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Jin, Ya, Chen, Yin Fang, Xu, Chang Da, Qi, Yi Chao, Chen, Shao Kang, Chen, Wei, Zhu, Ning Hua.  2020.  A hybrid optical frequency-hopping scheme based on OAM multiplexing for secure optical communications. 2020 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP) and International Conference on Information Photonics and Optical Communications (IPOC). :1—3.
In this paper, a hybrid optical frequency hopping system based on OAM multiplexing is proposed, which is mainly applied to the security of free space optical communication. In the proposed scheme, the segmented users' data goes through two stages of hopping successively to realize data hiding. And the security performance is also analyzed in this paper. © 2020 The Author(s).
Cui, H., Liu, C., Hong, X., Wu, J., Sun, D..  2020.  An Improved BICM-ID Receiver for the Time-Varying Underwater Acoustic Communications with DDPSK Modulation. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC). :1—4.
Double differential phase shift keying(DDPSK) modulation is an efficient method to compensate the Doppler shifts, whereas the phase noise will be amplified which results in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss. In this paper, we propose a novel receiver architecture for underwater acoustic DSSS communications with Doppler shifts. The proposed method adopts not only the DDPSK modulation to compensate the Doppler shifts, but also the improved bit-interleaved coded modulation with iterative decoding (BICM-ID) algorithm for DDPSK to recover the SNR loss. The improved DDPSK demodulator adopts the multi-symbol estimation to track the channel variation, and an extended trellis diagram is constructed for DDPSK demodulator. Theoretical simulation shows that our system can obtain around 10.2 dB gain over the uncoded performance, and 7.4 dB gain over the hard-decision decoding performance. Besides, the experiment conducted in the Songhua Lake also shows that the proposed receiver can achieve lower BER performance when Doppler shifts exists.
Chakravarty, S., Hopkins, A..  2020.  LoRa Mesh Network with BeagleBone Black. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :306–311.
This paper investigates the use of BeagleBone Black Wireless single-board Linux computers with Long Range (LoRa) transceivers to send and receive information in a mesh network while one of the transmitting/receiving nodes is acting as a relay in the system. An experiment is conducted to examine how long each LoRa node needed to learn the transmission intervals of any other transmitting nodes on the network and to synchronize with the other nodes prior to transmission. The spread factor, bandwidth, and coding rate are all varied for a total of 18 different combinations. A link to the Python code used on the BeagleBone Black is provided at the end of this paper. The best parameter combinations for each individual node and for the system as a whole is investigated. Additional experiments and applications of this technology are explored in the conclusions.
Lim, S., Ko, Y..  2020.  Intellectual Priority-based Low Latency Data Delivery Scheme for Multi-interface and Multi-channel Devices in Multi-hop Wireless Mesh Networks. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Big Data and Smart Computing (BigComp). :417–419.
In multi-hop wireless mesh networks, the end-to-end delay for a packet is getting longer as the relaying hops to the destination are increasing. The real-time packet such as the urgent safety message should be delivered within the stipulated deadline. Most previous studies have been focused to find out the optimal route to the destination. We propose an intellectual priority-based packet transmission scheme for multi-interface devices in multi-hop wireless mesh networks.
Hou, N., Zheng, Y..  2020.  CloakLoRa: A Covert Channel over LoRa PHY. 2020 IEEE 28th International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP). :1—11.
This paper describes our design and implementation of a covert channel over LoRa physical layer (PHY). LoRa adopts a unique modulation scheme (chirp spread spectrum (CSS)) to enable long range communication at low-power consumption. CSS uses the initial frequencies of LoRa chirps to differentiate LoRa symbols, while simply ignoring other RF parameters (e.g., amplitude and phase). Our study reveals that the LoRa physical layer leaves sufficient room to build a covert channel by embedding covert information with a modulation scheme orthogonal to CSS. To demonstrate the feasibility of building a covert channel, we implement CloakLoRa. CloakLoRa embeds covert information into a regular LoRa packet by modulating the amplitudes of LoRa chirps while keeping the frequency intact. As amplitude modulation is orthogonal to CSS, a regular LoRa node receives the LoRa packet as if no secret information is embedded into the packet. Such an embedding method is transparent to all security mechanisms at upper layers in current LoRaWAN. As such, an attacker can create an amplitude modulated covert channel over LoRa without being detected by current LoRaWAN security mechanism. We conduct comprehensive evaluations with COTS LoRa nodes and receive-only software defined radios and experiment results show that CloakLoRa can send covert information over 250m.
Li, J., Liu, H., Wu, J., Zhu, J., Huifeng, Y., Rui, X..  2019.  Research on Nonlinear Frequency Hopping Communication Under Big Data. 2019 International Conference on Computer Network, Electronic and Automation (ICCNEA). :349—354.

