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1994
Amoroso, E., Merritt, M..  1994.  Composing system integrity using I/O automata. Tenth Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. :34—43.
The I/O automata model of Lynch and Turtle (1987) is summarized and used to formalize several types of system integrity based on the control of transitions to invalid starts. Type-A integrity is exhibited by systems with no invalid initial states and that disallow transitions from valid reachable to invalid states. Type-B integrity is exhibited by systems that disallow externally-controlled transitions from valid reachable to invalid states, Type-C integrity is exhibited by systems that allow locally-controlled or externally-controlled transitions from reachable to invalid states. Strict-B integrity is exhibited by systems that are Type-B but not Type-A. Strict-C integrity is exhibited by systems that are Type-C but not Type-B. Basic results on the closure properties that hold under composition of systems exhibiting these types of integrity are presented in I/O automata-theoretic terms. Specifically, Type-A, Type-B, and Type-C integrity are shown to be composable, whereas Strict-B and Strict-C integrity are shown to not be generally composable. The integrity definitions and compositional results are illustrated using the familiar vending machine example specified as an I/O automaton and composed with a customer environment. The implications of the integrity definitions and compositional results on practical system design are discussed and a research plan for future work is outlined.
2006
Sekine, Junko, Campos-Náñnez, Enrique, Harrald, John R., Abeledo, Hernán.  2006.  A Simulation-Based Approach to Trade-off Analysis of Port Security. Proceedings of the 38th Conference on Winter Simulation. :521–528.

Motivated by the September 11 attacks, we are addressing the problem of policy analysis of supply-chain security. Considering the potential economic and operational impacts of inspection together with the inherent difficulty of assigning a reasonable cost to an inspection failure call for a policy analysis methodology in which stakeholders can understand the trade-offs between the diverse and potentially conflicting objectives. To obtain this information, we used a simulation-based methodology to characterize the set of Pareto optimal solutions with respect to the multiple objectives represented in the decision problem. Our methodology relies on simulation and the response surface method (RSM) to model the relationships between inspection policies and relevant stakeholder objectives in order to construct a set of Pareto optimal solutions. The approach is illustrated with an application to a real-world supply chain.

2008
Liu, C., Feng, Y., Fan, M., Wang, G..  2008.  PKI Mesh Trust Model Based on Trusted Computing. 2008 The 9th International Conference for Young Computer Scientists. :1401–1405.

Different organizations or countries maybe adopt different PKI trust model in real applications. On a large scale, all certification authorities (CA) and end entities construct a huge mesh network. PKI trust model exhibits unstructured mesh network as a whole. However, mesh trust model worsens computational complexity in certification path processing when the number of PKI domains increases. This paper proposes an enhanced mesh trust model for PKI. Keys generation and signature are fulfilled in Trusted Platform Module (TPM) for higher security level. An algorithm is suggested to improve the performance of certification path processing in this model. This trust model is less complex but more efficient and robust than the existing PKI trust models.

