromagnetic (EM) emanations from the VRM are heavily dependent on its operating mode. As a result, these state-dependent EM emanations create a side-channel which can potentially reveal sensitive information about the current state of the processor and, more importantly, the programs currently being executed. To demonstrate the feasibility of exploiting this vulnerability, we create a covert channel by utilizing the changes in the processor's power states. We show how such a covert channel can be leveraged to exfiltrate sensitive information from a secured and completely isolated (air-gapped) laptop system by placing a compact, inexpensive receiver in proximity to that system. To further show the severity of this attack, we also demonstrate how such a covert channel can be established when the target and the receiver are several meters away from each other, including scenarios where the receiver and the target are separated by a wall. Compared to the state-of-the-art, the proposed covert channel has \textbackslashtextgreater3x higher bit-rate. Finally, to demonstrate that this new vulnerability is not limited to being used as a covert channel, we demonstrate how it can be used for attacks such as keystroke logging.

Ravikumar, Gelli, Hyder, Burhan, Govindarasu, Manimaran.  2019.  Efficient Modeling of HIL Multi-Grid System for Scalability Concurrency in CPS Security Testbed. 2019 North American Power Symposium (NAPS). :1—6.
Cyber-event-triggered power grid blackout compels utility operators to intensify cyber-aware and physics-constrained recovery and restoration process. Recently, coordinated cyber attacks on the Ukrainian grid witnessed such a cyber-event-triggered power system blackout. Various cyber-physical system (CPS) testbeds have attempted with multitude designs to analyze such interdependent events and evaluate remedy measures. However, resource constraints and modular integration designs have been significant barriers while modeling large-scale grid models (scalability) and multi-grid isolated models (concurrency) under a single real-time execution environment for the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) CPS security testbeds. This paper proposes a meticulous design and effective modeling for simulating large-scale grid models and multi-grid isolated models in a HIL realtime digital simulator environment integrated with industry-grade hardware and software systems. We have used our existing HIL CPS security testbed to demonstrate scalability by the realtime performance of a Texas-2000 bus US synthetic grid model and concurrency by the real-time performance of simultaneous ten IEEE-39 bus grid models and an IEEE-118 bus grid model. The experiments demonstrated significant results by 100% realtime performance with zero overruns, low latency while receiving and executing control signals from SEL Relays via IEC-61850 protocol and low latency while computing and transmitting grid data streams including stability measures via IEEE C37.118 synchrophasor data protocol to SEL Phasor Data Concentrators.
Gayathri, Bhimavarapu, Yammani, Chandrasekhar.  2019.  Multi-Attacking Strategy on Smart Grid with Incomplete Network Information. 2019 8th International Conference on Power Systems (ICPS). :1—5.

The chances of cyber-attacks have been increased because of incorporation of communication networks and information technology in power system. Main objective of the paper is to prove that attacker can launch the attack vector without the knowledge of complete network information and the injected false data can't be detected by power system operator. This paper also deals with analyzing the impact of multi-attacking strategy on the power system. This false data attacks incurs lot of damage to power system, as it misguides the power system operator. Here, we demonstrate the construction of attack vector and later we have demonstrated multiple attacking regions in IEEE 14 bus system. Impact of attack vector on the power system can be observed and it is proved that the attack cannot be detected by power system operator with the help of residue check method.

Nath, Anubhav, Biswas, Reetam Sen, Pal, Anamitra.  2019.  Application of Machine Learning for Online Dynamic Security Assessment in Presence of System Variability and Additive Instrumentation Errors. 2019 North American Power Symposium (NAPS). :1—6.
Large-scale blackouts that have occurred in the past few decades have necessitated the need to do extensive research in the field of grid security assessment. With the aid of synchrophasor technology, which uses phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, dynamic security assessment (DSA) can be performed online. However, existing applications of DSA are challenged by variability in system conditions and unaccounted for measurement errors. To overcome these challenges, this research develops a DSA scheme to provide security prediction in real-time for load profiles of different seasons in presence of realistic errors in the PMU measurements. The major contributions of this paper are: (1) develop a DSA scheme based on PMU data, (2) consider seasonal load profiles, (3) account for varying penetrations of renewable generation, and (4) compare the accuracy of different machine learning (ML) algorithms for DSA with and without erroneous measurements. The performance of this approach is tested on the IEEE-118 bus system. Comparative analysis of the accuracies of the ML algorithms under different operating scenarios highlights the importance of considering realistic errors and variability in system conditions while creating a DSA scheme.