Aiming at the problems of poor stability and low accuracy of current communication data informatization processing methods, this paper proposes a research on nonlinear frequency hopping communication data informatization under the framework of big data security evaluation. By adding a frequency hopping mediation module to the frequency hopping communication safety evaluation framework, the communication interference information is discretely processed, and the data parameters of the nonlinear frequency hopping communication data are corrected and converted by combining a fast clustering analysis algorithm, so that the informatization processing of the nonlinear frequency hopping communication data under the big data safety evaluation framework is completed. Finally, experiments prove that the research on data informatization of nonlinear frequency hopping communication under the framework of big data security evaluation could effectively improve the accuracy and stability.

Meenu, M, Raajan, N.R., Greeta, S.  2019.  Secured Transmission of Data Using Chaos in Wcdma Network. 2019 International Conference on Vision Towards Emerging Trends in Communication and Networking (ViTECoN). :1–5.
Spreading code assumes an indispensable work in WCDMA system. Every individual client in a cell is isolated by an exceptional spread code. PN grouping are commonly utilized in WCDMA framework. For example, Walsh codes or gold codes as spread code. Data received from WCDMA are transmitted using chaotic signal and that signal is generated by using logistic map. It is unsuitable to be utilized as spreading sequence. Using a threshold function the chaos signal is changed in the form of binary sequence. Consequently, QPSK modulation techniques is analyzed in W-CDMA downlink over Additive white Gaussian noise channel (AWGN) and Rayleigh multipath fading channel. The activity was assessed with the assistance of BER contrary to SNR utilizing parameters indicating the BER in low to high in SNR.
Khan, Samar, Khodke, Priti A., Bhagat, Amol P..  2018.  An Approach to Fault Tolerant Key Generation and Secure Spread Spectrum Communiction. 2018 International Conference on Research in Intelligent and Computing in Engineering (RICE). :1—6.
Wireless communications have encountered a considerable improvement and have integrated human life through various applications, mainly by the widespread of mobile ad hoc and sensor networks. A fundamental characteristic of wireless communications are in their broadcast nature, which allows accessibility of information without placing restrictions on a user's location. However, accessibility also makes wireless communications vulnerable to eavesdropping. To enhance the security of network communication, we propose a separate key generation server which is responsible for key generation using complex random algorithm. The key will remain in database in encrypted format. To prevent brute force attack, we propose various group key generation algorithms in which every group will have separate group key to verify group member's identity. The group key will be verified with the session information before decryption, so that our system will prevent attack if any attacker knows the group key. To increase the security of the system, we propose three level encryption securities: Client side encryption using AES, Server side encryption using AES, and Artificial noise generation and addition. By using this our system is free from brute force attack as we are using three level message security and complex Random key generation algorithms.
Yu, Lili, Su, Xiaoguang, Zhang, Lei.  2019.  Collaboration-Based Location Privacy Protection Method. 2019 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Electronics Technology (ICET). :639—643.
In the privacy protection method based on user collaboration, all participants and collaborators must share the maximum anonymity value set in the anonymous group. No user can get better quality of service by reducing the anonymity requirement. In this paper, a privacy protection algorithm random-QBE, which divides query information into blocks and exchanges randomly, is proposed. Through this method, personalized anonymity, query diversity and location anonymity in user cooperative privacy protection can be realized. And through multi-hop communication between collaborative users, this method can also satisfy the randomness of anonymous location, so that the location of the applicant is no longer located in the center of the anonymous group, which further increases the ability of privacy protection. Experiments show that the algorithm can complete the processing in a relatively short time and is suitable for deployment in real environment to protect user's location privacy.
Naves, Raphael, Jakllari, Gentian, Khalife, Hicham, Conant, Vania, Beylot, Andre-Luc.  2018.  When Analog Meets Digital: Source-Encoded Physical-Layer Network Coding. 2018 IEEE 19th International Symposium on "A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks" (WoWMoM). :1–9.
We revisit Physical-Layer Network Coding (PLNC) and the reasons preventing it from becoming a staple in wireless networks. We identify its strong coupling to the Two-Way Relay Channel (TWRC) as key among them due to its requiring crossing traffic flows and two-hop node coordination. We introduce SE-PLNC, a Source-Encoded PLNC scheme that is traffic pattern independent and involves coordination only among one-hop neighbors, making it significantly more practical to adopt PLNC in multi-hop wireless networks. To accomplish this, SE-PLNC introduces three innovations: it combines bit-level with physical-level network coding, it shifts most of the coding burden from the relay to the source of the PLNC scheme, and it leverages multi-path relaying opportunities available to a particular traffic flow. We evaluate SE-PLNC using theoretical analysis, proof-of-concept implementation on a Universal Software Radio Peripherals (USRP) testbed, and simulations. The theoretical analysis shows the scalability of SE-PLNC and its efficiency in large ad-hoc networks while the testbed experiments its real-life feasibility. Large-scale simulations show that TWRC PLNC barely boosts network throughput while SE-PLNC improves it by over 30%.
Lv, Chengcai, Shen, Binjian, Guo, Xinxin, Zhu, Chengwei.  2019.  Communication Design for Underwater Acoustic Positioning Networks. 2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Signal and Image Processing (ICSIP). :573–577.
The past decade has seen a growing interest in underwater acoustic positioning networks (UAPNs) because of their wide applications in marine research, ocean monitoring, offshore exploration, and defense or homeland security. Efficient communication among all sensors and receivers is crucial so as to make positioning service available. Traditional UAPNs could locate only one target, that are growing obsolete due to increasing demands for multiple users working at the same time. Due to the demands for multiple users working simultaneously and narrow acoustic bandwidth, new efficient and reliable communication and networking protocols are required in design for UAPNs. In this paper, we aim to provide the procedure of communication design for UAPNs based on sonar equation and spread spectrum communication. What's more, signal design and performance analysis are supplied. The results show that the signal we designed have ideal correlation performance and high processing gain. The signal is suitable for multiple users UAPNs and thus show favorable potential in ocean engineering applications.
Balaji, V. S., Reebha, S. A. A. B., Saravanan, D..  2017.  Audit-based efficient accountability for node misbehavior in wireless sensor network. 2017 International Conference on IoT and Application (ICIOT). :1–10.

