Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-03-09
Ishak, Z., Rajendran, N., Al-Sanjary, O. I., Razali, N. A. Mat.  2020.  Secure Biometric Lock System for Files and Applications: A Review. 2020 16th IEEE International Colloquium on Signal Processing Its Applications (CSPA). :23–28.

A biometric system is a developing innovation which is utilized in different fields like forensics and security system. Finger recognition is the innovation that confirms the personality of an individual which relies upon the way that everybody has unique fingerprints. Fingerprint biometric systems are smaller in size, simple to utilize and have low power. This proposed study focuses on fingerprint biometric systems and how such a system would be implemented. If implemented, this system would have multifactor authentication strategies and improvised features based on encryption algorithms. The scanner that will be used is Biometric Fingerprint Sensor that is connected to system which determines the authorization and access control rights. All user access information is gathered by the system where the administrators can retrieve and analyse the information. This system has function of being up to date with the data changes like displaying the name of the individual for controlling security of the system.

2020-06-01
Khorev, P.B..  2018.  Authenticate Users with Their Work on the Internet. 2018 IV International Conference on Information Technologies in Engineering Education (Inforino). :1–4.
Examines the shortcomings of existing methods of user authentication when accessing remote information systems. Proposed method of multi-factor authentication based on validation of knowledge of a secret password and verify that the habits and preferences of Internet user's interests, defined by registration in the system. Identifies the language and tools implementation of the proposed authentication algorithm.
Mohd Ariffin, Noor Afiza, Mohd Sani, Noor Fazlida.  2018.  A Multi-factor Biometric Authentication Scheme Using Attack Recognition and Key Generator Technique for Security Vulnerabilities to Withstand Attacks. 2018 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security (AINS). :43–48.
Security plays an important role in many authentication applications. Modern era information sharing is boundless and becoming much easier to access with the introduction of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Although this can be considered as a good point, issues such as privacy and data integrity arise due to the lack of control and authority. For this reason, the concept of data security was introduced. Data security can be categorized into two which are secrecy and authentication. In particular, this research was focused on the authentication of data security. There have been substantial research which discusses on multi-factor authentication scheme but most of those research do not entirely protect data against all types of attacks. Most current research only focuses on improving the security part of authentication while neglecting other important parts such as the accuracy and efficiency of the system. Current multifactor authentication schemes were simply not designed to have security, accuracy, and efficiency as their main focus. To overcome the above issue, this research will propose a new multi-factor authentication scheme which is capable to withstand external attacks which are known security vulnerabilities and attacks which are based on user behavior. On the other hand, the proposed scheme still needs to maintain an optimum level of accuracy and efficiency. From the result of the experiments, the proposed scheme was proven to be able to withstand the attacks. This is due to the implementation of the attack recognition and key generator technique together with the use of multi-factor in the proposed scheme.
Dhal, Subhasish, Bhuwan, Vaibhav.  2018.  Cryptanalysis and improvement of a cloud based login and authentication protocol. 2018 4th International Conference on Recent Advances in Information Technology (RAIT). :1–6.
Outsourcing services to cloud server (CS) becomes popular in these years. However, the outsourced services often involve with sensitive activity and CS naturally becomes a target of varieties of attacks. Even worse, CS itself can misuse the outsourced services for illegal profit. Traditional online banking system also can make use of a cloud framework to provide economical and high-speed online services to the consumers, which makes the financial dealing easy and convenient. Most of the banking organizations provide services through passbook, ATM, mobile banking, electronic banking (e-banking) etc. Among these, the e-banking and mobile banking are more convenient and becomes essential. Therefore, it is critical to provide an efficient, reliable and more importantly, secure e-banking services to the