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Toma, A., Krayani, A., Marcenaro, L., Gao, Y., Regazzoni, C. S..  2020.  Deep Learning for Spectrum Anomaly Detection in Cognitive mmWave Radios. 2020 IEEE 31st Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications. :1–7.
Millimeter Wave (mmWave) band can be a solution to serve the vast number of Internet of Things (IoT) and Vehicle to Everything (V2X) devices. In this context, Cognitive Radio (CR) is capable of managing the mmWave spectrum sharing efficiently. However, Cognitive mmWave Radios are vulnerable to malicious users due to the complex dynamic radio environment and the shared access medium. This indicates the necessity to implement techniques able to detect precisely any anomalous behaviour in the spectrum to build secure and efficient radios. In this work, we propose a comparison framework between deep generative models: Conditional Generative Adversarial Network (C-GAN), Auxiliary Classifier Generative Adversarial Network (AC-GAN), and Variational Auto Encoder (VAE) used to detect anomalies inside the dynamic radio spectrum. For the sake of the evaluation, a real mmWave dataset is used, and results show that all of the models achieve high probability in detecting spectrum anomalies. Especially, AC-GAN that outperforms C-GAN and VAE in terms of accuracy and probability of detection.
Wang, F., Zhang, X..  2020.  Secure Resource Allocation for Polarization-Based Non-Linear Energy Harvesting Over 5G Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
We address secure resource allocation for the energy harvesting (EH) based 5G cooperative cognitive radio networks (CRNs). To guarantee that the size-limited secondary users (SUs) can simultaneously send the primary user's and their own information, we assume that SUs are equipped with orthogonally dual-polarized antennas (ODPAs). In particular, we propose, develop, and analyze an efficient resource allocation scheme under a practical non-linear EH model, which can capture the nonlinear characteristics of the end-to-end wireless power transfer (WPT) for radio frequency (RF) based EH circuits. Our obtained numerical results validate that a substantial performance gain can be obtained by employing the non-linear EH model.
Bouzegag, Y., Teguig, D., Maali, A., Sadoudi, S..  2020.  On the Impact of SSDF Attacks in Hard Combination Schemes in Cognitive Radio Networks. 020 1st International Conference on Communications, Control Systems and Signal Processing (CCSSP). :19–24.
One of the critical threats menacing the Cooperative Spectrum Sensing (CSS) in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) is the Spectrum Sensing Data Falsification (SSDF) reports, which can deceive the decision of Fusion Center (FC) about the Primary User (PU) spectrum accessibility. In CSS, each CR user performs Energy Detection (ED) technique to detect the status of licensed frequency bands of the PU. This paper investigates the performance of different hard-decision fusion schemes (OR-rule, AND-rule, and MAJORITY-rule) in the presence of Always Yes and Always No Malicious User (AYMU and ANMU) over Rayleigh and Gaussian channels. More precisely, comparative study is conducted to evaluate the impact of such malicious users in CSS on the performance of various hard data combining rules in terms of miss detection and false alarm probabilities. Furthermore, computer simulations are carried out to show that the hard-decision fusion scheme with MAJORITY-rule is the best among hard-decision combination under AYMU attacks, OR-rule has the best detection performance under ANMU.
Joykutty, A. M., Baranidharan, B..  2020.  Cognitive Radio Networks: Recent Advances in Spectrum Sensing Techniques and Security. 2020 International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :878–884.
Wireless networks are very significant in the present world owing to their widespread use and its application in domains like disaster management, smart cities, IoT etc. A wireless network is made up of a group of wireless nodes that communicate with each other without using any formal infrastructure. The topology of the wireless network is not fixed and it can vary. The huge increase in the number of wireless devices is a challenge owing to the limited availability of wireless spectrum. Opportunistic spectrum access by Cognitive radio enables the efficient usage of limited spectrum resources. The unused channels assigned to the primary users may go waste in idle time. Cognitive radio systems will sense the unused channel space and assigns it temporarily for secondary users. This paper discusses about the recent trends in the two most important aspects of Cognitive radio namely spectrum sensing and security.
Morozov, M. Y., Perfilov, O. Y., Malyavina, N. V., Teryokhin, R. V., Chernova, I. V..  2020.  Combined Approach to SSDF-Attacks Mitigation in Cognitive Radio Networks. 2020 Systems of Signals Generating and Processing in the Field of on Board Communications. :1–4.
Cognitive radio systems aim to solve the issue of spectrum scarcity through implementation of dynamic spectrum management and cooperative spectrum access. However, the structure of such systems introduced unique types of vulnerabilities and attacks, one of which is spectrum sensing data falsification attack (SSDF). In such attacks malicious users provide incorrect observations to the fusion center of the system, which may result in severe quality of service degradation and interference for licensed users. In this paper we investigate this type of attacks and propose a combined approach to their mitigation. On the first step a reputational method is used to isolate the initially untrustworthy nodes, on the second step specialized q-out-of-m fusion rule is utilized to mitigate the remains of attack. In this paper we present theoretical analysis of the proposed combined method.
