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2021-08-02
Terai, Takeru, Yoshida, Masami, Ramonet, Alberto Gallegos, Noguchi, Taku.  2020.  Blackhole Attack Cooperative Prevention Method in MANETs. 2020 Eighth International Symposium on Computing and Networking Workshops (CANDARW). :60–66.
Blackhole (BH) attacks are one of the most serious threats in mobile ad-hoc networks. A BH is a security attack in which a malicious node absorbs data packets and sends fake routing information to neighboring nodes. BH attacks are widely studied. However, existing defense methods wrongfully assume that BH attacks cannot overcome the most common defense approaches. A new wave of BH attacks is known as smart BH attacks. In this study, we used a highly aggressive type of BH attack that can predict sequence numbers to overcome traditional detection methods that set a threshold to sequence numbers. To protect the network from this type of BH attack, we propose a detection-and-prevention method that uses local information shared with neighboring nodes. Our experiments show that the proposed method successfully detects and contains even smart BH threats. Consequently, the attack success rate decreases.
Shrestha, Sijan, Baidya, Ranjai, Giri, Bivek, Thapa, Anup.  2020.  Securing Blackhole Attacks in MANETs using Modified Sequence Number in AODV Routing Protocol. 2020 8th International Electrical Engineering Congress (iEECON). :1–4.
Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a dynamic network between mobile nodes for sharing of information and is popular for its infrastructure-less design. Due to the lack of central governing body, however, various security threats come forward in MANETs in comparison to its infrastructure based counterparts. Blackhole attack is one of the most challenging security issues present in MANETs. Blackhole attack reduces network efficiency considerably by disrupting the flow of data between source and destination. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which is based on the technique of changing the sequence number present in control packets, in particular the Route Reply Packets (RREP) in widely used Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol, in order to identify the blackhole nodes and thereby to minimize the data loss by discarding the route with such Blackhole nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the legacy Intrusion Detection System (IDS) provisioned for AODV.
2021-03-09
Oakley, I..  2020.  Solutions to Black Hole Attacks in MANETs. 2020 12th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP). :1–6.
Self-organising networks, such as mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), are growing more and more in importance each day. However, due to their nature and constraints MANETs are vulnerable to a wide array of attacks, such as black hole attacks. Furthermore, there are numerous routing protocols in use in MANETs, and what works for one might not for another. In this paper, we present a review of previous surveys of black hole attack solutions, followed by a collation of recently published papers categorised by original routing protocol and evaluated on a set of common metrics. Finally, we suggest areas for further research.
Fiade, A., Triadi, A. Yudha, Sulhi, A., Masruroh, S. Ummi, Handayani, V., Suseno, H. Bayu.  2020.  Performance Analysis of Black Hole Attack and Flooding Attack AODV Routing Protocol on VANET (Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network). 2020 8th International Conference on Cyber and IT Service Management (CITSM). :1–5.
Wireless technology is widely used today and is growing rapidly. One of the wireless technologies is VANET where the network can communicate with vehicles (V2V) which can prevent accidents on the road. Energy is also a problem in VANET so it needs to be used efficiently. The presence of malicious nodes or nodes can eliminate and disrupt the process of data communication. The routing protocol used in this study is AODV. The purpose of this study is to analyze the comparison of blackhole attack and flooding attack against energy-efficient AODV on VANET. This research uses simulation methods and several supporting programs such as OpenStreetMap, SUMO, NS2, NAM, and AWK to test the AODV routing protocol. Quality of service (QOS) parameters used in this study are throughput, packet loss, and end to end delay. Energy parameters are also used to examine the energy efficiency used. This study uses the number of variations of nodes consisting of 20 nodes, 40 nodes, 60 nodes, and different network conditions, namely normal network conditions, network conditions with black hole attacks, and network conditions with flooding attacks. The results obtained can be concluded that the highest value of throughput when network conditions are normal, the greatest value of packet loss when there is a black hole attack, the highest end to end delay value and the largest remaining energy when there is a flooding attack.
2020-12-28
Sharma, V., Renu, Shree, T..  2020.  An adaptive approach for Detecting Blackhole using TCP Analysis in MANETs. 2nd International Conference on Data, Engineering and Applications (IDEA). :1—5.