consumers. The cloud environment is suitable paradigm to a new, small and medium scale banking organization as it eliminates the requirement for them to start with small resources and increase gradually as the service demand rises. However, security is one of the main concerns since it deals with many sensitive data of the valuable customers. In addition to this, the access of various data needs to be restricted to prevent any unauthorized transaction. Nagaraju et al. presented a framework to achieve reliability and security in public cloud based online banking using multi-factor authentication concept. Unfortunately, the login and authentication protocol of this framework is prone to impersonation attack. In this paper, we have revised the framework to avoid this attack.
Vegh, Laura.  2018.  Cyber-physical systems security through multi-factor authentication and data analytics. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT). :1369–1374.
We are living in a society where technology is present everywhere we go. We are striving towards smart homes, smart cities, Internet of Things, Internet of Everything. Not so long ago, a password was all you needed for secure authentication. Nowadays, even the most complicated passwords are not considered enough. Multi-factor authentication is gaining more and more terrain. Complex system may also require more than one solution for real, strong security. The present paper proposes a framework based with MFA as a basis for access control and data analytics. Events within a cyber-physical system are processed and analyzed in an attempt to detect, prevent and mitigate possible attacks.
Jacomme, Charlie, Kremer, Steve.  2018.  An Extensive Formal Analysis of Multi-factor Authentication Protocols. 2018 IEEE 31st Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :1–15.
Passwords are still the most widespread means for authenticating users, even though they have been shown to create huge security problems. This motivated the use of additional authentication mechanisms used in so-called multi-factor authentication protocols. In this paper we define a detailed threat model for this kind of protocols: while in classical protocol analysis attackers control the communication network, we take into account that many communications are performed over TLS channels, that computers may be infected by different kinds of malwares, that attackers could perform phishing, and that humans may omit some actions. We formalize this model in the applied pi calculus and perform an extensive analysis and comparison of several widely used protocols - variants of Google 2-step and FIDO's U2F. The analysis is completely automated, generating systematically all combinations of threat scenarios for each of the protocols and using the P ROVERIF tool for automated protocol analysis. Our analysis highlights weaknesses and strengths of the different protocols, and allows us to suggest several small modifications of the existing protocols which are easy to implement, yet improve their security in several threat scenarios.
de Souza, Rick Lopes, Vigil, Martín, Custódio, Ricardo, Caullery, Florian, Moura, Lucia, Panario, Daniel.  2018.  Secret Sharing Schemes with Hidden Sets. 2018 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :00713–00718.
Shamir's Secret Sharing Scheme is well established and widely used. It allows a so-called Dealer to split and share a secret k among n Participants such that at least t shares are needed to reconstruct k, where 0 \textbackslashtextbackslashtextless; t ≤ n. Nothing about the secret can be learned from less than t shares. To split secret k, the Dealer generates a polynomial f, whose independent term is k and the coefficients are randomly selected using a uniform distribution. A share is a pair (x, f(x)) where x is also chosen randomly using a uniform distribution. This scheme is useful, for example, to distribute cryptographic keys among different cloud providers and to create multi-factor authentication. The security of Shamir's Secret Sharing Scheme is usually analyzed using a threat model where the Dealer is trusted to split and share secrets as described above. In this paper, we demonstrate that there exists a different threat model where a malicious Dealer can compute shares such that a subset of less than t shares is allowed to reconstruct the secret. We refer to such subsets as hidden sets. We formally define hidden sets and prove lower bounds on the number of possible hidden sets for polynomials of degree t - 1. Yet, we show how to detect hidden sets given a set of n shares and describe how to create hidden sets while sharing a secret using a modification of Shamir's scheme.
Giełczyk, Agata, Choraś, Michał, Kozik, Rafał.  2018.  Hybrid Feature Extraction for Palmprint-Based User Authentication. 2018 International Conference on High Performance Computing Simulation (HPCS). :629–633.