Thanuja, T. C., Daman, K. A., Patil, A. S..  2020.  Optimized Spectrum sensing Techniques for Enhanced Throughput in Cognitive Radio Network. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Smart Computing and Informatics (ESCI). :137–141.
The wireless communication is a backbone for a development of a nation. But spectrum is finite resource and issues like spectrum scarcity, loss of signal quality, transmission delay, raised in wireless communication system due to growth of wireless applications and exponentially increased number of users. Secondary use of a spectrum using Software Defined Radio (SDR) is one of the solutions which is also supported by TRAI. The spectrum sensing is key process in communication based on secondary use of spectrum. But energy consumption, added delay, primary users security are some threats in this system. Here in this paper we mainly focused on throughput optimization in secondary use of spectrum based on optimal sensing time and number of Secondary users during cooperative spectrum sensing in Cognitive radio networks.
Salama, G. M., Taha, S. A..  2020.  Cooperative Spectrum Sensing and Hard Decision Rules for Cognitive Radio Network. 2020 3rd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1–6.
Cognitive radio is development of wireless communication and mobile computing. Spectrum is a limited source. The licensed spectrum is proposed to be used only by the spectrum owners. Cognitive radio is a new view of the recycle licensed spectrum in an unlicensed manner. The main condition of the cognitive radio network is sensing the spectrum hole. Cognitive radio can be detect unused spectrum. It shares this with no interference to the licensed spectrum. It can be a sense signals. It makes viable communication in the middle of multiple users through co-operation in a self-organized manner. The energy detector method is unseen signal detector because it reject the data of the signal.In this paper, has implemented Simulink Energy Detection of spectrum sensing cognitive radio in a MATLAB Simulink to Exploit spectrum holes and avoid damaging interference to licensed spectrum and unlicensed spectrum. The hidden primary user problem will happened because fading or shadowing. Ithappens when cognitive radio could not be detected by primer users because of its location. Cooperative sensing spectrum sensing is the best-proposed method to solve the hidden problem.
Shekhawat, G. K., Yadav, R. P..  2020.  Sparse Code Multiple Access based Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in 5G Cognitive Radio Networks. 2020 5th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Security (ICCCS). :1–6.
Fifth-generation (5G) network demands of higher data rate, massive user connectivity and large spectrum can be achieve using Sparse Code Multiple Access (SCMA) scheme. The integration of cognitive feature spectrum sensing with SCMA can enhance the spectrum efficiency in a heavily dense 5G wireless network. In this paper, we have investigated the primary user detection performance using SCMA in Centralized Cooperative Spectrum Sensing (CCSS). The developed model can support massive user connectivity, lower latency and higher spectrum utilization for future 5G networks. The simulation study is performed for AWGN and Rayleigh fading channel. Log-MPA iterative receiver based Log-Likelihood Ratio (LLR) soft test statistic is passed to Fusion Center (FC). The Wald-hypothesis test is used at FC to finalize the PU decision.
Venkataramana, B., Jadhav, A..  2020.  Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols under Black Hole Attack in Cognitive Radio Mesh Network. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Smart Computing and Informatics (ESCI). :98–102.
Wireless technology is rapidly proliferating. Devices such as Laptops, PDAs and cell-phones gained a lot of importance due to the use of wireless technology. Nowadays there is also a huge demand for spectrum allocation and there is a need to utilize the maximum available spectrum in efficient manner. Cognitive Radio (CR) Network is one such intelligent radio network, designed to utilize the maximum licensed bandwidth to un-licensed users. Cognitive Radio has the capability to understand unused spectrum at a given time at a specific location. This capability helps to minimize the interference to the licensed users and improves the performance of the network. Routing protocol selection is one of the main strategies to design any wireless or wired networks. In Cognitive radio networks the selected routing protocol should be best in terms of establishing an efficient route, addressing challenges in network topology and should be able to reduce bandwidth consumption. Performance analysis of the protocols helps to select the best protocol in the network. Objective of this study is to evaluate performance of various cognitive radio network routing protocols like Spectrum Aware On Demand Routing Protocol (SORP), Spectrum Aware Mesh Routing in Cognitive Radio Networks (SAMER) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) with and without black hole attack using various performance parameters like Throughput, E2E delay and Packet delivery ratio with the help of NS2 simulator.
Tsiligkaridis, T., Romero, D..  2018.  Reinforcement Learning with Budget-Constrained Nonparametric Function Approximation for Opportunistic Spectrum Access. 2018 IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (GlobalSIP). :579—583.

