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Primo, Abena.  2020.  A Comparison of Blockchain-Based Wireless Sensor Network Protocols. 2020 11th IEEE Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :0793—0799.
Wireless sensors are often deployed in environments where it is difficult for them to discern friend from enemy. An example case is a military tactical scenario, where sensors are deployed to map the location of an item but where some of the nodes have been compromised or where there are other malicious nodes present. In this scenario, sharing data with other network nodes may present a critical security risk to the sensor nodes. Blockchain technology, with its ability to house a secure distributed ledger, offers a possible solution. However, blockchain applications for Wireless Sensor Networks suffer from poor latency in block propagation which in turn decreases throughput and network scalability. Several researchers have proposed solutions for improved network throughput. In this work, a comparison of these existing works is performed leading to a taxonomy of existing algorithms. Characteristics consistently found in algorithms reporting improved throughput are presented and, later, these characteristics are used in the development of a new algorithm for improving throughput. The proposed algorithm utilizes a proof-of- authority consensus algorithm with a node trust-based scheme. The proposed algorithm shows strong results over the base case algorithm and was evaluated with blockchain network simulations of up to 20000 nodes.
Wu, Wenxiang, Fu, Shaojing, Luo, Yuchuan.  2020.  Practical Privacy Protection Scheme In WiFi Fingerprint-based Localization. 2020 IEEE 7th International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics (DSAA). :699—708.
The solution of using existing WiFi devices for measurement and maintenance, and establishing a WiFi fingerprint database for precise localization has become a popular method for indoor localization. The traditional WiFi fingerprint privacy protection scheme increases the calculation amount of the client, but cannot completely protect the security of the client and the fingerprint database. In this paper, we make use of WiFi devices to present a Practical Privacy Protection Scheme In WiFi Fingerprint-based Localization PPWFL. In PPWFL, the localization server establishes a pre-partition in the fingerprint database through the E-M clustering algorithm, we divide the entire fingerprint database into several partitions. The server uses WiFi fingerprint entries with partitions as training data and trains a machine learning model. This model can accurately predict the client's partition based on fingerprint entries. The client uses the trained machine learning model to obtain its partition location accurately, picks up WiFi fingerprint entries in its partition, and calculates its geographic location with the localization server through secure multi-party computing. Compared with the traditional solution, our solution only uses the WiFi fingerprint entries in the client's partition rather than the entire fingerprint database. PPWFL can reduce not only unnecessary calculations but also avoid accidental errors (Unexpected errors in fingerprint similarity between non-adjacent locations due to multipath effects of electromagnetic waves during the propagation of complex indoor environments) in fingerprint distance calculation. In particular, due to the use of Secure Multi-Party Computation, most of the calculations are performed in the local offline phase, the client only exchanges data with the localization server during the distance calculation phase. No additional equipment is needed; our solution uses only existing WiFi devices in the building to achieve fast localization based on privacy protection. We prove that PPWFL is secure under the honest but curious attacker. Experiments show that PPWFL achieves efficiency and accuracy than the traditional WiFi fingerprint localization scheme.
Meng, Yuan, Yan, Jing, Yang, Xian, Luo, Xiaoyuan.  2020.  Privacy Preserving Localization Algorithm for Underwater Sensor Networks. 2020 39th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :4481—4486.
The position information leakage of under-water sensor networks has been widely concerned. However, the underwater environment has unique characteristics compared with the terrestrial environment, for example, the asynchronous clock, stratification compensation. Therefore, the privacy preserving localization algorithm for terrestrial is not suitable. At present, the proposed privacy preserving localization algorithm is at the cost of reducing the localization accuracy and increasing the complexity of the algorithm. In this paper, a privacy preserving localization algorithm for underwater sensor networks with ray compensation is proposed. Besides, the localization algorithm we designed hides the position information of anchor nodes, and eliminates the influence of asynchronous clock. More importantly, the positioning accuracy is improved. Finally, the simulation results show that the location algorithm with privacy preserving and without privacy preserving have the same location accuracy. In addition, the algorithm proposed in this paper greatly improves the positioning accuracy compared with the existing work.
Tang, Di, Gu, Jian, Han, Weijia, Ma, Xiao.  2020.  Quantitative Analysis on Source-Location Privacy for Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :805—809.