2009
Chen, Jing, Du, Ruiying.  2009.  Fault Tolerance and Security in Forwarding Packets Using Game Theory. 2009 International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security. 2:534–537.
In self-organized wireless network, such as ad hoc network, sensor network or mesh network, nodes are independent individuals which have different benefit; Therefore, selfish nodes refuse to forward packets for other nodes in order to save energy which causes the network fault. At the same time, some nodes may be malicious, whose aim is to damage the network. In this paper, we analyze the cooperation stimulation and security in self-organized wireless networks under a game theoretic framework. We first analyze a four node wireless network in which nodes share the channel by relaying for others during its idle periods in order to help the other nodes, each node has to use a part of its available channel capacity. And then, the fault tolerance and security problem is modeled as a non-cooperative game in which each player maximizes its own utility function. The goal of the game is to maximize the utility function in the giving condition in order to get better network efficiency. At last, for characterizing the efficiency of Nash equilibria, we analyze the so called price of anarchy, as the ratio between the objective function at the worst Nash equilibrium and the optimal objective function. Our results show that the players can get the biggest payoff if they obey cooperation strategy.
2011
Tootaghaj, Diman Zad, Farhat, Farshid, Pakravan, Mohammad-Reza, Aref, Mohammad-Reza.  2011.  Game-theoretic approach to mitigate packet dropping in wireless Ad-hoc networks. 2011 IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC). :163–165.
Performance of routing is severely degraded when misbehaving nodes drop packets instead of properly forwarding them. In this paper, we propose a Game-Theoretic Adaptive Multipath Routing (GTAMR) protocol to detect and punish selfish or malicious nodes which try to drop information packets in routing phase and defend against collaborative attacks in which nodes try to disrupt communication or save their power. Our proposed algorithm outranks previous schemes because it is resilient against attacks in which more than one node coordinate their misbehavior and can be used in networks which wireless nodes use directional antennas. We then propose a game theoretic strategy, ERTFT, for nodes to promote cooperation. In comparison with other proposed TFT-like strategies, ours is resilient to systematic errors in detection of selfish nodes and does not lead to unending death spirals.
Fhom, Hervais Simo, Bayarou, Kpatcha M..  2011.  Towards a Holistic Privacy Engineering Approach for Smart Grid Systems. 2011IEEE 10th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications. :234–241.

Protecting energy consumers's data and privacy is a key factor for the further adoption and diffusion of smart grid technologies and applications. However, current smart grid initiatives and implementations around the globe tend to either focus on the need for technical security to the detriment of privacy or consider privacy as a feature to add after system design. This paper aims to contribute towards filling the gap between this fact and the accepted wisdom that privacy concerns should be addressed as early as possible (preferably when modeling system's requirements). We present a methodological framework for tackling privacy concerns throughout all phases of the smart grid system development process. We describe methods and guiding principles to help smart grid engineers to elicit and analyze privacy threats and requirements from the outset of the system development, and derive the best suitable countermeasures, i.e. privacy enhancing technologies (PETs), accordingly. The paper also provides a summary of modern PETs, and discusses their context of use and contributions with respect to the underlying privacy engineering challenges and the smart grid setting being considered.

2012
Salehie, Mazeiar, Pasquale, Liliana, Omoronyia, Inah, Nuseibeh, Bashar.  2012.  Adaptive Security and Privacy in Smart Grids: A Software Engineering Vision. 2012 First International Workshop on Software Engineering Challenges for the Smart Grid (SE-SmartGrids). :46–49.

Despite the benefits offered by smart grids, energy producers, distributors and consumers are increasingly concerned about possible security and privacy threats. These threats typically manifest themselves at runtime as new usage scenarios arise and vulnerabilities are discovered. Adaptive security and privacy promise to address these threats by increasing awareness and automating prevention, detection and recovery from security and privacy requirements' failures at runtime by re-configuring system controls and perhaps even changing requirements. This paper discusses the need for adaptive security and privacy in smart grids by presenting some motivating scenarios. We then outline some research issues that arise in engineering adaptive security. We particularly scrutinize published reports by NIST on smart grid security and privacy as the basis for our discussions.

Farquharson, J., Wang, A., Howard, J..  2012.  Smart Grid Cyber Security and Substation Network Security. 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT). :1–5.

A successful Smart Grid system requires purpose-built security architecture which is explicitly designed to protect customer data confidentiality. In addition to the investment on electric power infrastructure for protecting the privacy of Smart Grid-related data, entities need to actively participate in the NIST interoperability framework process; establish policies and oversight structure for the enforcement of cyber security controls of the data through adoption of security best practices, personnel training, cyber vulnerability assessments, and consumer privacy audits.

2013
Jim Blythe, University of Southern California, Ross Koppel, University of Pennsylvania, Sean Smith, Dartmouth College.  2013.  Circumvention of Security: Good Users Do Bad Things.

Conventional wisdom is that the textbook view describes reality, and only bad people (not good people trying to get their jobs done) break the rules. And yet it doesn't, and good people circumvent.
 

