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2021-09-16
Long, Saiqin, Yu, Hao, Li, Zhetao, Tian, Shujuan, Li, Yun.  2020.  Energy Efficiency Evaluation Based on QoS Parameter Specification for Cloud Systems. 2020 IEEE 22nd International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 18th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 6th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :27–34.
Energy efficiency evaluation (EEE) is a research difficulty in the field of cloud computing. The current research mainly considers the relevant energy efficiency indicators of cloud systems and weights the interrelationship between energy consumption, system performance and QoS requirements. However, it lacks a combination of subjective and objective, qualitative and quantitative evaluation method to accurately evaluate the energy efficiency of cloud systems. We propose a novel EEE method based on the QoS parameter specification for cloud systems (EEE-QoS). Firstly, it reduces the metric values that affect QoS requirements to the same dimension range and then establishes a belief rule base (BRB). The best-worst method is utilized to determine the initial weights of the premise attributes in the BRB model. Then, the BRB model parameters are optimized by the mean-square error, the activation weight is calculated, and the activation rules of the evidence reasoning algorithm are integrated to evaluate the belief of the conclusion. The quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the energy efficiency of cloud systems is realized. The experiments show that the proposed method can accurately and objectively evaluate the energy efficiency of cloud systems.
2021-09-08
Gupta, Anushikha, Kalra, Mala.  2020.  Intrusion Detection and Prevention System Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm with ANN in Cloud Computing. 2020 Sixth International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing (PDGC). :66–72.
The Security is a vital aspect of cloud service as it comprises of data that belong to multiple users. Cloud service providers are responsible for maintaining data integrity, confidentiality and availability. They must ensure that their infrastructure and data are protected from intruders. In this research work Intrusion Detection System is designed to detect malicious server by using Cuckoo Search (CS) along with Artificial Intelligence. CS is used for feature optimization with the help of fitness function, the server's nature is categorized into two types: normal and attackers. On the basis of extracted features, ANN classify the attackers which affect the networks in cloud environment. The main aim is to distinguish attacker servers that are affected by DoS/DDoS, Black and Gray hole attacks from the genuine servers. Thus, instead of passing data to attacker server, the server passes the data to the genuine servers and hence, the system is protected. To validate the performance of the system, QoS parameters such as PDR (Packet delivery rate), energy consumption rate and total delay before and after prevention algorithm are measured. When compared with existing work, the PDR and the delay have been enhanced by 3.0 %and 21.5 %.
2021-08-17
Mutalemwa, Lilian C., Kang, Moonsoo, Shin, Seokjoo.  2020.  Controlling the Communication Overhead of Source Location Privacy Protocols in Multi-hop Communication Wireless Networks. 2020 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Information and Communication (ICAIIC). :055—059.
Fake source packet routing protocols can ensure Source Location Privacy (SLP) protection. However, the protocols have demonstrated some performance limitations including high energy consumption, low packet delivery ratio (PDR), and long end-to-end delay (EED). In this study, a 2-level phantom routing protocol is proposed to address some limitations of an existing fake source packet routing protocol. The proposed protocol supplants the fake source packets with a random second level phantom node to alleviate the limitations. Analysis results confirm that the proposed protocol is capable of achieving strong SLP protection with minimized communication overhead. By removing the fake packet traffic in the network, the protocol incurs minimized energy consumption, maximized PDR, and minimized EED.
Hussien, Zainab Waleed, Qawasmeh, Doaa Sami, Shurman, Mohammad.  2020.  MSCLP: Multi-Sinks Cluster-Based Location Privacy Protection scheme in WSNs for IoT. 2020 32nd International Conference on Microelectronics (ICM). :1—4.