Opportunistic spectrum access is one of the emerging techniques for maximizing throughput in congested bands and is enabled by predicting idle slots in spectrum. We propose a kernel-based reinforcement learning approach coupled with a novel budget-constrained sparsification technique that efficiently captures the environment to find the best channel access actions. This approach allows learning and planning over the intrinsic state-action space and extends well to large state spaces. We apply our methods to evaluate coexistence of a reinforcement learning-based radio with a multi-channel adversarial radio and a single-channel carrier-sense multiple-access with collision avoidance (CSMA-CA) radio. Numerical experiments show the performance gains over carrier-sense systems.

Adebayo, Abdulhamid, Rawat, Danda B., Garuba, Moses, Njilla, Laurent.  2018.  Aggregated-Query-as-a-Secure-Service for RF Spectrum Database-Driven Opportunistic Wireless Communications. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–2.
The US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has recently mandated the database-driven dynamic spectrum access where unlicensed secondary users search for idle bands and use them opportunistically. The database-driven dynamic spectrum access approach is regarded for minimizing any harmful interference to licensed primary users caused by RF channel sensing uncertainties. However, when several secondary users (or several malicious users) query the RF spectrum database at the same time, spectrum server could experience denial of service (DoS) attack. In this paper, we investigate the Aggregated-Query-as-a-Secure-Service (AQaaSS) for querying RF spectrum database by secondary users for opportunistic wireless communications where selected number of secondary users aka grid leaders, query the database on behalf of all other secondary users, aka grid followers and relay the idle channel information to grid followers. Furthermore, the grid leaders are selected based on their both reputation or trust level and location in the network for the integrity of the information that grid followers receive. Grid followers also use the weighted majority voting to filter out comprised information about the idle channels. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated using numerical results. The proposed approach gives lower latency (or same latency) to the secondary users and lower load (or same load) to the RF spectrum database server when more number of secondary users (or less number of secondary users) query than that of the server capacity.
Taggu, Amar, Marchang, Ningrinla.  2019.  Random-Byzantine Attack Mitigation in Cognitive Radio Networks using a Multi-Hidden Markov Model System. 2019 International Conference on Electrical and Computing Technologies and Applications (ICECTA). :1—5.
Cognitive Radio Networks (CRN) are opportunistic networks which aim to harness the white space in the television frequency spectrum, on a need-to-need basis, without interfering the incumbent, called the Primary User (PU). Cognitive radios (CR) that sense the spectrum periodically for sensing the PU activity, are called Secondary Users (SU). CRNs are susceptible to two major attacks, Byzantine attacks and Primary User Emulation Attack (PUEA). Both the attacks are capable of rendering a CRN useless, by either interfering with the PU itself or capturing the entire channel for themselves. Byzantine attacks detection and mitigation is an important security issue in CRN. Hence, the current work proposes using a multi-Hidden Markov Model system with an aim to detect different types of random-Byzantine attacks. Simulation results show good detection rate across all the attacks.
Sureka, N., Gunaseelan, K..  2019.  Detection Defense against Primary User Emulation Attack in Dynamic Cognitive Radio Networks. 2019 Fifth International Conference on Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (ICONSTEM). 1:505—510.