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely used in various applications for continuous event monitoring and detection. Dual to lack of a protected physical boundary, WSNs are vulnerable to trace-back attacks. The existing secure routing protocols are designed to protect source location privacy by increasing uncertainty of routing direction against statistic analysis on traffic flow. Nevertheless, the security has not been quantitatively measured and shown the direction of secure routing design. In this paper, we propose a theoretical security measurement scheme to define and analyze the quantitative amount of the information leakage from each eavesdropped message. Through the theoretical analysis, we identify vulnerabilities of existing routing algorithms and quantitatively compute the direction information leakage based on various routing strategy. The theoretical analysis results also indicate the direction for maximization of source location privacy.
Mutalemwa, Lilian C., Shin, Seokjoo.  2020.  Improving the Packet Delivery Reliability and Privacy Protection in Monitoring Wireless Networks. 2020 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :1083—1088.
Source location privacy (SLP) protection ensures security of assets in monitoring wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Also, low end-to-end delay (EED) and high packet delivery ratio (PDR) guarantee high packet delivery reliability. Therefore, it is important to ensure high levels of SLP protection, low EED, and high PDR in mission-critical monitoring applications. Thus, this study proposes a new angle-based agent node routing protocol (APr) which is capable of achieving high levels of SLP protection, low EED, and high PDR. The proposed APr protocol employs multiple routing strategies to enable a dynamic agent node selection process and creation of obfuscating routing paths. Analysis results reveal that the APr protocol achieves high packet delivery reliability to outperform existing intermediate node-based protocols such as the AdrR and tree-based protocols such as the TbR. Furthermore, the APr protocol achieves significantly high levels of SLP protection to outperform the AdrR protocol.
Mutalemwa, Lilian C., Kang, Moonsoo, Shin, Seokjoo.  2020.  Controlling the Communication Overhead of Source Location Privacy Protocols in Multi-hop Communication Wireless Networks. 2020 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Information and Communication (ICAIIC). :055—059.
Fake source packet routing protocols can ensure Source Location Privacy (SLP) protection. However, the protocols have demonstrated some performance limitations including high energy consumption, low packet delivery ratio (PDR), and long end-to-end delay (EED). In this study, a 2-level phantom routing protocol is proposed to address some limitations of an existing fake source packet routing protocol. The proposed protocol supplants the fake source packets with a random second level phantom node to alleviate the limitations. Analysis results confirm that the proposed protocol is capable of achieving strong SLP protection with minimized communication overhead. By removing the fake packet traffic in the network, the protocol incurs minimized energy consumption, maximized PDR, and minimized EED.
Shubina, Viktoriia, Ometov, Aleksandr, Andreev, Sergey, Niculescu, Dragos, Lohan, Elena Simona.  2020.  Privacy versus Location Accuracy in Opportunistic Wearable Networks. 2020 International Conference on Localization and GNSS (ICL-GNSS). :1—6.
Future wearable devices are expected to increasingly exchange their positioning information with various Location-Based Services (LBSs). Wearable applications can include activity-based health and fitness recommendations, location-based social networking, location-based gamification, among many others. With the growing opportunities for LBSs, it is expected that location privacy concerns will also increase significantly. Particularly, in opportunistic wireless networks based on device-to-device (D2D) connectivity, a user can request a higher level of control over own location privacy, which may result in more flexible permissions granted to wearable devices. This translates into the ability to perform location obfuscation to the desired degree when interacting with other wearables or service providers across the network. In this paper, we argue that specific errors in the disclosed location information feature two components: a measurement error inherent to the localization algorithm used by a wearable device and an intentional (or obfuscation) error that may be based on a trade-off between a particular LBS and a desired location privacy level. This work aims to study the trade-off between positioning accuracy and location information privacy in densely crowded scenarios by introducing two privacy-centric metrics.
Arivarasi, A., Ramesh, P..  2020.  Review of Source Location Security Protection using Trust Authentication Schema. 2020 Third International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT). :215—222.
