Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-04-27
Aktepe, S., Varol, C., Shashidhar, N..  2020.  2020 8th International Symposium on Digital Forensics and Security (ISDFS). 2020 8th International Symposium on Digital Forensics and Security (ISDFS). :1—5.
Cryptocurrencies are the digital currencies designed to replace the regular cash money while taking place in our daily lives especially for the last couple of years. Mining cryptocurrencies are one of the popular ways to have them and make a profit due to unstable values in the market. This attracts attackers to utilize malware on internet users' computer resources, also known as cryptojacking, to mine cryptocurrencies. Cryptojacking started to be a major issue in the internet world. In this case, we developed MiNo, a web browser add-on application to detect these malicious mining activities running without the user's permission or knowledge. This add-on provides security and efficiency for the computer resources of the internet users. MiNo designed and developed with double-layer protection which makes it ahead of its competitors in the market.
2021-02-10
Aktepe, S., Varol, C., Shashidhar, N..  2020.  MiNo: The Chrome Web Browser Add-on Application to Block the Hidden Cryptocurrency Mining Activities. 2020 8th International Symposium on Digital Forensics and Security (ISDFS). :1—5.

Cryptocurrencies are the digital currencies designed to replace the regular cash money while taking place in our daily lives especially for the last couple of years. Mining cryptocurrencies are one of the popular ways to have them and make a profit due to unstable values in the market. This attracts attackers to utilize malware on internet users' computer resources, also known as cryptojacking, to mine cryptocurrencies. Cryptojacking started to be a major issue in the internet world. In this case, we developed MiNo, a web browser add-on application to detect these malicious mining activities running without the user's permission or knowledge. This add-on provides security and efficiency for the computer resources of the internet users. MiNo designed and developed with double-layer protection which makes it ahead of its competitors in the market.

Varlioglu, S., Gonen, B., Ozer, M., Bastug, M..  2020.  Is Cryptojacking Dead After Coinhive Shutdown? 2020 3rd International Conference on Information and Computer Technologies (ICICT). :385—389.
Cryptojacking is the exploitation of victims' computer resources to mine for cryptocurrency using malicious scripts. It had become popular after 2017 when attackers started to exploit legal mining scripts, especially Coinhive scripts. Coinhive was actually a legal mining service that provided scripts and servers for in-browser mining activities. Nevertheless, over 10 million web users had been victims every month before the Coinhive shutdown that happened in Mar 2019. This paper explores the new era of the cryptojacking world after Coinhive discontinued its service. We aimed to see whether and how attackers continue cryptojacking, generate new malicious scripts, and developed new methods. We used a capable cryptojacking detector named CMTracker that proposed by Hong et al. in 2018. We automatically and manually examined 2770 websites that had been detected by CMTracker before the Coinhive shutdown. The results revealed that 99% of sites no longer continue cryptojacking. 1% of websites still run 8 unique mining scripts. By tracking these mining scripts, we detected 632 unique cryptojacking websites. Moreover, open-source investigations (OSINT) demonstrated that attackers still use the same methods. Therefore, we listed the typical patterns of cryptojacking. We concluded that cryptojacking is not dead after the Coinhive shutdown. It is still alive, but not as attractive as it used to be.
2020-07-10
Muñoz, Jordi Zayuelas i, Suárez-Varela, José, Barlet-Ros, Pere.  2019.  Detecting cryptocurrency miners with NetFlow/IPFIX network measurements. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Measurements Networking (M N). :1—6.

In the last few years, cryptocurrency mining has become more and more important on the Internet activity and nowadays is even having a noticeable impact on the global economy. This has motivated the emergence of a new malicious activity called cryptojacking, which consists of compromising other machines connected to the Internet and leverage their resources to mine cryptocurrencies. In this context, it is of particular interest for network administrators to detect possible cryptocurrency miners using network resources without permission. Currently, it is possible to detect them using IP address lists from known mining pools, processing information from DNS traffic, or directly performing Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) over all the traffic. However, all these methods are still ineffective to detect miners using unknown mining servers or result too expensive to be deployed in real-world networks with large traffic volume. In this paper, we present a machine learning-based method able to detect cryptocurrency miners using NetFlow/IPFIX network measurements. Our method does not require to inspect the packets' payload; as a result, it achieves cost-efficient miner detection with similar accuracy than DPI-based techniques.

2018-11-19
Hong, Geng, Yang, Zhemin, Yang, Sen, Zhang, Lei, Nan, Yuhong, Zhang, Zhibo, Yang, Min, Zhang, Yuan, Qian, Zhiyun, Duan, Haixin.  2018.  How You Get Shot in the Back: A Systematical Study About Cryptojacking in the Real World. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1701–1713.

As a new mechanism to monetize web content, cryptocurrency mining is becoming increasingly popular. The idea is simple: a webpage delivers extra workload (JavaScript) that consumes computational resources on the client machine to solve cryptographic puzzles, typically without notifying users or having explicit user consent. This new mechanism, often heavily abused and thus considered a threat termed "cryptojacking", is estimated to affect over 10 million web users every month; however, only a few anecdotal reports exist so far and little is known about its severeness, infrastructure, and technical characteristics behind the scene. This is likely due to the lack of effective approaches to detect cryptojacking at a large-scale (e.g., VirusTotal). In this paper, we take a first step towards an in-depth study over cryptojacking. By leveraging a set of inherent characteristics of cryptojacking scripts, we build CMTracker, a behavior-based detector with two runtime profilers for automatically tracking Cryptocurrency Mining scripts and their related domains. Surprisingly, our approach successfully discovered 2,770 unique cryptojacking samples from 853,936 popular web pages, including 868 among top 100K in Alexa list. Leveraging these samples, we gain a more comprehensive picture of the cryptojacking attacks, including their impact, distribution mechanisms, obfuscation, and attempts to evade detection. For instance, a diverse set of organizations benefit from cryptojacking based on the unique wallet ids. In addition, to stay under the radar, they frequently update their attack domains (fastflux) on the order of days. Many attackers also apply evasion techniques, including limiting the CPU usage, obfuscating the code, etc.