Cognitive radio is a promising technology that intends on solving the spectrum scarcity problem by allocating free spectrum dynamically to the unlicensed Secondary Users (SUs) in order to establish coexistence between the licensed Primary User (PU) & SUs, without causing any interference to the incumbent transmission. Primary user emulation attack (PUEA) is one such major threat posed on spectrum sensing, which decreases the spectrum access probability. Detection and defense against PUEA is realized using Yardstick based Threshold Allocation technique (YTA), by assigning threshold level to the base station thereby efficiently enhancing the spectrum sensing ability in a dynamic CR network. The simulation is performed using NS2 and analysis by using X-graph. The results shows minimum interference to primary transmissions by letting SUs spontaneously predict the prospective spectrum availability and aiding in effective prevention of potential emulation attacks along with proficient improvement of throughput in a dynamic cognitive radio environment.
Simpson, Oluyomi, Sun, Yichuang.  2019.  A Stochastic based Physical Layer Security in Cognitive Radio Networks: Cognitive Relay to Fusion Center. 2019 IEEE 38th International Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC). :1—7.
Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) are found to be, without difficulty wide-open to external malicious threats. Secure communication is an important prerequisite for forthcoming fifth-generation (5G) systems, and CRs are not exempt. A framework for developing the accomplishable benefits of physical layer security (PLS) in an amplify-and-forward cooperative spectrum sensing (AF-CSS) in a cognitive radio network (CRN) using a stochastic geometry is proposed. In the CRN the spectrum sensing data from secondary users (SU) are collected by a fusion center (FC) with the assistance of access points (AP) as cognitive relays, and when malicious eavesdropping SU are listening. In this paper we focus on the secure transmission of active APs relaying their spectrum sensing data to the FC. Closed expressions for the average secrecy rate are presented. Analytical formulations and results substantiate our analysis and demonstrate that multiple antennas at the APs is capable of improving the security of an AF-CSSCRN. The obtained numerical results also show that increasing the number of FCs, leads to an increase in the secrecy rate between the AP and its correlated FC.
Chandrala, M S, Hadli, Pooja, Aishwarya, R, Jejo, Kevin C, Sunil, Y, Sure, Pallaviram.  2019.  A GUI for Wideband Spectrum Sensing using Compressive Sampling Approaches. 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–6.
Cognitive Radio is a prominent solution for effective spectral resource utilization. The rapidly growing device to device (D2D) communications and the next generation networks urge the cognitive radio networks to facilitate wideband spectrum sensing in order to assure newer spectral opportunities. As Nyquist sampling rates are formidable owing to complexity and cost of the ADCs, compressive sampling approaches are becoming increasingly popular. One such approach exploited in this paper is the Modulated Wideband Converter (MWC) to recover the spectral support. On the multiple measurement vector (MMV) framework provided by the MWC, threshold based Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and Sparse Bayesian Learning (SBL) algorithms are employed for support recovery. We develop a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that assists a beginner to simulate the RF front-end of a MWC and thereby enables the user to explore support recovery as a function of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), number of measurement vectors and threshold. The GUI enables the user to explore spectrum sensing in DVB-T, 3G and 4G bands and recovers the support using OMP or SBL approach. The results show that the performance of SBL is better than that of OMP at a lower SNR values.
Novak, Marek, Skryja, Petr.  2019.  Efficient Partial Firmware Update for IoT Devices with Lua Scripting Interface. 2019 29th International Conference Radioelektronika (RADIOELEKTRONIKA). :1—4.

