Visible to the public Biblio

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Ivanov, A. V., Sklyarov, V. A..  2018.  The Urgency of the Threats of Attacks on Interfaces and Field-Layer Protocols in Industrial Control Systems. 2018 XIV International Scientific-Technical Conference on Actual Problems of Electronics Instrument Engineering (APEIE). :162-165.

The paper is devoted to analysis of condition of executing devices and sensors of Industrial Control Systems information security. The work contains structures of industrial control systems divided into groups depending on system's layer. The article contains the analysis of analog interfaces work and work features of data transmission protocols in industrial control system field layer. Questions about relevance of industrial control systems information security, both from the point of view of the information security occurring incidents, and from the point of view of regulators' reaction in the form of normative legal acts, are described. During the analysis of the information security systems of industrial control systems a possibility of leakage through technical channels of information leakage at the field layer was found. Potential vectors of the attacks on devices of field layer and data transmission network of an industrial control system are outlined in the article. The relevance analysis of the threats connected with the attacks at the field layer of an industrial control system is carried out, feature of this layer and attractiveness of this kind of attacks is observed.

Gevargizian, J., Kulkarni, P..  2018.  MSRR: Measurement Framework For Remote Attestation. 2018 IEEE 16th Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 16th Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 4th Intl Conf on Big Data Intelligence and Computing and Cyber Science and Technology Congress(DASC/PiCom/DataCom/CyberSciTech). :748–753.
Measurers are critical to a remote attestation (RA) system to verify the integrity of a remote untrusted host. Run-time measurers in a dynamic RA system sample the dynamic program state of the host to form evidence in order to establish trust by a remote system (appraiser). However, existing run-time measurers are tightly integrated with specific software. Such measurers need to be generated anew for each software, which is a manual process that is both challenging and tedious. In this paper we present a novel approach to decouple application-specific measurement policies from the measurers tasked with performing the actual run-time measurement. We describe MSRR (MeaSeReR), a novel general-purpose measurement framework that is agnostic of the target application. We show how measurement policies written per application can use MSRR, eliminating much time and effort spent on reproducing core measurement functionality. We describe MSRR's robust querying language, which allows the appraiser to accurately specify the what, when, and how to measure. We evaluate MSRR's overhead and demonstrate its functionality.
Fawaz, A. M., Noureddine, M. A., Sanders, W. H..  2018.  POWERALERT: Integrity Checking Using Power Measurement and a Game-Theoretic Strategy. 2018 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :514–525.
We propose POWERALERT, an efficient external integrity checker for untrusted hosts. Current attestation systems suffer from shortcomings, including requiring a complete checksum of the code segment, from being static, use of timing information sourced from the untrusted machine, or using imprecise timing information such as network round-trip time. We address those shortcomings by (1) using power measurements from the host to ensure that the checking code is executed and (2) checking a subset of the kernel space over an extended period. We compare the power measurement against a learned power model of the execution of the machine and validate that the execution was not tampered. Finally, POWERALERT randomizes the integrity checking program to prevent the attacker from adapting. We model the interaction between POWERALERT and an attacker as a time-continuous game. The Nash equilibrium strategy of the game shows that POWERALERT has two optimal strategy choices: (1) aggressive checking that forces the attacker into hiding, or (2) slow checking that minimizes cost. We implement a prototype of POWERALERT using Raspberry Pi and evaluate the performance of the integrity checking program generation.
Raoof, A., Matrawy, A..  2017.  The Effect of Buffer Management Strategies on 6LoWPAN's Response to Buffer Reservation Attacks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–7.

The 6L0WPAN adaptation layer is widely used in many Internet of Things (IoT) and vehicular networking applications. The current IoT framework [1], which introduced 6LoWPAN to the TCP/IP model, does not specif the implementation for managing its received-fragments buffer. This paper looks into the effect of current implementations of buffer management strategies at 6LoWPAN's response in case of fragmentation-based, buffer reservation Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. The Packet Drop Rate (PDR) is used to analyze how successful the attacker is for each management technique. Our investigation uses different defence strategies, which include our implementation of the Split Buffer mechanism [2] and a modified version of this mechanism that we devise in this paper as well. In particular, we introduce dynamic calculation for the average time between consecutive fragments and the use of a list of previously dropped packets tags. NS3 is used to simulate all the implementations. Our results show that using a ``slotted'' buffer would enhance 6LoWPAN's response against these attacks. The simulations also provide an in-depth look at using scoring systems to manage buffer cleanups.