Published in IEEE Security & Privacy, volume 11, issue 5, September - October 2013.

Niu, Yukun, Tan, Xiaobin, Zhou, Zifei, Zheng, Jiangyu, Zhu, Jin.  2013.  Privacy Protection Scheme in Smart Grid Using Rechargeable Battery. Proceedings of the 32nd Chinese Control Conference. :8825–8830.

It can get the user's privacy and home energy use information by analyzing the user's electrical load information in smart grid, and this is an area of concern. A rechargeable battery may be used in the home network to protect user's privacy. In this paper, the battery can neither charge nor discharge, and the power of battery is adjustable, at the same time, we model the real user's electrical load information and the battery power information and the recorded electrical power of smart meters which are processed with discrete way. Then we put forward a heuristic algorithm which can make the rate of information leakage less than existing solutions. We use statistical methods to protect user's privacy, the theoretical analysis and the examples show that our solution makes the scene design more reasonable and is more effective than existing solutions to avoid the leakage of the privacy.

Neureiter, Christian, Eibl, Günther, Veichtlbauer, Armin, Engel, Dominik.  2013.  Towards a Framework for Engineering Smart-Grid-Specific Privacy Requirements. IECON 2013 - 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :4803–4808.

Privacy has become a critical topic in the engineering of electric systems. This work proposes an approach for smart-grid-specific privacy requirements engineering by extending previous general privacy requirements engineering frameworks. The proposed extension goes one step further by focusing on privacy in the smart grid. An alignment of smart grid privacy requirements, dependability issues and privacy requirements engineering methods is presented. Starting from this alignment a Threat Tree Analysis is performed to obtain a first set of generic, high level privacy requirements. This set is formulated mostly on the data instead of the information level and provides the basis for further project-specific refinement.

2014
Layman, Lucas, Diffo, Sylvain David, Zazworka, Nico.  2014.  Human Factors in Webserver Log File Analysis: A Controlled Experiment on Investigating Malicious Activity. Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security. :9:1–9:11.

While automated methods are the first line of defense for detecting attacks on webservers, a human agent is required to understand the attacker's intent and the attack process. The goal of this research is to understand the value of various log fields and the cognitive processes by which log information is grouped, searched, and correlated. Such knowledge will enable the development of human-focused log file investigation technologies. We performed controlled experiments with 65 subjects (IT professionals and novices) who investigated excerpts from six webserver log files. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered to: 1) analyze subject accuracy in identifying malicious activity; 2) identify the most useful pieces of log file information; and 3) understand the techniques and strategies used by subjects to process the information. Statistically significant effects were observed in the accuracy of identifying attacks and time taken depending on the type of attack. Systematic differences were also observed in the log fields used by high-performing and low-performing groups. The findings include: 1) new insights into how specific log data fields are used to effectively assess potentially malicious activity; 2) obfuscating factors in log data from a human cognitive perspective; and 3) practical implications for tools to support log file investigations.

Rao, Ashwini, Hibshi, Hanan, Breaux, Travis, Lehker, Jean-Michel, Niu, Jianwei.  2014.  Less is More?: Investigating the Role of Examples in Security Studies Using Analogical Transfer Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security. :7:1–7:12.

Information system developers and administrators often overlook critical security requirements and best practices. This may be due to lack of tools and techniques that allow practitioners to tailor security knowledge to their particular context. In order to explore the impact of new security methods, we must improve our ability to study the impact of security tools and methods on software and system development. In this paper, we present early findings of an experiment to assess the extent to which the number and type of examples used in security training stimuli can impact security problem solving. To motivate this research, we formulate hypotheses from analogical transfer theory in psychology. The independent variables include number of problem surfaces and schemas, and the dependent variable is the answer accuracy. Our study results do not show a statistically significant difference in performance when the number and types of examples are varied. We discuss the limitations, threats to validity and opportunities for future studies in this area.