Biometry is often used as a part of the multi-factor authentication in order to improve the security of IT systems. In this paper, we propose the palmprint-based solution for user identity verification. In particular, we present a new approach to feature extraction. The proposed method is based both on texture and color information. Our experiments show that using the proposed hybrid features allows for achieving satisfactory accuracy without increasing requirements for additional computational resources. It is important from our perspective since the proposed method is dedicated to smartphones and other handhelds in mobile verification scenarios.
Pomak, Wiphop, Limpiyakom, Yachai.  2018.  Enterprise WiFi Hotspot Authentication with Hybrid Encryption on NFC- Enabled Smartphones. 2018 8th International Conference on Electronics Information and Emergency Communication (ICEIEC). :247–250.
Nowadays, some workplaces have adopted the policy of BYOD (bring your own device) that permits employees to bring personally owned devices, and to use those devices to access company information and applications. Especially, small devices like smartphones are widely used due to the greater mobility and connectivity. A majority of organizations provide the wireless local area network which is necessary for small devices and business data transmission. The resources access through Wi-Fi network of the organization needs intense restriction. WPA2 Enterprise with 802.1X standard is typically introduced to handle user authentication on the network using the EAP framework. However, credentials management for all users is a hassle for administrators. Strong authentication provides higher security whereas the difficulty of deployment is still open issues. This research proposes the utility of Near Field Communication to securely transmit certificate data that rely on the hybrid cryptosystem. The approach supports enterprise Wi-Fi hotspot authentication based on WPA2-802.1X model with the EAP-TLS method. It also applies multi-factor authentication for enhancing the security of networks and users. The security analysis and experiment on establishing connection time were conducted to evaluate the presented approach.
Alizai, Zahoor Ahmed, Tareen, Noquia Fatima, Jadoon, Iqra.  2018.  Improved IoT Device Authentication Scheme Using Device Capability and Digital Signatures. 2018 International Conference on Applied and Engineering Mathematics (ICAEM). :1–5.
Internet of Things (IoT) device authentication is weighed as a very important step from security perspective. Privacy and security of the IoT devices and applications is the major issue. From security perspective, important issue that needs to be addressed is the authentication mechanism, it has to be secure from different types of attacks and is easy to implement. The paper gives general idea about how different authentication mechanisms work, and then secure and efficient multi-factor device authentication scheme idea is proposed. The proposed scheme idea uses digital signatures and device capability to authenticate a device. In the proposed scheme device will only be allowed into the network if it is successfully authenticated through multi-factor authentication otherwise the authentication process fails and whole authentication process will restart. By analyzing the proposed scheme idea, it can be seen that the scheme is efficient and has less over head. The scheme not only authenticates the device very efficiently through multi-factor authentication but also authenticates the authentication server with the help of digital signatures. The proposed scheme also mitigates the common attacks like replay and man in the middle because of nonce and timestamp.
Utomo, Subroto Budhi, Hendradjaya, Bayu.  2018.  Multifactor Authentication on Mobile Secure Attendance System. 2018 International Conference on ICT for Smart Society (ICISS). :1–5.
BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) trends allows employees to use the smartphone as a tool in everyday work and also as an attendance device. The security of employee attendance system is important to ensure that employees do not commit fraud in recording attendance and when monitoring activities at working hours. In this paper, we propose a combination of fingerprint, secure android ID, and GPS as authentication factors, also addition of anti emulator and anti fake location module turn Mobile Attendance System into Mobile Secure Attendance System. Testing based on scenarios that have been adapted to various possible frauds is done to prove whether the system can minimize the occurrence of fraud in attendance recording and monitoring of employee activities.
2020-04-03
Garigipati, Nagababu, Krishna, Reddy V.  2019.  A Study on Data Security and Query privacy in Cloud. 2019 3rd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :337—341.