The paper introduces a method of efficient partial firmware update with several advantages compared to common methods. The amount of data to transfer for an update is reduced, the energetic efficiency is increased and as the method is designed for over the air update, the radio spectrum occupancy is decreased. Herein described approach uses Lua scripting interface to introduce updatable fragments of invokable native code. This requires a dedicated memory layout, which is herein introduced. This method allows not only to distribute patches for deployed systems, but also on demand add-ons. At the end, the security aspects of proposed firmware update system is discussed and its limitations are presented.

Grissa, Mohamed, Yavuz, Attila A., Hamdaoui, Bechir.  2019.  TrustSAS: A Trustworthy Spectrum Access System for the 3.5 GHz CBRS Band. IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1495–1503.
As part of its ongoing efforts to meet the increased spectrum demand, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has recently opened up 150 MHz in the 3.5 GHz band for shared wireless broadband use. Access and operations in this band, aka Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS), will be managed by a dynamic spectrum access system (SAS) to enable seamless spectrum sharing between secondary users (SUs) and incumbent users. Despite its benefits, SAS's design requirements, as set by FCC, present privacy risks to SUs, merely because SUs are required to share sensitive operational information (e.g., location, identity, spectrum usage) with SAS to be able to learn about spectrum availability in their vicinity. In this paper, we propose TrustSAS, a trustworthy framework for SAS that synergizes state-of-the-art cryptographic techniques with blockchain technology in an innovative way to address these privacy issues while complying with FCC's regulatory design requirements. We analyze the security of our framework and evaluate its performance through analysis, simulation and experimentation. We show that TrustSAS can offer high security guarantees with reasonable overhead, making it an ideal solution for addressing SUs' privacy issues in an operational SAS environment.
Simpson, Oluyomi, Sun, Yichuang.  2019.  A Stochastic Method to Physical Layer Security of an Amplify-and-Forward Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks: Secondary User to Relay. 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :197—202.
In this paper, a framework for capitalizing on the potential benefits of physical layer security in an amplify-and-forward cooperative spectrum sensing (AF-CSS) in a cognitive radio network (CRN) using a stochastic geometry is proposed. In the CRN network the sensing data from secondary users (SUs) are collected by a fusion center (FC) with the help of access points (AP) as relays, and when malicious eavesdropping secondary users (SUs) are listening. We focus on the secure transmission of active SUs transmitting their sensing data to the AP. Closed expressions for the average secrecy rate are presented. Numerical results corroborate our analysis and show that multiple antennas at the APs can enhance the security of the AF-CSS-CRN. The obtained numerical results show that average secrecy rate between the AP and its correlated FC decreases when the number of AP is increased. Nevertheless, we find that an increase in the number of AP initially increases the overall average secrecy rate, with a perilous value at which the overall average secrecy rate then decreases. While increasing the number of active SUs, there is a decrease in the secrecy rate between the sensor and its correlated AP.
Srinu, Sesham, Reddy, M. Kranthi Kumar, Temaneh-Nyah, Clement.  2019.  Physical layer security against cooperative anomaly attack using bivariate data in distributed CRNs. 2019 11th International Conference on Communication Systems Networks (COMSNETS). :410—413.