Cepheli, O., Buyukcorak, S., Kurt, G.K..  2014.  User behaviour modelling based DDoS attack detection. Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU), 2014 22nd. :2186-2189.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are one of the most important threads in network systems. Due to the distributed nature, DDoS attacks are very hard to detect, while they also have the destructive potential of classical denial of service attacks. In this study, a novel 2-step system is proposed for the detection of DDoS attacks. In the first step an anomaly detection is performed on the destination IP traffic. If an anomaly is detected on the network, the system proceeds into the second step where a decision on every user is made due to the behaviour models. Hence, it is possible to detect attacks in the network that diverges from users' behavior model.

Frauenstein, E.D., Von Solms, R..  2014.  Combatting phishing: A holistic human approach. Information Security for South Africa (ISSA), 2014. :1-10.

Phishing continues to remain a lucrative market for cyber criminals, mostly because of the vulnerable human element. Through emails and spoofed-websites, phishers exploit almost any opportunity using major events, considerable financial awards, fake warnings and the trusted reputation of established organizations, as a basis to gain their victims' trust. For many years, humans have often been referred to as the `weakest link' towards protecting information. To gain their victims' trust, phishers continue to use sophisticated looking emails and spoofed websites to trick them, and rely on their victims' lack of knowledge, lax security behavior and organizations' inadequate security measures towards protecting itself and their clients. As such, phishing security controls and vulnerabilities can arguably be classified into three main elements namely human factors (H), organizational aspects (O) and technological controls (T). All three of these elements have the common feature of human involvement and as such, security gaps are inevitable. Each element also functions as both security control and security vulnerability. A holistic framework towards combatting phishing is required whereby the human feature in all three of these elements is enhanced by means of a security education, training and awareness programme. This paper discusses the educational factors required to form part of a holistic framework, addressing the HOT elements as well as the relationships between these elements towards combatting phishing. The development of this framework uses the principles of design science to ensure that it is developed with rigor. Furthermore, this paper reports on the verification of the framework.

Conglei Shi, Yingcai Wu, Shixia Liu, Hong Zhou, Huamin Qu.  2014.  LoyalTracker: Visualizing Loyalty Dynamics in Search Engines. Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on. 20:1733-1742.

The huge amount of user log data collected by search engine providers creates new opportunities to understand user loyalty and defection behavior at an unprecedented scale. However, this also poses a great challenge to analyze the behavior and glean insights into the complex, large data. In this paper, we introduce LoyalTracker, a visual analytics system to track user loyalty and switching behavior towards multiple search engines from the vast amount of user log data. We propose a new interactive visualization technique (flow view) based on a flow metaphor, which conveys a proper visual summary of the dynamics of user loyalty of thousands of users over time. Two other visualization techniques, a density map and a word cloud, are integrated to enable analysts to gain further insights into the patterns identified by the flow view. Case studies and the interview with domain experts are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of our technique in understanding user loyalty and switching behavior in search engines.
 

Cailleux, L., Bouabdallah, A., Bonnin, J.-M..  2014.  A confident email system based on a new correspondence model. Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), 2014 16th International Conference on. :489-492.

Despite all the current controversies, the success of the email service is still valid. The ease of use of its various features contributed to its widespread adoption. In general, the email system provides for all its users the same set of features controlled by a single monolithic policy. Such solutions are efficient but limited because they grant no place for the concept of usage which denotes a user's intention of communication: private, professional, administrative, official, military. The ability to efficiently send emails from mobile devices creates new interesting opportunities. We argue that the context (location, time, device, operating system, access network...) of the email sender appears as a new dimension we have to take into account to complete the picture. Context is clearly orthogonal to usage because a same usage may require different features depending of the context. It is clear that there is no global policy meeting requirements of all possible usages and contexts. To address this problem, we propose to define a correspondence model which for a given usage and context allows to derive a correspondence type encapsulating the exact set of required features. With this model, it becomes possible to define an advanced email system which may cope with multiple policies instead of a single monolithic one. By allowing a user to select the exact policy coping with her needs, we argue that our approach reduces the risk-taking allowing the email system to slide from a trusted one to a confident one.