A lot of organizations need effective resolutions to record and evaluate the existing enormous volume of information. Cloud computing as a facilitator offers scalable resources and noteworthy economic assistances as the decreased operational expenditures. This model increases a wide set of security and privacy problems that have to be taken into reflexion. Multi-occupancy, loss of control, and confidence are the key issues in cloud computing situations. This paper considers the present know-hows and a comprehensive assortment of both previous and high-tech tasks on cloud security and confidentiality. The paradigm shift that supplements the usage of cloud computing is progressively enabling augmentation to safety and privacy contemplations linked with the different facades of cloud computing like multi-tenancy, reliance, loss of control and responsibility. So, cloud platforms that deal with big data that have sensitive information are necessary to use technical methods and structural precautions to circumvent data defence failures that might lead to vast and costly harms.

2020-03-02
Ibrokhimov, Sanjar, Hui, Kueh Lee, Abdulhakim Al-Absi, Ahmed, lee, hoon jae, Sain, Mangal.  2019.  Multi-Factor Authentication in Cyber Physical System: A State of Art Survey. 2019 21st International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :279–284.
Digital Multifactor authentication is one of the best ways to make secure authentication. It covers many different areas of a Cyber-connected world, including online payments, communications, access right management, etc. Most of the time, Multifactor authentication is little complex as it require extra step from users. With two-factor authentication, along with the user-ID and password, user also needs to enter a special code which they normally receive by short message service or some special code which they got in advance. This paper will discuss the evolution from single authentication to Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) starting from Single-Factor Authentication (SFA) and through Two-Factor Authentication (2FA). In addition, this paper presents five high-level categories of features of user authentication in the gadget-free world including security, privacy, and usability aspects. These are adapted and extended from earlier research on web authentication methods. In conclusion, this paper gives future research directions and open problems that stem from our observations.
2020-02-10
Sani, Abubakar Sadiq, Yuan, Dong, Bao, Wei, Yeoh, Phee Lep, Dong, Zhao Yang, Vucetic, Branka, Bertino, Elisa.  2019.  Xyreum: A High-Performance and Scalable Blockchain for IIoT Security and Privacy. 2019 IEEE 39th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :1920–1930.
As cyber attacks to Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) remain a major challenge, blockchain has emerged as a promising technology for IIoT security due to its decentralization and immutability characteristics. Existing blockchain designs, however, introduce high computational complexity and latency challenges which are unsuitable for IIoT. This paper proposes Xyreum, a new high-performance and scalable blockchain for enhanced IIoT security and privacy. Xyreum uses a Time-based Zero-Knowledge Proof of Knowledge (T-ZKPK) with authenticated encryption to perform Mutual Multi-Factor Authentication (MMFA). T-ZKPK properties are also used to support Key Establishment (KE) for securing transactions. Our approach for reaching consensus, which is a blockchain group decision-making process, is based on lightweight cryptographic algorithms. We evaluate our scheme with respect to security, privacy, and performance, and the results show that, compared with existing relevant blockchain solutions, our scheme is secure, privacy-preserving, and achieves a significant decrease in computation complexity and latency performance with high scalability. Furthermore, we explain how to use our scheme to strengthen the security of the REMME protocol, a blockchain-based security protocol deployed in several application domains.
Mowla, Nishat I, Doh, Inshil, Chae, Kijoon.  2019.  Binarized Multi-Factor Cognitive Detection of Bio-Modality Spoofing in Fog Based Medical Cyber-Physical System. 2019 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :43–48.
Bio-modalities are ideal for user authentication in Medical Cyber-Physical Systems. Various forms of bio-modalities, such as the face, iris, fingerprint, are commonly used for secure user authentication. Concurrently, various spoofing approaches have also been developed over time which can fail traditional bio-modality detection systems. Image synthesis with play-doh, gelatin, ecoflex etc. are some of the ways used in spoofing bio-identifiable property. Since the bio-modality detection sensors are small and resource constrained, heavy-weight detection mechanisms are not suitable for these sensors. Recently, Fog based architectures are proposed to support sensor management in the Medical Cyber-Physical Systems (MCPS). A thin software client running in these resource-constrained sensors can enable communication with fog nodes for better management and analysis. Therefore, we propose a fog-based security application to detect bio-modality spoofing in a Fog based MCPS. In this regard, we propose a machine learning based security algorithm run as an application at the fog node using a binarized multi-factor boosted ensemble learner algorithm coupled with feature selection. Our proposal is verified on real datasets provided by the Replay Attack, Warsaw and LiveDet 2015 Crossmatch benchmark for face, iris and fingerprint modality spoofing detection used for authentication in an MCPS. The experimental analysis shows that our approach achieves significant performance gain over the state-of-the-art approaches.
Rizvi, Syed, Imler, Jarrett, Ritchey, Luke, Tokar, Michael.  2019.  Securing PKES against Relay Attacks using Coordinate Tracing and Multi-Factor Authentication. 2019 53rd Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS). :1–6.

In most produced modern vehicles, Passive Keyless Entry and Start System (PKES), a newer form of an entry access system, is becoming more and more popular. The PKES system allows the consumer to enter within a certain range and have the vehicle's doors unlock automatically without pressing any buttons on the key. This technology increases the overall convenience to the consumer; however, it is vulnerable to attacks known as relay and amplified relay attacks. A relay attack consists of placing a device near the vehicle and a device near the key to relay the signal between the key and the vehicle. On the other hand, an amplified relay attack uses only a singular amplifier to increase the range of the vehicle sensors to reach the key. By exploiting these two different vulnerabilities within the PKES system, an attacker can gain unauthorized access to the vehicle, leading to damage or even stolen property. To minimize both vulnerabilities, we propose a coordinate tracing system with an additional Bluetooth communication channel. The coordinate tracing system, or PKES Forcefield, traces the authorized key's longitude and latitude in real time using two proposed algorithms, known as the Key Bearing algorithm and the Longitude and Latitude Key (LLK) algorithm. To further add security, a Bluetooth communication channel will be implemented. With an additional channel established, a second frequency can be traced within a secondary PKES Forcefield. The LLK Algorithm computes both locations of frequencies and analyzes the results to form a pattern. Furthermore, the PKES Forcefield movement-tracing allows a vehicle to understand when an attacker attempts to transmit an unauthenticated signal and blocks any signal from being amplified over a fixed range.