One of the most important information in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is the location of each sensor node. This kind of information is very attractive to attackers for real position exposure of nodes making the whole network vulnerable to different kinds of attacks. According to WSNs privacy, there are two types of threats affect the network: Contextual and Content privacy. In this work, we study contextual privacy, where an eavesdropper tries to find the location of the source or sink node. We propose a Multi-Sinks Cluster-Based Location Privacy Protection (MSCLP) scheme in WSNs that divides the WSN into clusters, each cluster managed by one cluster head (CH). Each CH sends random fake packets in a loop then sends the real packet to the neighbor's CHs using a dynamic routing method to confuse the attacker from tracing back the real packet to reveal the actual location of the source node, we are taking in our consideration two important metrics: the energy consumption, and the delay.
2021-07-08
Long, Saiqin, Li, Zhetao, Xing, Yun, Tian, Shujuan, Li, Dongsheng, Yu, Rong.  2020.  A Reinforcement Learning-Based Virtual Machine Placement Strategy in Cloud Data Centers. :223—230.
{With the widespread use of cloud computing, energy consumption of cloud data centers is increasing which mainly comes from IT equipment and cooling equipment. This paper argues that once the number of virtual machines on the physical machines reaches a certain level, resource competition occurs, resulting in a performance loss of the virtual machines. Unlike most papers, we do not impose placement constraints on virtual machines by giving a CPU cap to achieve the purpose of energy savings in cloud data centers. Instead, we use the measure of performance loss to weigh. We propose a reinforcement learning-based virtual machine placement strategy(RLVMP) for energy savings in cloud data centers. The strategy considers the weight of virtual machine performance loss and energy consumption, which is finally solved with the greedy strategy. Simulation experiments show that our strategy has a certain improvement in energy savings compared with the other algorithms.
2021-06-30
Zhang, Wenrui.  2020.  Application of Attention Model Hybrid Guiding based on Artificial Intelligence in the Course of Intelligent Architecture History. 2020 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Sustainable Systems (ICISS). :59—62.
Application of the attention model hybrid building based on the artificial intelligence in the course of the intelligent architecture history is studied in this article. A Hadoop distributed architecture using big data processing technology which combines basic building information with the building energy consumption data for the data mining research methods, and conduct a preliminary design of a Hadoop-based public building energy consumption data mining system. The principles of the proposed model were summarized. At first, the intelligent firewall processes the decision data faster, when the harmful information invades. The intelligent firewall can monitor and also intercept the harmful information in a timelier manner. Secondly, develop a problem data processing plan, delete and identify different types of problem data, and supplement the deleted problem data according to the rules obtained by data mining. The experimental results have reflected the efficiency of the proposed model.
2021-06-02
Guerrero-Bonilla, Luis, Saldaña, David, Kumar, Vijay.  2020.  Dense r-robust formations on lattices. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA). :6633—6639.
Robot networks are susceptible to fail under the presence of malicious or defective robots. Resilient networks in the literature require high connectivity and large communication ranges, leading to high energy consumption in the communication network. This paper presents robot formations with guaranteed resiliency that use smaller communication ranges than previous results in the literature. The formations can be built on triangular and square lattices in the plane, and cubic lattices in the three-dimensional space. We support our theoretical framework with simulations.
2021-04-27
Vishwakarma, L., Das, D..  2020.  BSS: Blockchain Enabled Security System for Internet of Things Applications. 2020 IEEE 19th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA). :1—4.