Wireless sensor network operate on the basic underlying assumption that all participating nodes fully collaborate in self-organizing functions. However, performing network functions consumes energy and other resources. Therefore, some network nodes may decide against cooperating with others. Node misbehavior due to selfish or malicious reasons or faulty nodes can significantly degrade the performance of mobile ad-hoc networks. To cope with misbehavior in such self-organized networks, nodes need to be able to automatically adapt their strategy to changing levels of cooperation. The problem of identifying and isolating misbehaving nodes that refuses to forward packets in multi-hop ad hoc networks. a comprehensive system called Audit-based Misbehavior Detection (AMD) that effectively and efficiently isolates both continuous and selective packet droppers. The AMD system integrates reputation management, trustworthy route discovery, and identification of misbehaving nodes based on behavioral audits. AMD evaluates node behavior on a per-packet basis, without employing energy-expensive overhearing techniques or intensive acknowledgment schemes. AMD can detect selective dropping attacks even if end-to-end traffic is encrypted and can be applied to multi-channel networks.

Baldi, M., Chiaraluce, F., Senigagliesi, L., Spalazzi, L., Spegni, F..  2017.  Security in Heterogeneous Distributed Storage Systems: A Practically Achievable Information-Theoretic Approach. 2017 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :1021–1028.

Distributed storage systems and caching systems are becoming widespread, and this motivates the increasing interest on assessing their achievable performance in terms of reliability for legitimate users and security against malicious users. While the assessment of reliability takes benefit of the availability of well established metrics and tools, assessing security is more challenging. The classical cryptographic approach aims at estimating the computational effort for an attacker to break the system, and ensuring that it is far above any feasible amount. This has the limitation of depending on attack algorithms and advances in computing power. The information-theoretic approach instead exploits capacity measures to achieve unconditional security against attackers, but often does not provide practical recipes to reach such a condition. We propose a mixed cryptographic/information-theoretic approach with a twofold goal: estimating the levels of information-theoretic security and defining a practical scheme able to achieve them. In order to find optimal choices of the parameters of the proposed scheme, we exploit an effective probabilistic model checker, which allows us to overcome several limitations of more conventional methods.

Jalaian, B., Dasari, V., Motani, M..  2017.  A generalized optimization framework for control plane in tactical wireless networking. 2017 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :986–990.