Wireless communication network (WCN) performance is primarily depends on physical layer security which is critical among all other layers of OSI network model. It is typically prone to anomaly/malicious user's attacks owing to openness of wireless channels. Cognitive radio networking (CRN) is a recently emerged wireless technology that is having numerous security challenges because of its unlicensed access of wireless channels. In CRNs, the security issues occur mainly during spectrum sensing and is more pronounced during distributed spectrum sensing. In recent past, various anomaly effects are modelled and developed detectors by applying advanced statistical techniques. Nevertheless, many of these detectors have been developed based on sensing data of one variable (energy measurement) and degrades their performance drastically when the data is contaminated with multiple anomaly nodes, that attack the network cooperatively. Hence, one has to develop an efficient multiple anomaly detection algorithm to eliminate all possible cooperative attacks. To achieve this, in this work, the impact of anomaly on detection probability is verified beforehand in developing an efficient algorithm using bivariate data to detect possible attacks with mahalanobis distance measure. Result discloses that detection error of cooperative attacks by anomaly has significant impact on eigenvalue-based sensing.
Zamula, Alexander, Rassomakhin, Sergii, Krasnobayev, Victor, Morozov, Vladyslav.  2019.  Synthesis of Discrete Complex Nonlinear Signals with Necessary Properties of Correlation Functions. 2019 IEEE 2nd Ukraine Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (UKRCON). :999–1002.
The main information and communication systems (ICS) effectiveness parameters are: reliability, resiliency, network bandwidth, service quality, profitability and cost, malware protection, information security, etc. Most modern ICS refers to multiuser systems, which implement the most promising method of distributing subscribers (users), namely, the code distribution, at which, subscribers are provided with appropriate forms of discrete sequences (signatures). Since in multiuser systems, channels code division is based on signal difference, then the ICS construction and systems performance indicators are determined by the chosen signals properties. Distributed spectrum technology is the promising direction of information security for telecommunication systems. Currently used data generation and processing methods, as well as the broadband signal classes used as a physical data carrier, are not enough for the necessary level of information security (information secrecy, imitation resistance) as well as noise immunity (impedance reception, structural secrecy) of the necessary (for some ICS applications). In this case, discrete sequences (DS) that are based on nonlinear construction rules and have improved correlation, ensemble and structural properties should be used as DS that extend the spectrum (manipulate carrier frequency). In particular, with the use of such signals as the physical carrier of information or synchronization signals, the time expenditures on the disclosure of the signal structure used are increasing and the setting of "optima", in terms of the counteracting station, obstacles becomes problematic. Complex signals obtained on such sequences basis have structural properties, similar to random (pseudorandom) sequences, as well as necessary correlation and ensemble properties. For designing signals for applications applied for measuring delay time, signal detecting, synchronizing stations and etc, side-lobe levels of autocorrelation function (ACF) minimization is essential. In this paper, the problem of optimizing the synthesis of nonlinear discrete sequences, which have improved ensemble, structural and autocorrelation properties, is formulated and solved. The use of nonlinear discrete signals, which are formed on the basis of such sequences, will provide necessary values for impedance protection, structural and information secrecy of ICS operation. Increased requirements for ICS information security, formation and performance data in terms of internal and external threats (influences), determine objectively existing technical and scientific controversy to be solved is goal of this work.The paper presents the results of solving the actual problem of performance indicators improvements for information and communication systems, in particular secrecy, information security and noise immunity with interfering influences, based on the nonlinear discrete cryptographic signals (CS) new classes synthesis with the necessary properties.
Avila, J, Prem, S, Sneha, R, Thenmozhi, K.  2018.  Mitigating Physical Layer Attack in Cognitive Radio - A New Approach. 2018 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1-4.

