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Lee, J., Abe, G., Sato, K., Itoh, M..  2020.  Impacts of System Transparency and System Failure on Driver Trust During Partially Automated Driving. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Human-Machine Systems (ICHMS). :1–3.
The objective of this study is to explore changes of trust by a situation where drivers need to intervene. Trust in automation is a key determinant for appropriate interaction between drivers and the system. System transparency and types of system failure influence shaping trust in a supervisory control. Subjective ratings of trust were collected to examine the impact of two factors: system transparency (Detailed vs. Less) and system failure (by Limits vs. Malfunction) in a driving simulator study in which drivers experienced a partially automated vehicle. We examined trust ratings at three points: before and after driver intervention in the automated vehicle, and after subsequent experience of flawless automated driving. Our result found that system transparency did not have significant impacts on trust change from before to after the intervention. System-malfunction led trust reduction compared to those of before the intervention, whilst system-limits did not influence trust. The subsequent experience recovered decreased trust, in addition, when the system-limit occurred to drivers who have detailed information about the system, trust prompted in spite of the intervention. The present finding has implications for automation design to achieve the appropriate level of trust.
Oliveira, Luis, Luton, Jacob, Iyer, Sumeet, Burns, Chris, Mouzakitis, Alexandros, Jennings, Paul, Birrell, Stewart.  2018.  Evaluating How Interfaces Influence the User Interaction with Fully Autonomous Vehicles. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications. :320–331.
With increasing automation, occupants of fully autonomous vehicles are likely to be completely disengaged from the driving task. However, even with no driving involved, there are still activities that will require interfaces between the vehicle and passengers. This study evaluated different configurations of screens providing operational-related information to occupants for tracking the progress of journeys. Surveys and interviews were used to measure trust, usability, workload and experience after users were driven by an autonomous low speed pod. Results showed that participants want to monitor the state of the vehicle and see details about the ride, including a map of the route and related information. There was a preference for this information to be displayed via an onboard touchscreen device combined with an overhead letterbox display versus a smartphone-based interface. This paper provides recommendations for the design of devices with the potential to improve the user interaction with future autonomous vehicles.