Liew Tze Hui, Bashier, H.K., Lau Siong Hoe, Michael, G.K.O., Wee Kouk Kwee.  2014.  Conceptual framework for high-end graphical password. Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT), 2014 2nd International Conference on. :64-68.

User authentication depends largely on the concept of passwords. However, users find it difficult to remember alphanumerical passwords over time. When user is required to choose a secure password, they tend to choose an easy, short and insecure password. Graphical password method is proposed as an alternative solution to text-based alphanumerical passwords. The reason of such proposal is that human brain is better in recognizing and memorizing pictures compared to traditional alphanumerical string. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a conceptual framework to better understand the user performance for new high-end graphical password method. Our proposed framework is based on hybrid approach combining different features into one. The user performance experimental analysis pointed out the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
 

Alsaleh, M.N., Al-Shaer, E.A..  2014.  Security configuration analytics using video games. Communications and Network Security (CNS), 2014 IEEE Conference on. :256-264.

Computing systems today have a large number of security configuration settings that enforce security properties. However, vulnerabilities and incorrect configuration increase the potential for attacks. Provable verification and simulation tools have been introduced to eliminate configuration conflicts and weaknesses, which can increase system robustness against attacks. Most of these tools require special knowledge in formal methods and precise specification for requirements in special languages, in addition to their excessive need for computing resources. Video games have been utilized by researchers to make educational software more attractive and engaging. Publishing these games for crowdsourcing can also stimulate competition between players and increase the game educational value. In this paper we introduce a game interface, called NetMaze, that represents the network configuration verification problem as a video game and allows for attack analysis. We aim to make the security analysis and hardening usable and accurately achievable, using the power of video games and the wisdom of crowdsourcing. Players can easily discover weaknesses in network configuration and investigate new attack scenarios. In addition, the gameplay scenarios can also be used to analyze and learn attack attribution considering human factors. In this paper, we present a provable mapping from the network configuration to 3D game objects.
 

2015
Knirsch, Fabian, Engel, Dominik, Frincu, Marc, Prasanna, Viktor.  2015.  Model-Based Assessment for Balancing Privacy Requirements and Operational Capabilities in the Smart Grid. 2015 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.

The smart grid changes the way energy is produced and distributed. In addition both, energy and information is exchanged bidirectionally among participating parties. Therefore heterogeneous systems have to cooperate effectively in order to achieve a common high-level use case, such as smart metering for billing or demand response for load curtailment. Furthermore, a substantial amount of personal data is often needed for achieving that goal. Capturing and processing personal data in the smart grid increases customer concerns about privacy and in addition, certain statutory and operational requirements regarding privacy aware data processing and storage have to be met. An increase of privacy constraints, however, often limits the operational capabilities of the system. In this paper, we present an approach that automates the process of finding an optimal balance between privacy requirements and operational requirements in a smart grid use case and application scenario. This is achieved by formally describing use cases in an abstract model and by finding an algorithm that determines the optimum balance by forward mapping privacy and operational impacts. For this optimal balancing algorithm both, a numeric approximation and - if feasible - an analytic assessment are presented and investigated. The system is evaluated by applying the tool to a real-world use case from the University of Southern California (USC) microgrid.

Bando, S., Nozawa, A., Matsuya, Y..  2015.  Multidimensional directed coherence analysis of keystroke dynamics and physiological responses. 2015 International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF). :1–4.

Techno-stress has been a problem in recent years with a development of information technology. Various studies have been reported about a relationship between key typing and psychosomatic state. Keystroke dynamics are known as dynamics of a key typing motion. The objective of this paper is to clarify the mechanism between keystroke dynamics and physiological responses. Inter-stroke time (IST) that was the interval between each keystroke was measured as keystroke dynamics. The physiological responses were heart rate variability (HRV) and respiration (Resp). The system consisted of IST, HRV, and Resp was applied multidimensional directed coherence in order to reveal a causal correlation. As a result, it was observed that strength of entrainment of physiological responses having fluctuation to IST differed in surround by the noise and a cognitive load. Specifically, the entrainment became weak as a cognitive resource devoted to IST was relatively increased with the keystroke motion had a robust rhythm. On the other hand, the entrainment became stronger as a cognitive resource devoted to IST was relatively decreased since the resource also devoted to the noise or the cognitive load.