From recent few years, need of information security is realized by society amd researchers specially in multi-path, unstructured networks as Mobile Ad-hoc Network. Devices connected in such network are self-configuring and small in size and can communicate in infra less environment. Architecture is very much dynamic and absence of central controlling authority puts challenges to the network by making more vulnerable for various threats and attacks in order to exploit the function of the network. The paper proposes, TCP analysis against very popular attack i.e. blackhole attack. Under different circumstance, reliable transport layer protocol TCP is analyzed for the effects of the attack on adhoc network. Performance has been measured using metrics of average throughput, normalized routing load and end to end delay and conclusions have been drawn based on that.

2020-12-14
Pandey, S., Singh, V..  2020.  Blackhole Attack Detection Using Machine Learning Approach on MANET. 2020 International Conference on Electronics and Sustainable Communication Systems (ICESC). :797–802.

Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) consists of different configurations, where it deals with the dynamic nature of its creation and also it is a self-configurable type of a network. The primary task in this type of networks is to develop a mechanism for routing that gives a high QoS parameter because of the nature of ad-hoc network. The Ad-hoc-on-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) used here is the on-demand routing mechanism for the computation of the trust. The proposed approach uses the Artificial neural network (ANN) and the Support Vector Machine (SVM) for the discovery of the black hole attacks in the network. The results are carried out between the black hole AODV and the security mechanism provided by us as the Secure AODV (SAODV). The results were tested on different number of nodes, at last, it has been experimented for 100 nodes which provide an improvement in energy consumption of 54.72%, the throughput is 88.68kbps, packet delivery ratio is 92.91% and the E to E delay is of about 37.27ms.

2020-10-29
Noguchi, Taku, Hayakawa, Mayuko.  2018.  Black Hole Attack Prevention Method Using Multiple RREPs in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :539—544.

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that do not need to rely on a pre-existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Securing MANETs is a serious concern as current research on MANETs continues to progress. Each node in a MANET acts as a router, forwarding data packets for other nodes and exchanging routing information between nodes. It is this intrinsic nature that introduces the serious security issues to routing protocols. A black hole attack is one of the well-known security threats for MANETs. A black hole is a security attack in which a malicious node absorbs all data packets by sending fake routing information and drops them without forwarding them. In order to defend against a black hole attack, in this paper we propose a new threshold-based black hole attack prevention method using multiple RREPs. To investigate the performance of the proposed method, we compared it with existing methods. Our simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms existing methods from the standpoints of packet delivery rate, throughput, and routing overhead.

Hossain, Sazzat, Hussain, Md. Sazzad, Ema, Romana Rahman, Dutta, Songita, Sarkar, Suborna, Islam, Tajul.  2019.  Detecting Black hole attack by selecting appropriate routes for authentic message passing using SHA-3 and Diffie-Hellman algorithm in AODV and AOMDV routing protocols in MANET. 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—7.
Ad hoc network is sensitive to attacks because it has temporary nature and frequently recognized insecure environment. Both Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Ad hoc On-demand Multipath Distance vector (AOMDV) routing protocols have the strategy to take help from Wireless and mobile ad hoc networks. A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is recognized as an useful internet protocol and where the mobile nodes are self-configuring and self-organizing in character. This research paper has focused on the detection and influence of black hole attack on the execution of AODV and AOMDV routing protocols and has also evaluated the performance of those two on-demand routing protocols in MANETs. AODV has the characteristics for discovering a single path in single route discovery and AOMDV has the characteristics for discovering multiple paths in single route discovery. Here a proposed method for both AODV and AOMDV routing protocol, has been applied for the detection of the black hole attack, which is the merge of both SHA-3 and Diffie-Hellman algorithm. This merge technique has been applied to detect black hole attack in MANET. This technique has been applied to measure the performance matrices for both AODV and AOMDV and those performance matrices are Average Throughput, Average End to End delay and Normalized Routing Load. Both AODV and AOMDV routing protocol have been compared with each other to show that under black hole attack, AOMDV protocol always has better execution than AODV protocol. Here, NS-2.35 has been used as the Network Simulator tool for the simulation of these particular three types of performance metrics stated above.
Gayathri, S, Seetharaman, R., Subramanian, L.Harihara, Premkumar, S., Viswanathan, S., Chandru, S..  2019.  Wormhole Attack Detection using Energy Model in MANETs. 2019 2nd International Conference on Power and Embedded Drive Control (ICPEDC). :264—268.
The mobile ad-hoc networks comprised of nodes that are communicated through dynamic request and also by static table driven technique. The dynamic route discovery in AODV routing creates an unsecure transmission as well as reception. The reason for insecurity is the route request is given to all the nodes in the network communication. The possibility of the intruder nodes are more in the case of dynamic route request. Wormhole attacks in MANETs are creating challenges in the field of network analysis. In this paper the wormhole scenario is realized using high power transmission. This is implemented using energy model of ns2 simulator. The Apptool simulator identifies the energy level of each node and track the node of high transmission power. The performance curves for throughput, node energy for different encrypted values, packet drop ratio, and end to end delay are plotted.
2020-08-03
Seetharaman, R., Subramaniam, L.Harihara, Ramanathan, S..  2019.  Mobile Ad Hoc Network for Security Enhancement. 2019 2nd International Conference on Power and Embedded Drive Control (ICPEDC). :279–282.