Wireless Sensor Networks promises the wireless network tools that does not require any stable infrastructure. Routing is the most important effect of network operation for the extended data rates within the network. Route discovery and route search sent the required packets from the target node source. However, good data transmission is also a threatening task in networks that provide efficient and energy-efficient routing. Various research activities focus on the topology control, source location privacy optimization and effective routing improvement in WSN. Wherein the existing security solutions both routing protocols and source location solutions disrupt the self-organizing nature of wireless sensor networks. Therefore, large overhead signatures are displayed and digitally verified by the requesting node. The cloud-based and routing based schemes have provided efficient security but there are a lot of obstacles for source data and travel path information security in the WSN network. This study is dedicated to calculate the desired number of deployments for sensor nodes in a given area once the selected metric achieves a certain level of coverage, while maintaining wireless connectivity in the network. A trusted node authentication scheme in wireless sensor network reduces the communication between nodes in a secure data transmission network, where shared cryptography is established all adjacent to the sensor node. Route discovery and retransmission increases the network overhead and increases the average end-to-end delay of the network in the conventional systems. This results in higher time complexity, communication overhead and less security of constrained sensor network resources.
Hussien, Zainab Waleed, Qawasmeh, Doaa Sami, Shurman, Mohammad.  2020.  MSCLP: Multi-Sinks Cluster-Based Location Privacy Protection scheme in WSNs for IoT. 2020 32nd International Conference on Microelectronics (ICM). :1—4.
One of the most important information in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is the location of each sensor node. This kind of information is very attractive to attackers for real position exposure of nodes making the whole network vulnerable to different kinds of attacks. According to WSNs privacy, there are two types of threats affect the network: Contextual and Content privacy. In this work, we study contextual privacy, where an eavesdropper tries to find the location of the source or sink node. We propose a Multi-Sinks Cluster-Based Location Privacy Protection (MSCLP) scheme in WSNs that divides the WSN into clusters, each cluster managed by one cluster head (CH). Each CH sends random fake packets in a loop then sends the real packet to the neighbor's CHs using a dynamic routing method to confuse the attacker from tracing back the real packet to reveal the actual location of the source node, we are taking in our consideration two important metrics: the energy consumption, and the delay.
MUTAR, AHMED IRMAYYIDH, KURNAZ, Sefer, Mohammed, Alaa Hamid.  2020.  Wireless Sensor Networks Mutual Policy For Position Protection. 2020 4th International Symposium on Multidisciplinary Studies and Innovative Technologies (ISMSIT). :1—4.
The usage of K-anonymity to preserve location privacy for wireless sensor network (WSN) monitoring systems, where sensor nodes operate together to notify a server with anonymous shared positions. That k-anonymous position is a coated region with at least k people. However, we identify an attack model to show that overlapping aggregate locations remain privacy-risk because the enemy can infer certain overlapping areas with persons under k who violate the privacy requirement for anonymity. Within this paper we suggest a mutual WSN privacy protocol (REAL). Actual needs sensor nodes to arrange their sensing areas separately into a variety of non-overlapping, extremely precise anonymous aggregate positions. We also developed a state transfer framework, a locking mechanism and a time delay mechanism to address the three main REAL challenges, namely self-organisation, shared assets and high precision. We equate REAL's output with current protocols through virtual experiments. The findings demonstrate that REAL preserves the privacy of sites, offers more precise question answers and decreases connectivity and device expense.
Dagelić, Ante, Perković, Toni, Čagalj, Mario.  2019.  Location Privacy and Changes in WiFi Probe Request Based Connection Protocols Usage Through Years. 2019 4th International Conference on Smart and Sustainable Technologies (SpliTech). :1–5.
Location privacy is one of most frequently discussed terms in the mobile devices security breaches and data leaks. With the expected growth of the number of IoT devices, which is 20 billions by 2020., location privacy issues will be further brought to focus. In this paper we give an overview of location privacy implications in wireless networks, mainly focusing on user's Preferred Network List (list of previously used WiFi Access Points) contained within WiFi Probe Request packets. We will showcase the existing work and suggest interesting topics for future work. A chronological overview of sensitive location data we collected on a musical festival in years 2014, 2015, 2017 and 2018 is provided. We conclude that using passive WiFi monitoring scans produces different results through years, with a significant increase in the usage of a more secure Broadcast Probe Request packets and MAC address randomizations by the smartphone operating systems.