Kilger, M..  2015.  Integrating Human Behavior Into the Development of Future Cyberterrorism Scenarios. 2015 10th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :693–700.

The development of future cyber terrorism scenarios is a key component in building a more comprehensive understanding of cyber threats that are likely to emerge in the near-to mid-term future. While developing concepts of likely new, emerging digital technologies is an important part of this process, this article suggests that understanding the psychological and social forces involved in cyber terrorism is also a key component in the analysis and that the synergy of these two dimensions may produce more accurate and detailed future cyber threat scenarios than either analytical element alone.

Njenga, K., Ndlovu, S..  2015.  Mobile banking and information security risks: Demand-side predilections of South African lead-users. 2015 Second International Conference on Information Security and Cyber Forensics (InfoSec). :86–92.

South Africa's lead-users predilections to tinker and innovate mobile banking services is driven by various constructs. Advanced technologies have made mobile banking services easy to use, attractive and beneficial. While this is welcome news to many, there are concerns that when lead-users tinker with these services, information security risks are exacerbated. The aim of this article is to present an insightful understanding of the demand-side predilections of South Africa's lead-users in such contexts. We assimilate the theories of Usage Control, (UCON), the Theory of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the Theory of Perceived Risk (TPP) to explain predilections over technology. We demonstrate that constructs derived from these theories can explain the general demand-side predilection to tinker with mobile banking services. A quantitative approach was used to test this. From a sample of South African banking lead-users operating in Gauteng province of South Africa, data was collected and analysed with the help of a software package. We found unexpectedly that, lead-users predilections to tinker with mobile banking services was inhibited by perceived risk. Moreover, male lead-users were more domineering in the tinkering process than female lead-users. The implication for this is discussed and explained in the main body of work.

Xie, Yuanpeng, Jiang, Yixin, Liao, Runfa, Wen, Hong, Meng, Jiaxiao, Guo, Xiaobin, Xu, Aidong, Guan, Zewu.  2015.  User Privacy Protection for Cloud Computing Based Smart Grid. 2015 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China - Workshops (CIC/ICCC). :7–11.

The smart grid aims to improve the efficiency, reliability and safety of the electric system via modern communication system, it's necessary to utilize cloud computing to process and store the data. In fact, it's a promising paradigm to integrate smart grid into cloud computing. However, access to cloud computing system also brings data security issues. This paper focuses on the protection of user privacy in smart meter system based on data combination privacy and trusted third party. The paper demonstrates the security issues for smart grid communication system and cloud computing respectively, and illustrates the security issues for the integration. And we introduce data chunk storage and chunk relationship confusion to protect user privacy. We also propose a chunk information list system for inserting and searching data.

2016
Uemura, Toshiaki, Kashiwabara, Yuta, Kawanuma, Daiki, Tomii, Takashi.  2016.  Accuracy Evaluation by GPS Data Correction for the EV Energy Consumption Database. Adjunct Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing Networking and Services. :213–218.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to be applicable to smart grids because they have large-capacity batteries. It is important that smart grid users be able to estimate surplus battery energy and/or surplus capacity in advance of deploying EVs. We constructed a database, the Energy COnsumption LOG (ECOLOG) Database System, to store vehicle daily logs acquired by smartphones placed in vehicles. The electrical energy consumption is estimated from GPS coordinate data using an EV energy-consumption model. This research specifically examines commuting with a vehicle used for same route every day. We corrected GPS coordinate data by map matching, and input the data to the EV energy consumption model. We regard the remaining battery capacity data acquired by the EV CAN as correct data. Then we evaluate the accuracy of driving energy consumption logs as estimated using the corrected GPS coordinate data.