This project enhances the security in which Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol for MANETs with the game theoretical approach. This is achieved by using public key and private key for encryption and decryption processes. Proactive and reactive method is implemented in the proposed system. Reactive method is done in identification process but in proactive method is used to identify the nodes and also block the hackers node, then change the direction of data transmission to good nodes. This application can be used in military, research, confidential and emergency circumferences.

2020-06-01
Aziz, Nooralhuda waheed, Alsaad, Saad Najim, Hmood, Haider kadhum.  2019.  Implementation of Lightweight Stream Cipher in AODV Routing Protocol for MANET. 2019 First International Conference of Computer and Applied Sciences (CAS). :210—215.

The growing use of MANETs and its vulnerability to attacks due to its fundamental characteristics make secure routing one of the most considerable challenges. In this paper, a new security scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is presented. The proposed scheme used Trivium lightweight stream cipher algorithm in combination with HMAC to secure the routing control packets. This paper compares the performance of the AODV after implementing the security scheme in terms of throughput, delay sum (end-to-end), jitter sum (end-to-end) and packet loss ratio. The proposed scheme shows better performance than original AODV under blackhole attack.

Sivanesh, S., Sarma Dhulipala, V.R..  2019.  Comparitive Analysis of Blackhole and Rushing Attack in MANET. 2019 TEQIP III Sponsored International Conference on Microwave Integrated Circuits, Photonics and Wireless Networks (IMICPW). :495—499.

For the past few decades, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have been a global trend in wireless networking technology. These kind of ad-hoc networks are infrastructure less, dynamic in topology and further doesn't have a centralized network administration which makes it easier for the intruders to launch several attacks on MANETs. In this paper, we have made a comparative analysis of the network layer attack by simulating rushing and black hole attack using NS-2 network simulator. For determining the most vulnerable attack we have considered packet delivery ratio, end to end delay and throughput as a evaluation metrices. Here, AODV routing protocol has been configured for data forwarding operations. From our Simulation result, it is evident that the black hole attack is more vulnerable when compared to the rushing attack.

2020-05-26
Tripathi, Shripriya.  2019.  Performance Analysis of AODV and DSR Routing Protocols of MANET under Wormhole Attack and a Suggested Trust Based Routing Algorithm for DSR. 2019 IEEE International WIE Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (WIECON-ECE). :1–5.

The nodes in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) can self-assemble themselves, locomote unreservedly and can interact with one another without taking any help from a centralized authority or fixed infrastructure. Due to its continuously changing and self-organizing nature, MANET is vulnerable to a variety of attacks like spoofing attack, wormhole attack, black hole attack, etc. This paper compares and analyzes the repercussion of the wormhole attack on MANET's two common routing protocols of reactive category, specifically, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) by increasing the number of wormhole tunnels in MANET. The results received by simulation will reveal that DSR is greatly affected by this attack. So, as a solution, a routing algorithm for DSR which is based on trust is proposed to prevent the routes from caching malicious nodes.