In the Internet of Things (IoT), devices can interconnect and communicate autonomously, which requires devices to authenticate each other to exchange meaningful information. Otherwise, these things become vulnerable to various attacks. The conventional security protocols are not suitable for IoT applications due to the high computation and storage demand. Therefore, we proposed a blockchain-enabled secure storage and communication scheme for IoT applications, called BSS. The scheme ensures identification, authentication, and data integrity. Our scheme uses the security advantages of blockchain and helps to create safe zones (trust batch) where authenticated objects interconnect securely and do communication. A secure and robust trust mechanism is employed to build these batches, where each device has to authenticate itself before joining the trust batch. The obtained results satisfy the IoT security requirements with 60% reduced computation, storage and communication cost compared with state-of-the-art schemes. BSS also withstands various cyberattacks such as impersonation, message replay, man-in-the-middle, and botnet attacks.

2021-03-01
Chowdary, S. S., Ghany, M. A. Abd El, Hofmann, K..  2020.  IoT based Wireless Energy Efficient Smart Metering System Using ZigBee in Smart Cities. 2020 7th International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IOTSMS). :1–4.
Electricity has become the primary need of human life. The emerging of IoT concept recently in our lives, has offered the chance to establish energy efficient smart devices, systems and cities. Due to the urging need for conserving energy, this paper proposes an IoT based wireless energy efficient smart metering systems for smart cities. A network of smart meters is achieved to deliver the energy consumption data to the Energy/Utility provider. The star and mesh topologies are used in creating the network of smart meters in order to increase the distance of coverage. The proposed system offers an easily operated application for users as well as a Website and database for electricity Supplier Company. The proposed system design has an accuracy level of 95% and it is about 35% lower cost than its peer in the global market. The proposed design reduced the power consumption by 25%.
Shi, W., Liu, S., Zhang, J., Zhang, R..  2020.  A Location-aware Computation Offloading Policy for MEC-assisted Wireless Mesh Network. 2020 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC Workshops). :53–58.
Mobile edge computing (MEC), an emerging technology, has the characteristics of low latency, mobile energy savings, and context-awareness. As a type of access network, wireless mesh network (WMN) has gained wide attention due to its flexible network architecture, low deployment cost, and self-organization. The combination of MEC and WMN can solve the shortcomings of traditional wireless communication such as storage capacity, privacy, and security. In this paper, we propose a location-aware (LA) algorithm to cognize the location and a location-aware offloading policy (LAOP) algorithm considering the energy consumption and time delay. Simulation results show that the proposed LAOP algorithm can obtain a higher completion rate and lower average processing delay compared with the other two methods.
2021-02-16
IBRAHIMY, S., LAMAAZI, H., BENAMAR, N..  2020.  RPL Assessment using the Rank Attack in Static and Mobile Environments. 2020 International Conference on Innovation and Intelligence for Informatics, Computing and Technologies (3ICT). :1—6.
Routing protocol running over low power and lossy networks (RPL) is currently one of the main routing protocols for the Internet of Things (IoT). This protocol has some vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers to change its behavior and deteriorate its performance. In the RPL rank attack, a malicious node announces a wrong rank, which leads the neighboring’s nodes to choose this node as a preferred parent. In this study, we used different metrics to assess RPL protocol in the presence of misbehaving nodes, namely the overhead, convergence time, energy consumption, preferred parent changes, and network lifetime. Our simulations results show that a mobile environment is more damaged by the rank attack than a static environment.
2021-02-15
Reshma, S., Shaila, K., Venugopal, K. R..  2020.  DEAVD - Data Encryption and Aggregation using Voronoi Diagram for Wireless Sensor Networks. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :635–638.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are applied in environmental monitoring, military surveillance, etc., whereas these applications focuses on providing security for sensed data and the nodes are available for a long time. Hence, we propose DEAVD protocol for secure data exchange with limited usage of energy. The DEAVD protocol compresses data to reduces the energy consumption and implements an energy efficient encryption and decryption technique using voronoi diagram paradigm. Thus, there is an improvement in the proposed protocol with respect to security due to the concept adapted during data encryption and aggregation.
2021-02-03
Gao, L., Sun, J., Li, J..  2020.  Security of Networked Control Systems with Incomplete Information Based on Game Theory. 2020 39th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :6701—6706.

The security problem of networked control systems (NCSs) suffering denial of service(DoS) attacks with incomplete information is investigated in this paper. Data transmission among different components in NCSs may be blocked due to DoS attacks. We use the concept of security level to describe the degree of security of different components in an NCS. Intrusion detection system (IDS) is used to monitor the invalid data generated by DoS attacks. At each time slot, the defender considers which component to monitor while the attacker considers which place for invasion. A one-shot game between attacker and defender is built and both the complete information case and the incomplete information case are considered. Furthermore, a repeated game model with updating beliefs is also established based on the Bayes' rule. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

2021-01-25
Mazlisham, M. H., Adnan, S. F. Syed, Isa, M. A. Mat, Mahad, Z., Asbullah, M. A..  2020.  Analysis of Rabin-P and RSA-OAEP Encryption Scheme on Microprocessor Platform. 2020 IEEE 10th Symposium on Computer Applications Industrial Electronics (ISCAIE). :292–296.