Mutalemwa, Lilian C., Seok, Junhee, Shin, Seokjoo.  2019.  Experimental Evaluation of Source Location Privacy Routing Schemes and Energy Consumption Performance. 2019 19th International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies (ISCIT). :86–90.
Network lifetime and energy consumption of sensor nodes have an inversely proportional relationship. Thus, it is important to ensure source location privacy (SLP) routing schemes are energy-efficient. This work performs an experimental evaluation of some existing routing schemes and proposes a new angle-based routing algorithm to modify the schemes. The dynamic route creation process of the modified schemes is characterized by processes which include determination of route and banned regions and computation of control angle and lead factor parameters. Results of the analysis show that the modified schemes are effective at obfuscating the adversaries to provide strong SLP protection. Furthermore, the modified schemes consume relatively lower energy and guarantee longer network lifetime.
Zhou, Liming, Shan, Yingzi.  2019.  Multi-branch Source Location Privacy Protection Scheme Based on Random Walk in WSNs. 2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Analysis (ICCCBDA). :543–547.
In many applications, source nodes send the sensing information of the monitored objects and the sinks receive the transmitted data. Considering the limited resources of sensor nodes, location privacy preservation becomes an important issue. Although many schemes are proposed to preserve source or sink location security, few schemes can preserve the location security of source nodes and sinks. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel of multi-branch source location privacy protection method based on random walk. This method hides the location of real source nodes by setting multiple proxy sources. And multiple neighbors are randomly selected by the real source node as receivers until a proxy source receives the packet. In addition, the proxy source is chosen randomly, which can prevent the attacker from obtaining the location-related data of the real source node. At the same time, the scheme sets up a branch interference area around the base station to interfere with the adversary by increasing routing branches. Simulation results describe that our scheme can efficiently protect source and sink location privacy, reduce the communication overhead, and prolong the network lifetime.
Uyan, O. Gokhan, Gungor, V. Cagri.  2019.  Lifetime Analysis of Underwater Wireless Networks Concerning Privacy with Energy Harvesting and Compressive Sensing. 2019 27th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU). :1–4.
Underwater sensor networks (UWSN) are a division of classical wireless sensor networks (WSN), which are designed to accomplish both military and civil operations, such as invasion detection and underwater life monitoring. Underwater sensor nodes operate using the energy provided by integrated limited batteries, and it is a serious challenge to replace the battery under the water especially in harsh conditions with a high number of sensor nodes. Here, energy efficiency confronts as a very important issue. Besides energy efficiency, data privacy is another essential topic since UWSN typically generate delicate sensing data. UWSN can be vulnerable to silent positioning and listening, which is injecting similar adversary nodes into close locations to the network to sniff transmitted data. In this paper, we discuss the usage of compressive sensing (CS) and energy harvesting (EH) to improve the lifetime of the network whilst we suggest a novel encryption decision method to maintain privacy of UWSN. We also deploy a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) model to optimize the encryption decision cases which leads to an improved network lifetime.
DaSilva, Gianni, Loud, Vincent, Salazar, Ana, Soto, Jeff, Elleithy, Abdelrahman.  2019.  Context-Oriented Privacy Protection in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2019 IEEE Long Island Systems, Applications and Technology Conference (LISAT). :1–4.
As more devices become connected to the internet and new technologies emerge to connect them, security must keep up to protect data during transmission and at rest. Several instances of security breaches have forced many companies to investigate the effectiveness of their security measures. In this paper, we discuss different methodologies for protecting data as it relates to wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Data collected from these sensors range in type from location data of an individual to surveillance for military applications. We propose a solution that protects the location of the base station and the nodes while transmitting data.
Xu, Mengmeng, Zhu, Hai, Wang, Juanjuan, Xu, Hengzhou.  2019.  Dynamic and Disjoint Routing Mechanism for Protecting Source Location Privacy in WSNs. 2019 15th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :310–314.
In this paper, we investigate the protection mechanism of source location privacy, in which back-tracing attack is performed by an adversary. A dynamic and disjoint routing mechanism (DDRM) is proposed to achieve a strong protection for source location privacy in an energy-efficient manner. Specially, the selection of intermediate node renders the message transmission randomly and flexibly. By constructing k disjoint paths, an adversary could not receive sufficient messages to locate the source node. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism.