Kumari, Alpana, Krishnan, Shoba.  2019.  Analysis of Malicious Behavior of Blackhole and Rushing Attack in MANET. 2019 International Conference on Nascent Technologies in Engineering (ICNTE). :1–6.

Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) are the networks where network nodes uses wireless links to transfer information from one node to another without making use of existing infrastructure. There is no node in the network to control and coordinate establishment of connections between the network nodes. Hence the network nodes performs dual function of both node as well as router. Due to dynamically changing network scenarios, absence of centralization and lack of resources, MANETs have a threat of large number of security attacks. Hence security attacks need to be evaluated in order to find effective methods to avoid or remove them. In this paper malicious behavior of Blackhole attack and Rushing attack is studied and analyzed for QoS metrics.

V S, Deepthi, S, Vagdevi.  2018.  Behaviour Analysis and Detection of Blackhole Attacker Node under Reactive Routing Protocol in MANETs. 2018 International Conference on Networking, Embedded and Wireless Systems (ICNEWS). :1–5.
Mobile Adhoc networks are wireless adhoc networks that have property of self organizing, less infrastructure, multi hoping, which are designed to work under low power vulnerable environment. Due to its very unique characteristics, there is much chances of threat of malicious nodes within the network. Blackhole attack is a menace in MANETs which redirects all traffic to itself and drops it. This paper’s objective is to analyze the effects of blackhole attack under reactive routing protocol such as Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV). The performance of this protocol is assessed to find the vulnerability of attack and also compared the impact of attack on both AODV, AODV with blackhole and proposed AODV protocols. The analysis is done by simulated using NS- 2.35 and QoS parameters such as Throughput, PDR, and Average Energy Consumed are measured further.
Kumari, Alpana, Krishnan, Shoba.  2018.  Simulation Based Study of Blackhole Attack Under AODV Protocol. 2018 Fourth International Conference on Computing Communication Control and Automation (ICCUBEA). :1–6.
Mobile adhoc network are fully autonomous where the nodes act both as node as well as router. Centralization is absent in MANETs. In MANETs nodes are continuously moving and have an open access which put it at a risk of large number of attacks. Security in such networks is therefore a critical matter. In order to find solution to this issue various attacks need to be studied and analyzed. In Blackhole attack, the unauthorized node in the path of source and target nodes takes away the packets sent by the source and drops them by not heading them towards the target node. The malicious behavior launched by Blackhole attack deteriorates the network performance.
Li, Guoquan, Yan, Zheng, Fu, Yulong.  2018.  A Study and Simulation Research of Blackhole Attack on Mobile AdHoc Network. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–6.
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a kind of mobile multi-hop network which can transmit data through intermediate nodes, it has been widely used and become important since the growing of the market of Internet of Things (IoT). However, the transmissions on MANET are vulnerable, it usually suffered with many internal or external attacks, and the research on security topics of MANET are becoming more and more hot recently. Blackhole Attack is one of the most famous attacks to MANET. In this paper, we focus on the Blackhole Attack in AODV protocol, and use NS-3 network simulator to study the impact of Blackhole Attack on network performance parameters, such as the Throughput, End-to-End Delay and Packet Loss Rate. We further analyze the changes in network performance by adjusting the number of blackhole nodes and total nodes, and the movement speed of mobile nodes. The experimental results not only reflect the behaviors of the Blackhole Attack and its damage to the network, but also provide the characteristics of Blackhole Attacks clearly. This is helpful to the research of Blackhole Attack feature extraction and MANET security measurement.
2020-03-09
Singh, Moirangthem Marjit, Mandal, Jyotsna Kumar.  2019.  Gray Hole Attack Analysis in AODV Based Mobile Adhoc Network with Reliability Metric. 2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Computer and Communication Systems (ICCCS). :565–569.