Tactical networks are generally simple ad-hoc networks in design, however, this simple design often gets complicated, when heterogeneous wireless technologies have to work together to enable seamless multi-hop communications across multiple sessions. In recent years, there has been some significant advances in computational, radio, localization, and networking te, and session's rate i.e., aggregate capacity averaged over a 4-time-slot frame)chnologies, which motivate a clean slate design of the control plane for multi-hop tactical wireless networks. In this paper, we develop a global network optimization framework, which characterizes the control plane for multi-hop wireless tactical networks. This framework abstracts the underlying complexity of tactical wireless networks and orchestrates the the control plane functions. Specifically, we develop a cross-layer optimization framework, which characterizes the interaction between the physical, link, and network layers. By applying the framework to a throughput maximization problem, we show how the proposed framework can be utilized to solve a broad range of wireless multi-hop tactical networking problems.

Cao, C., Zhang, H., Lu, T., Gulliver, T. A..  2017.  An improved cooperative jamming strategy for PHY security in a multi-hop communications system. 2017 IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on Communications, Computers and Signal Processing (PACRIM). :1–4.
In this paper, an improved cooperative jamming (CJ) strategy is developed for physical layer (PHY) security in a multi-hop wireless communication system which employs beamforming in the last hop. Users are assigned to independent groups based on the merger-and-split rule in a coalition game. The secrecy capacity for a valid coalition is a non-convex optimization problem which cannot easily be solved. Therefore, restrictions are added to transform this into a convex problem, and this is solved to obtain a suboptimal closed-form solution for the secrecy capacity. Simulation results are presented which show that the proposed strategy outperforms other methods such as non-cooperation, relay cooperation, and previous CJ approaches in terms of the secrecy capacity. Further, it is shown that the proposed multi-hop solution is suitable for long distance communication systems.
Soderi, S., Dainelli, G., Iinatti, J., Hamalainen, M..  2014.  Signal fingerprinting in cognitive wireless networks. Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications (CROWNCOM), 2014 9th International Conference on. :266-270.

Future wireless communications are made up of different wireless technologies. In such a scenario, cognitive and cooperative principles create a promising framework for the interaction of these systems. The opportunistic behavior of cognitive radio (CR) provides an efficient use of radio spectrum and makes wireless network setup easier. However more and more frequently, CR features are exploited by malicious attacks, e.g., denial-of-service (DoS). This paper introduces active radio frequency fingerprinting (RFF) with double application scenario. CRs could encapsulate common-control-channel (CCC) information in an existing channel using active RFF and avoiding any additional or dedicated link. On the other hand, a node inside a network could use the same technique to exchange a public key during the setup of secure communication. Results indicate how the active RFF aims to a valuable technique for cognitive radio manager (CRM) framework facilitating data exchange between CRs without any dedicated channel or additional radio resource.

do Carmo, R., Hoffmann, J., Willert, V., Hollick, M..  2014.  Making active-probing-based network intrusion detection in Wireless Multihop Networks practical: A Bayesian inference approach to probe selection. Local Computer Networks (LCN), 2014 IEEE 39th Conference on. :345-353.

Practical intrusion detection in Wireless Multihop Networks (WMNs) is a hard challenge. The distributed nature of the network makes centralized intrusion detection difficult, while resource constraints of the nodes and the characteristics of the wireless medium often render decentralized, node-based approaches impractical. We demonstrate that an active-probing-based network intrusion detection system (AP-NIDS) is practical for WMNs. The key contribution of this paper is to optimize the active probing process: we introduce a general Bayesian model and design a probe selection algorithm that reduces the number of probes while maximizing the insights gathered by the AP-NIDS. We validate our model by means of testbed experimentation. We integrate it to our open source AP-NIDS DogoIDS and run it in an indoor wireless mesh testbed utilizing the IEEE 802.11s protocol. For the example of a selective packet dropping attack, we develop the detection states for our Bayes model, and show its feasibility. We demonstrate that our approach does not need to execute the complete set of probes, yet we obtain good detection rates.

Sa Sousa, J., Vilela, J.P..  2014.  A characterization of uncoordinated frequency hopping for wireless secrecy. Wireless and Mobile Networking Conference (WMNC), 2014 7th IFIP. :1-4.

We characterize the secrecy level of communication under Uncoordinated Frequency Hopping, a spread spectrum scheme where a transmitter and a receiver randomly hop through a set of frequencies with the goal of deceiving an adversary. In our work, the goal of the legitimate parties is to land on a given frequency without the adversary eavesdroppers doing so, therefore being able to communicate securely in that period, that may be used for secret-key exchange. We also consider the effect on secrecy of the availability of friendly jammers that can be used to obstruct eavesdroppers by causing them interference. Our results show that tuning the number of frequencies and adding friendly jammers are effective countermeasures against eavesdroppers.