George, Chinnu Mary, Luke Babu, Sharon.  2019.  A Scalable Correlation Clustering strategy in Location Privacy for Wireless Sensor Networks against a Universal Adversary. 2019 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Knowledge Economy (ICCIKE). :1–3.
Wireless network sensors are outsized number of pocket sized sensors deployed in the area under surveillance. The sensor network is very sensitive to unattended and remote Environment with a wide variety of applications in the agriculture, health, industry there a lot of challenges being faced with respect to the energy, mobility, security. The paper presents with regard to the context based surrounding information which has location privacy to the source node against an adversary who sees the network at a whole so a correlation strategy is proposed for providing the privacy.
Mutalemwa, Lilian C., Shin, Seokjoo.  2019.  Investigating the Influence of Routing Scheme Algorithms on the Source Location Privacy Protection and Network Lifetime. 2019 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :1188–1191.
There exist numerous strategies for Source Location Privacy (SLP) routing schemes. In this study, an experimental analysis of a few routing schemes is done to investigate the influence of the routing scheme algorithms on the privacy protection level and the network lifetime performance. The analysis involved four categories of SLP routing schemes. Analysis results revealed that the algorithms used in the representative schemes for tree-based and angle-based routing schemes incur the highest influence. The tree-based algorithm stimulates the highest energy consumption with the lowest network lifetime while the angle-based algorithm does the opposite. Moreover, for the tree-based algorithm, the influence is highly dependent on the region of the network domain.
Almalkawi, Islam T., Raed, Jafar, Alghaeb, Nawaf, Zapata, Manel Guerrero.  2019.  An Efficient Location Privacy Scheme for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks. 2019 24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA). :1615–1618.
Most of the security algorithms proposed for the sensor networks such as secure routing, data encryption and authentication, and intrusion detection target protecting the content of the collected data from being exposed to different types of attacks. However, the context of the collected data, such as event occurrence, event time, and event location, is not addressed by these security mechanisms and can still be leaked to the adversaries. Therefore, we propose in this paper a novel and efficient unobservability scheme for source/sink location privacy for wireless multimedia sensor networks. The proposed privacy scheme is based on a cross-layer design between the application and routing layers in order to exploit the multimedia processing technique with multipath routing to hide the event occurrences and locations of important nodes without degrading the network performance. Simulation analysis shows that our proposed scheme satisfies the privacy requirements and has better performance compared to other existing techniques.
Li, Qingyuan, Wu, Hao, Liu, Lei, Pan, Bin, Dong, Lan.  2018.  A Group based Dynamic Mix Zone Scheme for Location Privacy Preservation in VANETs. 2018 Third International Conference on Security of Smart Cities, Industrial Control System and Communications (SSIC). :1–5.
Modern vehicles are equipped with wireless communication technologies, allowing them to communicate with each other. Through Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC), vehicles periodically broadcast beacons messages for safety applications, which gives rise to disclosure of location privacy. A way to protect vehicles location privacy is to have their pseudonyms changed frequently. With restrict to limited resources (such as computation and storage), we propose a group based dynamic mix zone scheme, in which vehicles form a group when their pseudonyms are close to expire. Simulation results confirm that the proposed scheme can protect location privacy and alleviate the storage burden.
Tang, Di, Gu, Jian, Yu, You, Yang, Yuanyuan, Han, Weijia, Ma, Xiao.  2018.  Source-Location Privacy Based on Dynamic Mix-Ring in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2018 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :327–331.
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the potential to be widely used in many applications. Due to lack of a protected physical boundary, wireless communications are vulnerable to unauthorized interception and detection. While encryption can provide the integrality and confidentiality of the message, it is much more difficult to adequately address the source location privacy. For static deployed WSNs, adversary can easily perform trace-back attack to locate the source nodes by monitoring the traffic. The eavesdropped messages will leak the direction information of the source location by statistic analysis on traffic flow. In this paper, we propose a theoretical analysis measurement to address the quantitative amount of the information leakage from the eavesdropped message. Through this scheme, we analyze the conditions that satisfy the optimum protection for routing protocol design. Based on the proposed principle, we design a routing algorithm to minimize the information leakage by distributing the routing path uniformly in WSN. The theoretical analysis shows the proposed routing algorithm can provide approximate maximization of source location privacy. The simulation results show the proposed routing algorithm is very efficient and can be used for practical applications.