Filaretov, V., Kurganov, S., Gorshkov, K..  2017.  Multiple fault diagnosis in analog circuits using the indirect compensation theorem. 2017 International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Applications and Manufacturing (ICIEAM). :1–6.
A method for the multiple faults diagnosis in linear analog circuits is presented in this paper. The proposed approach is based upon the concept named by the indirect compensation theorem. This theorem is reducing the procedure of fault diagnosis in the analog circuit to the symbolic analysis process. An extension of the indirect compensation theorem for the linear subcircuit is proposed. The indirect compensation provides equivalent replacement of the n-ports subcircuit by n norators and n fixators of voltages and currents. The proposed multiple faults diagnosis techniques can be used for evaluation of any kind of terminal characteristics of the two-port network. For calculation of the circuit determinant expressions, the Generalized Parameter Extraction Method is implemented. The main advantage of the analysis method is that it is cancellation free. It requires neither matrix nor ordinary graph description of the circuit. The process of symbolic circuit analysis is automated by the freeware computer program Cirsym which can be used online. The experimental results are presented to show the efficiency and reliability of the proposed technique.
Yamacc, M., Sankur, B., Cemgil, A. T..  2017.  Malicious users discrimination in organizec attacks using structured sparsity. 2017 25th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO). :266–270.

Communication networks can be the targets of organized and distributed attacks such as flooding-type DDOS attack in which malicious users aim to cripple a network server or a network domain. For the attack to have a major effect on the network, malicious users must act in a coordinated and time correlated manner. For instance, the members of the flooding attack increase their message transmission rates rapidly but also synchronously. Even though detection and prevention of the flooding attacks are well studied at network and transport layers, the emergence and wide deployment of new systems such as VoIP (Voice over IP) have turned flooding attacks at the session layer into a new defense challenge. In this study a structured sparsity based group anomaly detection system is proposed that not only can detect synchronized attacks, but also identify the malicious groups from normal users by jointly estimating their members, structure, starting and end points. Although we mainly focus on security on SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) servers/proxies which are widely used for signaling in VoIP systems, the proposed scheme can be easily adapted for any type of communication network system at any layer.

Koch, R., Kühn, T., Odenwald, M., Rodosek, G. Dreo.  2016.  Dr. WATTson: Lightweight current-based Intrusion Detection (CBID). 2016 14th Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST). :170–177.

Intrusion detection has been an active field of research for more than 35 years. Numerous systems had been built based on the two fundamental detection principles, knowledge-based and behavior-based detection. Anyway, having a look at day-to-day news about data breaches and successful attacks, detection effectiveness is still limited. Even more, heavy-weight intrusion detection systems cannot be installed in every endangered environment. For example, Industrial Control Systems are typically utilized for decades, charging off huge investments of companies. Thus, some of these systems have been in operation for years, but were designed afore without security in mind. Even worse, as systems often have connections to other networks and even the Internet nowadays, an adequate protection is mandatory, but integrating intrusion detection can be extremely difficult - or even impossible to date. We propose a new lightweight current-based IDS which is using a difficult to manipulate measurement base and verifiable ground truth. Focus of our system is providing intrusion detection for ICS and SCADA on a low-priced base, easy to integrate. Dr. WATTson, a prototype implemented based on our concept provides high detection and low false alarm rates.

Chuan, C., Zhiming, B., Bin, Y., Hongfei, Z..  2015.  A precise low-temperature measurement system for conduction cooling Nb3Al superconducting magnet. The 27th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (2015 CCDC). :4270–4273.