With the improvement in technology and with the increase in the use of wireless devices there is deficiency of radio spectrum. Cognitive radio is considered as the solution for this problem. Cognitive radio is capable to detect which communication channels are in use and which are free, and immediately move into free channels while avoiding the used ones. This increases the usage of radio frequency spectrum. Any wireless system is prone to attack. Likewise, the main two attacks in the physical layer of cognitive radio are Primary User Emulation Attack (PUEA) and replay attack. This paper focusses on mitigating these two attacks with the aid of authentication tag and distance calculation. Mitigation of these attacks results in error free transmission which in turn fallouts in efficient dynamic spectrum access.

Yadav, Kuldeep, Roy, Sanjay Dhar, Kundu, Sumit.  2018.  Total Error Reduction in Presence of Malicious User in a Cognitive Radio Network. 2018 2nd International Conference on Electronics, Materials Engineering Nano-Technology (IEMENTech). :1-4.

Primary user emulation (PUE) attack causes security issues in a cognitive radio network (CRN) while sensing the unused spectrum. In PUE attack, malicious users transmit an emulated primary signal in spectrum sensing interval to secondary users (SUs) to forestall them from accessing the primary user (PU) spectrum bands. In the present paper, the defense against such attack by Neyman-Pearson criterion is shown in terms of total error probability. Impact of several parameters such as attacker strength, attacker's presence probability, and signal-to-noise ratio on SU is shown. Result shows proposed method protect the harmful effects of PUE attack in spectrum sensing.

Bouabdellah, Mounia, Ghribi, Elias, Kaabouch, Naima.  2019.  RSS-Based Localization with Maximum Likelihood Estimation for PUE Attacker Detection in Cognitive Radio Networks. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Electro Information Technology (EIT). :1-6.

With the rapid proliferation of mobile users, the spectrum scarcity has become one of the issues that have to be addressed. Cognitive Radio technology addresses this problem by allowing an opportunistic use of the spectrum bands. In cognitive radio networks, unlicensed users can use licensed channels without causing harmful interference to licensed users. However, cognitive radio networks can be subject to different security threats which can cause severe performance degradation. One of the main attacks on these networks is the primary user emulation in which a malicious node emulates the characteristics of the primary user signals. In this paper, we propose a detection technique of this attack based on the RSS-based localization with the maximum likelihood estimation. The simulation results show that the proposed technique outperforms the RSS-based localization method in detecting the primary user emulation attacker.

Mapunya, Sekgoari, Velempini, Mthulisi.  2018.  The Design of Byzantine Attack Mitigation Scheme in Cognitive Radio Ad-Hoc Networks. 2018 International Conference on Intelligent and Innovative Computing Applications (ICONIC). :1-4.

The ever-increasing number of wireless network systems brought a problem of spectrum congestion leading to slow data communications. All of the radio spectrums are allocated to different users, services and applications. Hence studies have shown that some of those spectrum bands are underutilized while others are congested. Cognitive radio concept has evolved to solve the problem of spectrum congestion by allowing cognitive users to opportunistically utilize the underutilized spectrum while minimizing interference with other users. Byzantine attack is one of the security issues which threaten the successful deployment of this technology. Byzantine attack is compromised cognitive radios which relay falsified data about the availability of the spectrum to other legitimate cognitive radios in the network leading interference. In this paper we are proposing a security measure to thwart the effect caused by these attacks and compared it to Attack-Proof Cooperative Spectrum Sensing.

Sohu, Izhar Ahmed, Ahmed Rahimoon, Asif, Junejo, Amjad Ali, Ahmed Sohu, Arsalan, Junejo, Sadam Hussain.  2019.  Analogous Study of Security Threats in Cognitive Radio. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computing, Mathematics and Engineering Technologies (iCoMET). :1-4.

Utilization of Wireless sensor network is growing with the development in modern technologies. On other side electromagnetic spectrum is limited resources. Application of wireless communication is expanding day by day which directly threaten electromagnetic spectrum band to become congested. Cognitive Radio solves this issue by implementation of unused frequency bands as "White Space". There is another important factor that gets attention in cognitive model i.e: Wireless Security. One of the famous causes of security threat is malicious node in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks (CRWSN). The goal of this paper is to focus on security issues which are related to CRWSN as Fusion techniques, Co-operative Spectrum sensing along with two dangerous attacks in CR: Primary User Emulation (PUE) and Spectrum Sensing Data Falsification (SSDF).