Taher, Kazi Abu, Nahar, Tahmin, Hossain, Syed Akhter.  2019.  Enhanced Cryptocurrency Security by Time-Based Token Multi-Factor Authentication Algorithm. 2019 International Conference on Robotics,Electrical and Signal Processing Techniques (ICREST). :308–312.
A noble multi-factor authentication (MFA) algorithm is developed for the security enhancement of the Cryptocurrency (CR). The main goal of MFA is to set up extra layer of safeguard while seeking access to a targets such as physical location, computing device, network or database. MFA security scheme requires more than one method for the validation from commutative family of credentials to verify the user for a transaction. MFA can reduce the risk of using single level password authentication by introducing additional factors of authentication. MFA can prevent hackers from gaining access to a particular account even if the password is compromised. The superfluous layer of security introduced by MFA offers additional security to a user. MFA is implemented by using time-based onetime password (TOTP) technique. For logging to any entity with MFA enabled, the user first needs username and password, as a second factor, the user then needs the MFA token to virtually generate a TOTP. It is found that MFA can provide a better means of secured transaction of CR.
Byun, Jin Wook.  2019.  An efficient multi-factor authenticated key exchange with physically unclonable function. 2019 International Conference on Electronics, Information, and Communication (ICEIC). :1–4.

In this paper, we propose an efficient and secure physically unclonable function based multi-factor authenticated key exchange (PUF-MAKE). In a PUF-MAKE setting, we suppose two participants; a user and a server. The user keeps multi-factor authenticators and securely holds a PUF-embedded device while the server maintains PUF outputs for authentication. We first study on how to efficiently construct a PUF-MAKE protocol. The main difficulty comes from that it should establish a common key from both multi-factor authenticators and a PUF-embedded device. Our construction is the first secure PUF-MAKE protocol that just needs three communication flows.

Lee, JoonYoung, Kim, MyeongHyun, Yu, SungJin, Park, KiSung, Park, YoungHo.  2019.  A Secure Multi-Factor Remote User Authentication Scheme for Cloud-IoT Applications. 2019 28th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN). :1–2.
With the development of internet of things (IoT) and communication technology, the sensors and embedded devices collect a large amount of data and handle it. However, IoT environment cannot efficiently treat the big data and is vulnerable to various attacks because IoT is comprised of resource limited devices and provides a service through a open channel. In 2018, Sharma and Kalra proposed a lightweight multi-factor authentication protocol for cloud-IoT environment to overcome this problems. We demonstrate that Sharma and Kalra's scheme is vulnerable to identity and password guessing, replay and session key disclosure attacks. We also propose a secure multifactor authentication protocol to resolve the security problems of Sharma and Kalra's scheme, and then we analyze the security using informal analysis and compare the performance with Sharma and Kalra's scheme. The proposed scheme can be applied to real cloud-IoT environment securely.
Fujita, Yuki, Inomata, Atsuo, Kashiwazaki, Hiroki.  2019.  Implementation and Evaluation of a Multi-Factor Web Authentication System with Individual Number Card and WebUSB. 2019 20th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symposium (APNOMS). :1–4.
As the number of Internet users increases, their usage also diversifies, and it is important to prevent Identity on the Internet (Digital Identity) from being violated. Unauthorized authentication is one of the methods to infringe Digital Identity. Multi-factor authentication has been proposed as a method for preventing unauthorized authentication. However, the cryptographic authenticator required for multi-factor authentication is expensive both financially and UX-wise for the user. In this paper, we design, implement and evaluate multi-factor authentication using My Number Card provided by public personal identification service and WebUSB, which is being standardized.
Prout, Andrew, Arcand, William, Bestor, David, Bergeron, Bill, Byun, Chansup, Gadepally, Vijay, Houle, Michael, Hubbell, Matthew, Jones, Michael, Klein, Anna et al..  2019.  Securing HPC using Federated Authentication. 2019 IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (HPEC). :1–7.
Federated authentication can drastically reduce the overhead of basic account maintenance while simultaneously improving overall system security. Integrating with the user's more frequently used account at their primary organization both provides a better experience to the end user and makes account compromise or changes in affiliation more likely to be noticed and acted upon. Additionally, with many organizations transitioning to multi-factor authentication for all account access, the ability to leverage external federated identity management systems provides the benefit of their efforts without the additional overhead of separately implementing a distinct multi-factor authentication process. This paper describes our experiences and the lessons we learned by enabling federated authentication with the U.S. Government PKI and In Common Federation, scaling it up to the user base of a production HPC system, and the motivations behind those choices. We have received only positive feedback from our users.
Iftikhar, Jawad, Hussain, Sajid, Mansoor, Khwaja, Ali, Zeeshan, Chaudhry, Shehzad Ashraf.  2019.  Symmetric-Key Multi-Factor Biometric Authentication Scheme. 2019 2nd International Conference on Communication, Computing and Digital systems (C-CODE). :288–292.
Authentication is achieved by using different techniques, like using smart-card, identity password and biometric techniques. Some of the proposed schemes use a single factor for authentication while others combine multiple ways to provide multi-factor authentication for better security. lately, a new scheme for multi-factor authentication was presented by Cao and Ge and claimed that their scheme is highly secure and can withstand against all known attacks. In this paper, it is revealed that their scheme is still vulnerable and have some loopholes in term of reflection attack. Therefore, an improved scheme is proposed to overcome the security weaknesses of Cao and Ge's scheme. The proposed scheme resists security attacks and secure. Formal testing is carried out under a broadly-accepted simulated tool ProVerif which demonstrates that the proposed scheme is well secure.
Dostálek, Libor.  2019.  Multi-Factor Authentication Modeling. 2019 9th International Conference on Advanced Computer Information Technologies (ACIT). :443–446.
The work defines a multi-factor authentication model in case the application supports multiple authentication factors. The aim of this modeling is to find acceptable authentication methods sufficient to access specifically qualified information. The core of the proposed model is risk-based authentication. Results of simulations of some key scenarios often used in practice are also presented.
2019-01-31
McCulley, Shane, Roussev, Vassil.  2018.  Latent Typing Biometrics in Online Collaboration Services. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :66–76.