Bai, Leqiang, Li, Guoku.  2018.  Location Privacy Protection of WSN Based on Network Partition and Angle. 2018 14th International Conference on Natural Computation, Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (ICNC-FSKD). :1254–1260.
For the phantom routing algorithm, phantom source nodes are concentrated near the real source node, and for the angle based phantom routing algorithm, phantom source nodes focus on some areas, and the existing source location privacy protection algorithm has low security cycle, a source location privacy protection algorithm of wireless sensor networks based on angle and network partition is proposed. The algorithm selects the next hop node on forwarding path according to the angle relationship between neighbors, and ensures that phantom source nodes are far away from the real source node and have the diversity of geographic location through network partition. Simulation results show that, compared with the existing source location privacy protection algorithm, this algorithm can induce attackers to deviate from the real path, and increase security cycle.
Zhang, Kewang, Zahng, Qiong.  2018.  Preserve Location Privacy for Cyber-Physical Systems with Addresses Hashing at Data Link Layer. 2018 IEEE 20th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 16th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 4th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :1028–1032.
Due to their low complexity and robustness in nature, wireless sensor networks are a key component in cyber-physical system. The integration of wireless sensor network in cyber-physical system provides immense benefits in distributed controlled environment. However, the open nature of the wireless medium makes resource-constrained WSN vulnerable to unauthorized interception and detection. Privacy is becoming one of the major issues that jeopardize the successful deployment of WSN. In this paper, we propose a scheme named HASHA to provide location privacy. Different from previous approaches, HASHA protect nodes' location privacy at data link layer. It is well known that payload at data link layer frame is well protected through cryptosystem, but addresses at data link layer leaves unprotected. The adversaries can identify nodes in the network easily by capturing frames and check the source and destination addresses. If both addresses are well protected and unknown to the adversaries, they cannot identify nodes of the targeted networks, rendering it very difficult to launch traffic analysis and locate subjects. Simulation and analytical results demonstrate that our scheme provides stronger privacy protection and requires much less energy.
Eryonucu, Cihan, Ayday, Erman, Zeydan, Engin.  2018.  A Demonstration of Privacy-Preserving Aggregate Queries for Optimal Location Selection. 2018 IEEE 19th International Symposium on "A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks" (WoWMoM). :1–3.
In recent years, service providers, such as mobile operators providing wireless services, collected location data in enormous extent with the increase of the usages of mobile phones. Vertical businesses, such as banks, may want to use this location information for their own scenarios. However, service providers cannot directly provide these private data to the vertical businesses because of the privacy and legal issues. In this demo, we show how privacy preserving solutions can be utilized using such location-based queries without revealing each organization's sensitive data. In our demonstration, we used partially homomorphic cryptosystem in our protocols and showed practicality and feasibility of our proposed solution.
Rimjhim, Roy, Pradeep Kumar, Prakash Singh, Jyoti.  2018.  Encircling the Base Station for Source Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2018 3rd International Conference on Computational Systems and Information Technology for Sustainable Solutions (CSITSS). :307–312.
Location Privacy breach in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) cannot be controlled by encryption techniques as all the communications are signal based. Signal strength can be analyzed to reveal many routing information. Adversary takes advantage of this and tracks the incoming packet to know the direction of the packet. With the information of location of origin of packets, the Source is also exposed which is generating packets on sensing any object. Thus, the location of subject is exposed. For protecting such privacy breaches, routing schemes are used which create anonymization or diverts the adversary. In this paper, we are using `Dummy' packets that will be inserted into real traffic to confuse the adversary. The dummy packets are such inserted that they encircle the Sink or Base Station. These Dummy packets are send with a value of TTL (Time To Live) field such that they travel only a few hops. Since adversary starts backtracking from the Sink, it will be trapped in the dummy traffic. In our protocol, we are confusing adversary without introducing any delay in packet delivery. Adversary uses two common methods for knowing the source i.e. Traffic Analysis and Back-tracing. Mathematically and experimentally, our proposal is sound for both type of methods. Overhead is also balanced as packets will not live long.