This paper presents an analysis of Rabin-P encryption scheme on microprocessor platform in term of runtime and energy consumption. A microprocessor is one of the devices utilized in the Internet of Things (IoT) structure. Therefore, in this work, the microprocessor selected is the Raspberry Pi that is powered with a smaller version of the Linux operating system for embedded devices, the Raspbian OS. A comparative analysis is then conducted for Rabin-p and RSA-OAEP cryptosystem in the Raspberry Pi setup. A conclusion can be made that Rabin-p performs faster in comparison to the RSA-OAEP cryptosystem in the microprocessor platform. Rabin-p can improve decryption efficiency by using only one modular exponentiation while produces a unique message after the decryption process.

2020-12-14
Pandey, S., Singh, V..  2020.  Blackhole Attack Detection Using Machine Learning Approach on MANET. 2020 International Conference on Electronics and Sustainable Communication Systems (ICESC). :797–802.

Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) consists of different configurations, where it deals with the dynamic nature of its creation and also it is a self-configurable type of a network. The primary task in this type of networks is to develop a mechanism for routing that gives a high QoS parameter because of the nature of ad-hoc network. The Ad-hoc-on-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) used here is the on-demand routing mechanism for the computation of the trust. The proposed approach uses the Artificial neural network (ANN) and the Support Vector Machine (SVM) for the discovery of the black hole attacks in the network. The results are carried out between the black hole AODV and the security mechanism provided by us as the Secure AODV (SAODV). The results were tested on different number of nodes, at last, it has been experimented for 100 nodes which provide an improvement in energy consumption of 54.72%, the throughput is 88.68kbps, packet delivery ratio is 92.91% and the E to E delay is of about 37.27ms.

2020-12-01
Xu, W., Peng, Y..  2018.  SharaBLE: A Software Framework for Shared Usage of BLE Devices over the Internet. 2018 IEEE 29th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC). :381—385.

With the development of Internet of Things, numerous IoT devices have been brought into our daily lives. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), due to the low energy consumption and generic service stack, has become one of the most popular wireless communication technologies for IoT. However, because of the short communication range and exclusive connection pattern, a BLE-equipped device can only be used by a single user near the device. To fully explore the benefits of BLE and make BLE-equipped devices truly accessible over the Internet as IoT devices, in this paper, we propose a cloud-based software framework that can enable multiple users to interact with various BLE IoT devices over the Internet. This framework includes an agent program, a suite of services hosting in cloud, and a set of RESTful APIs exposed to Internet users. Given the availability of this framework, the access to BLE devices can be extended from local to the Internet scale without any software or hardware changes to BLE devices, and more importantly, shared usage of remote BLE devices over the Internet is also made available.