The increasing demand and the use of mobile ad hoc network (MANET) in recent days have attracted the attention of researchers towards pursuing active research work largely related to security attacks in MANET. Gray hole attack is one of the most common security attacks observed in MANET. The paper focuses on gray hole attack analysis in Ad hoc on demand distance vector(AODV) routing protocol based MANET with reliability as a metric. Simulation is performed using ns-2.35 simulation software under varying number of network nodes and varying number of gray hole nodes. Results of simulation indicates that increasing the number of gray hole node in the MANET will decrease the reliability of MANET.

2019-01-21
Sangeetha, V., Kumar, S. S..  2018.  Detection of malicious node in mobile ad-hoc network. 2018 International Conference on Power, Signals, Control and Computation (EPSCICON). :1–3.

In recent years, the area of Mobile Ad-hoc Net-work(MANET) has received considerable attention among the research community owing to the advantages in its networking features as well as solving the unsolved issues in it. One field which needs more security is the mobile ad hoc network. Mobile Ad-hoc Network is a temporary network composed of mobile nodes, connected by wireless links, without fixed infrastructure. Network security plays a crucial role in this MANET and the traditional way of protecting the networks through firewalls and encryption software is no longer effective and sufficient. In order to provide additional security to the MANET, intrusion detection mechanisms should be added. In this paper, selective acknowledgment is used for detecting malicious nodes in the Mobile ad-hoc network is proposed. In this paper we propose a novel mechanism called selective acknowledgment for solving problems that airse with Adaptive ACKnowledgment (AACK). This mechanism is an enhancement to the AACK scheme where its Packet delivery ration and detection overhead is reduced. NS2 is used to simulate and evaluate the proposed scheme and compare it against the AACK. The obtained results show that the selective acknowledgment scheme outperforms AACK in terms of network packet delivery ratio and routing overhead.

2019-01-16
Adeniji, V. O., Sibanda, K..  2018.  Analysis of the effect of malicious packet drop attack on packet transmission in wireless mesh networks. 2018 Conference on Information Communications Technology and Society (ICTAS). :1–6.
Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) are known for possessing good attributes such as low up-front cost, easy network maintenance, and reliable service coverage. This has largely made them to be adopted in various environments such as; school campus networks, community networking, pervasive healthcare, office and home automation, emergency rescue operations and ubiquitous wireless networks. The routing nodes are equipped with self-organized and self-configuring capabilities. However, the routing mechanisms of WMNs depend on the collaboration of all participating nodes for reliable network performance. The authors of this paper have noted that most routing algorithms proposed for WMNs in the last few years are designed with the assumption that all the participating nodes will collaboratively be involved in relaying the data packets originated from a source to a multi-hop destination. Such design approach however exposes WMNs to vulnerability such as malicious packet drop attack. This paper presents an evaluation of the effect of the black hole attack with other influential factors in WMNs. In this study, NS-3 simulator was used with AODV as the routing protocol. The results show that the packet delivery ratio and throughput of WMN under attack decreases sharply as compared to WMN free from attack. On an average, 47.41% of the transmitted data packets were dropped in presence of black hole attack.
2018-06-20
Gurung, S., Chauhan, S..  2017.  A review of black-hole attack mitigation techniques and its drawbacks in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. 2017 International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking (WiSPNET). :2379–2385.

Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a prominent technology in the wireless networking field in which the movables nodes operates in distributed manner and collaborates with each other in order to provide the multi-hop communication between the source and destination nodes. Generally, the main assumption considered in the MANET is that each node is trusted node. However, in the real scenario, there are some unreliable nodes which perform black hole attack in which the misbehaving nodes attract all the traffic towards itself by giving false information of having the minimum path towards the destination with a very high destination sequence number and drops all the data packets. In the paper, we have presented different categories for black hole attack mitigation techniques and also presented the summary of various techniques along with its drawbacks that need to be considered while designing an efficient protocol.

Kamel, M. B. M., Alameri, I., Onaizah, A. N..  2017.  STAODV: A secure and trust based approach to mitigate blackhole attack on AODV based MANET. 2017 IEEE 2nd Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IAEAC). :1278–1282.