The precise measurement of temperature is very important to the security and stability of the operation for a superconducting magnet. A slight fluctuation in the operating temperature may cause a superconducting magnet unstable. This paper presents a low-temperature measurement system based on C8051 Micro Controller Unit and Platinum resistance thermometer. In the process of data acquisition, a modified weighted average algorithm is applied to the digital filter program of the micro controller unit. The noise can be effectively reduced and can measure temperature of three different location points simultaneously, and there is no the interference among the three channels. The designed system could measure the temperature from 400 K to 4.0 K with a resolution of 1 mK. This system will be applied in a conduction cooling Nb3Al superconducting magnet. In order to certify the feasibility of the system, tests are performed in a small NbTi non-insulation superconducting magnet model. The results show that the measurement system is reliable and the measured temperature is accurate.

M. Clark, L. Lampe.  2015.  "Single-channel compressive sampling of electrical data for non-intrusive load monitoring". 2015 IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (GlobalSIP). :790-794.

Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) extracts information about how energy is being used in a building from electricity measurements collected at a single location. Obtaining measurements at only one location is attractive because it is inexpensive and convenient, but it can result in large amounts of data from high frequency electrical measurements. Different ways to compress or selectively measure this data are therefore required for practical implementations of NILM. We explore the use of random filtering and random demodulation, techniques that are closely related to compressed sensing, to offer a computationally simple way of compressing the electrical data. We show how these techniques can allow one to reduce the sampling rate of the electricity measurements, while requiring only one sampling channel and allowing accurate NILM performance. Our tests are performed using real measurements of electrical signals from a public data set, thus demonstrating their effectiveness on real appliances and allowing for reproducibility and comparison with other data management strategies for NILM.

Sumec, S..  2014.  Software tool for verification of sampled values transmitted via IEC 61850-9-2 protocol. Electric Power Engineering (EPE), Proccedings of the 2014 15th International Scientific Conference on. :113-117.

Nowadays is increasingly used process bus for communication of equipments in substations. In addition to signaling various statuses of device using GOOSE messages it is possible to transmit measured values, which can be used for diagnostic of system or other advanced functions. Transmission of such values via Ethernet is well defined in protocol IEC 61850-9-2. Paper introduces a tool designed for verification of sampled values generated by various devices using this protocol.

Yang, Y., McLaughlin, K., Sezer, S., Littler, T., Im, E.G., Pranggono, B., Wang, H.F..  2014.  Multiattribute SCADA-Specific Intrusion Detection System for Power Networks. Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on. 29:1092-1102.

The increased interconnectivity and complexity of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems in power system networks has exposed the systems to a multitude of potential vulnerabilities. In this paper, we present a novel approach for a next-generation SCADA-specific intrusion detection system (IDS). The proposed system analyzes multiple attributes in order to provide a comprehensive solution that is able to mitigate varied cyber-attack threats. The multiattribute IDS comprises a heterogeneous white list and behavior-based concept in order to make SCADA cybersystems more secure. This paper also proposes a multilayer cyber-security framework based on IDS for protecting SCADA cybersecurity in smart grids without compromising the availability of normal data. In addition, this paper presents a SCADA-specific cybersecurity testbed to investigate simulated attacks, which has been used in this paper to validate the proposed approach.

Beasley, C., Venayagamoorthy, G.K., Brooks, R..  2014.  Cyber security evaluation of synchrophasors in a power system. Power Systems Conference (PSC), 2014 Clemson University. :1-5.

The addition of synchrophasors such as phasor measurement units (PMUs) to the existing power grid will enhance real-time monitoring and analysis of the grid. The PMU collects bus voltage, line current, and frequency measurements and uses the communication network to send the measurements to the respective substation(s)/control center(s). Since this approach relies on network infrastructure, possible cyber security vulnerabilities have to be addressed to ensure that is stable, secure, and reliable. In this paper, security vulnerabilities associated with a synchrophasor network in a benchmark IEEE 68 bus (New England/New York) power system model are examined. Currently known feasible attacks are demonstrated. Recommended testing and verification methods are also presented.