2020-11-20
Sarochar, J., Acharya, I., Riggs, H., Sundararajan, A., Wei, L., Olowu, T., Sarwat, A. I..  2019.  Synthesizing Energy Consumption Data Using a Mixture Density Network Integrated with Long Short Term Memory. 2019 IEEE Green Technologies Conference(GreenTech). :1—4.
Smart cities comprise multiple critical infrastructures, two of which are the power grid and communication networks, backed by centralized data analytics and storage. To effectively model the interdependencies between these infrastructures and enable a greater understanding of how communities respond to and impact them, large amounts of varied, real-world data on residential and commercial consumer energy consumption, load patterns, and associated human behavioral impacts are required. The dissemination of such data to the research communities is, however, largely restricted because of security and privacy concerns. This paper creates an opportunity for the development and dissemination of synthetic energy consumption data which is inherently anonymous but holds similarities to the properties of real data. This paper explores a framework using mixture density network (MDN) model integrated with a multi-layered Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network which shows promise in this area of research. The model is trained using an initial sample recorded from residential smart meters in the state of Florida, and is used to generate fully synthetic energy consumption data. The synthesized data will be made publicly available for interested users.
Semwal, S., Badoni, M., Saxena, N..  2019.  Smart Meters for Domestic Consumers: Innovative Methods for Identifying Appliances using NIALM. 2019 Women Institute of Technology Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (WITCON ECE). :81—90.
A country drives by their people and the electricity energy, the availability of the electricity power reflects the strength of that country. All most everything depends on the electricity energy, So it is become very important that we use the available energy very efficiently, and here the energy management come in the picture and Non Intrusive appliance Load monitoring (NIALM) is the part of energy management, in which the energy consumption by the particular load is monitored without any intrusion of wire/circuit. In literature, NIALM has been discussed as a monitoring process for conservation of energy using single point sensing (SPS) for extraction of aggregate signal of the appliances' features, ignoring the second function of demand response (DR) assuming that it would be manual or sensor-based. This assumption is not implementable in developing countries like India, because of requirement of extra cost of sensors, and privacy concerns. Surprisingly, despite decades of research on NIALM, none of the suggested procedures has resulted in commercial application. This paper highlights the causes behind non- commercialization, and proposes a viable and easy solution worthy of commercial exploitation both for monitoring and DR management for outage reduction in respect of Indian domestic consumers. Using a approach of multi point sensing (MPS), combined with Independent Component Analysis (ICA), experiments has been done in laboratory environment and CPWD specification has been followed.
Chin, J., Zufferey, T., Shyti, E., Hug, G..  2019.  Load Forecasting of Privacy-Aware Consumers. 2019 IEEE Milan PowerTech. :1—6.

The roll-out of smart meters (SMs) in the electric grid has enabled data-driven grid management and planning techniques. SM data can be used together with short-term load forecasts (STLFs) to overcome polling frequency constraints for better grid management. However, the use of SMs that report consumption data at high spatial and temporal resolutions entails consumer privacy risks, motivating work in protecting consumer privacy. The impact of privacy protection schemes on STLF accuracy is not well studied, especially for smaller aggregations of consumers, whose load profiles are subject to more volatility and are, thus, harder to predict. In this paper, we analyse the impact of two user demand shaping privacy protection schemes, model-distribution predictive control (MDPC) and load-levelling, on STLF accuracy. Support vector regression is used to predict the load profiles at different consumer aggregation levels. Results indicate that, while the MDPC algorithm marginally affects forecast accuracy for smaller consumer aggregations, this diminishes at higher aggregation levels. More importantly, the load-levelling scheme significantly improves STLF accuracy as it smoothens out the grid visible consumer load profile.

2020-11-17
Benhani, E. M., Bossuet, L..  2018.  DVFS as a Security Failure of TrustZone-enabled Heterogeneous SoC. 2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS). :489—492.
Today, most embedded systems use Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) to minimize energy consumption and maximize performance. The DVFS technique works by regulating the important parameters that govern the amount of energy consumed in a system, voltage and frequency. For the implementation of this technique, the operating system (OS) includes software applications that dynamically control a voltage regulator or a frequency regulator or both. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a malicious use of the frequency regulator against a TrustZone-enabled System-on-Chip (SoC). We demonstrate a use of frequency scaling to create covert channel in a TrustZone-enabled heterogeneous SoC. We present four proofs of concept to transfer sensitive data from a secure entity in the SoC to a non-secure one. The first proof of concept is from a secure ARM core to outside of SoC. The second is from a secure ARM core to a non-secure one. The third is from a non-trusted third party IP embedded in the programmable logic part of the SoC to a non-secure ARM core. And the last proof of concept is from a secure third party IP to a non-secure ARM core.
2020-11-02
Krishnasamy, G..  2019.  An Energy Aware Fuzzy Trust based Clustering with group key Management in MANET Multicasting. 2019 2nd International Conference on new Trends in Computing Sciences (ICTCS). :1–5.
The group key maintenance in MANET is especially risky, because repeated node movement, link breakdown and lower capacity resources. The member movement needs key refreshment to maintain privacy among members. To survive with these characteristics variety of clustering concepts used to subdivide the network. To establish considerably stable and trustable environment fuzzy based trust clustering taken into consideration with Group key management. The nodes with highest trust and energy elected as Cluster Head and it forms cluster in its range. The proposed work analyze secure multicast transmission by implementing Polynomial-based key management in Fuzzy Trust based clustered networks (FTBCA) for secure multicast transmission that protect against both internal and external attackers and measure the performance by injecting attack models.
Fraiji, Yosra, Ben Azzouz, Lamia, Trojet, Wassim, Saidane, Leila Azouz.  2018.  Cyber security issues of Internet of electric vehicles. 2018 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :1—6.