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) is a type of networks that consists of autonomous nodes connecting directly without a top-down network architecture or central controller. Absence of base stations in MANET force the nodes to rely on their adjacent nodes in transmitting messages. The dynamic nature of MANET makes the relationship between nodes untrusted due to mobility of nodes. A malicious node may start denial of service attack at network layer to discard the packets instead of forwarding them to destination which is known as black hole attack. In this paper a secure and trust based approach based on ad hoc on demand distance vector (STAODV) has been proposed to improve the security of AODV routing protocol. The approach isolates the malicious nodes that try to attack the network depending on their previous information. A trust level is attached to each participating node to detect the level of trust of that node. Each incoming packet will be examined to prevent the black hole attack.

Sasirekha, D., Radha, N..  2017.  Secure and attack aware routing in mobile ad hoc networks against wormhole and sinkhole attacks. 2017 2nd International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :505–510.

The inherent characteristics of Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET) such as dynamic topology, limited bandwidth, limited power supply, infrastructure less network make themselves attractive for a wide spectrum of applications and vulnerable to security attacks. Sinkhole attack is the most disruptive routing layer attack. Sinkhole nodes attract all the traffic towards them to setup further active attacks such as Black hole, Gray hole and wormhole attacks. Sinkhole nodes need to be isolated from the MANET as early as possible. In this paper, an effective mechanism is proposed to prevent and detect sinkhole and wormhole attacks in MANET. The proposed work detects and punishes the attacker nodes using different techniques such as node collusion technique, which classifies a node as an attacker node only with the agreement with the neighboring nodes. When the node suspects the existence of attacker or sinkhole node in the path, it joins together with neighboring nodes to determine the sinkhole node. In the prevention of routing attacks, the proposed system introduces a route reserve method; new routes learnt are updated in the routing table of the node only after ensuring that the route does not contain the attacker nodes. The proposed system effectively modifies Ad hoc on demand Distance Vector (AODV) with the ability to detect and prevent the sinkhole and wormhole attack, so the modified protocol is named as Attack Aware Alert (A3AODV). The experiments are carried out in NS2 simulator, and the result shows the efficiency in terms of packet delivery ratio and routing overhead.

Saurabh, V. K., Sharma, R., Itare, R., Singh, U..  2017.  Cluster-based technique for detection and prevention of black-hole attack in MANETs. 2017 International conference of Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). 2:489–494.

Secure routing in the field of mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is one of the most flourishing areas of research. Devising a trustworthy security protocol for ad hoc routing is a challenging task due to the unique network characteristics such as lack of central authority, rapid node mobility, frequent topology changes, insecure operational environment, and confined availability of resources. Due to low configuration and quick deployment, MANETs are well-suited for emergency situations like natural disasters or military applications. Therefore, data transfer between two nodes should necessarily involve security. A black-hole attack in the mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an offense occurring due to malicious nodes, which attract the data packets by incorrectly publicizing a fresh route to the destination. A clustering direction in AODV routing protocol for the detection and prevention of black-hole attack in MANET has been put forward. Every member of the unit will ping once to the cluster head, to detect the exclusive difference between the number of data packets received and forwarded by the particular node. If the fault is perceived, all the nodes will obscure the contagious nodes from the network. The reading of the system performance has been done in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR), end to end delay (ETD) throughput and Energy simulation inferences are recorded using ns2 simulator.

Yadav, S., Trivedi, M. C., Singh, V. K., Kolhe, M. L..  2017.  Securing AODV routing protocol against black hole attack in MANET using outlier detection scheme. 2017 4th IEEE Uttar Pradesh Section International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Electronics (UPCON). :1–4.

Imposing security in MANET is very challenging and hot topic of research science last two decades because of its wide applicability in applications like defense. Number of efforts has been made in this direction. But available security algorithms, methods, models and framework may not completely solve this problem. Motivated from various existing security methods and outlier detection, in this paper novel simple but efficient outlier detection scheme based security algorithm is proposed to protect the Ad hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) reactive routing protocol from Black hole attack in mobile ad hoc environment. Simulation results obtained from network simulator tool evident the simplicity, robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm over the original AODV protocol and existing methods.