The use of typing biometrics—the characteristic typing patterns of individual keyboard users—has been studied extensively in the context of enhancing multi-factor authentication services. The key starting point for such work has been the collection of high-fidelity local timing data, and the key (implicit) security assumption has been that such biometrics could not be obtained by other means. We show that the latter assumption to be false, and that it is entirely feasible to obtain useful typing biometric signatures from third-party timing logs. Specifically, we show that the logs produced by realtime collaboration services during their normal operation are of sufficient fidelity to successfully impersonate a user using remote data only. Since the logs are routinely shared as a byproduct of the services' operation, this creates an entirely new avenue of attack that few users would be aware of. As a proof of concept, we construct successful biometric attacks using only the log-based structure (complete editing history) of a shared Google Docs, or Zoho Writer, document which is readily available to all contributing parties. Using the largest available public data set of typing biometrics, we are able to create successful forgeries 100% of the time against a commercial biometric service. Our results suggest that typing biometrics are not robust against practical forgeries, and should not be given the same weight as other authentication factors. Another important implication is that the routine collection of detailed timing logs by various online services also inherently (and implicitly) contains biometrics. This not only raises obvious privacy concerns, but may also undermine the effectiveness of network anonymization solutions, such as ToR, when used with existing services.

2018-02-15
Arora, A., Khanna, A., Rastogi, A., Agarwal, A..  2017.  Cloud security ecosystem for data security and privacy. 2017 7th International Conference on Cloud Computing, Data Science Engineering - Confluence. :288–292.

In the past couple of years Cloud Computing has become an eminent part of the IT industry. As a result of its economic benefits more and more people are heading towards Cloud adoption. In present times there are numerous Cloud Service providers (CSP) allowing customers to host their applications and data onto Cloud. However Cloud Security continues to be the biggest obstacle in Cloud adoption and thereby prevents customers from accessing its services. Various techniques have been implemented by provides in order to mitigate risks pertaining to Cloud security. In this paper, we present a Hybrid Cryptographic System (HCS) that combines the benefits of both symmetric and asymmetric encryption thus resulting in a secure Cloud environment. The paper focuses on creating a secure Cloud ecosystem wherein we make use of multi-factor authentication along with multiple levels of hashing and encryption. The proposed system along with the algorithm are simulated using the CloudSim simulator. To this end, we illustrate the working of our proposed system along with the simulated results.