The use of Electric Vehicle (EV) is growing rapidly due to its environmental benefits. However, the major problem of these vehicles is their limited battery, the lack of charging stations and the re-charge time. Introducing Information and Communication Technologies, in the field of EV, will improve energy efficiency, energy consumption predictions, availability of charging stations, etc. The Internet of Vehicles based only on Electric Vehicles (IoEV) is a complex system. It is composed of vehicles, humans, sensors, road infrastructure and charging stations. All these entities communicate using several communication technologies (ZigBee, 802.11p, cellular networks, etc). IoEV is therefore vulnerable to significant attacks such as DoS, false data injection, modification. Hence, security is a crucial factor for the development and the wide deployment of Internet of Electric Vehicles (IoEV). In this paper, we present an overview of security issues of the IoEV architecture and we highlight open issues that make the IoEV security a challenging research area in the future.

2020-10-26
Mutalemwa, Lilian C., Seok, Junhee, Shin, Seokjoo.  2019.  Experimental Evaluation of Source Location Privacy Routing Schemes and Energy Consumption Performance. 2019 19th International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies (ISCIT). :86–90.
Network lifetime and energy consumption of sensor nodes have an inversely proportional relationship. Thus, it is important to ensure source location privacy (SLP) routing schemes are energy-efficient. This work performs an experimental evaluation of some existing routing schemes and proposes a new angle-based routing algorithm to modify the schemes. The dynamic route creation process of the modified schemes is characterized by processes which include determination of route and banned regions and computation of control angle and lead factor parameters. Results of the analysis show that the modified schemes are effective at obfuscating the adversaries to provide strong SLP protection. Furthermore, the modified schemes consume relatively lower energy and guarantee longer network lifetime.
Xu, Mengmeng, Zhu, Hai, Wang, Juanjuan, Xu, Hengzhou.  2019.  Dynamic and Disjoint Routing Mechanism for Protecting Source Location Privacy in WSNs. 2019 15th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :310–314.
In this paper, we investigate the protection mechanism of source location privacy, in which back-tracing attack is performed by an adversary. A dynamic and disjoint routing mechanism (DDRM) is proposed to achieve a strong protection for source location privacy in an energy-efficient manner. Specially, the selection of intermediate node renders the message transmission randomly and flexibly. By constructing k disjoint paths, an adversary could not receive sufficient messages to locate the source node. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism.
George, Chinnu Mary, Luke Babu, Sharon.  2019.  A Scalable Correlation Clustering strategy in Location Privacy for Wireless Sensor Networks against a Universal Adversary. 2019 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Knowledge Economy (ICCIKE). :1–3.
Wireless network sensors are outsized number of pocket sized sensors deployed in the area under surveillance. The sensor network is very sensitive to unattended and remote Environment with a wide variety of applications in the agriculture, health, industry there a lot of challenges being faced with respect to the energy, mobility, security. The paper presents with regard to the context based surrounding information which has location privacy to the source node against an adversary who sees the network at a whole so a correlation strategy is proposed for providing the privacy.