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Tai, J., Alsmadi, I., Zhang, Y., Qiao, F..  2020.  Machine Learning Methods for Anomaly Detection in Industrial Control Systems. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :2333—2339.

This paper examines multiple machine learning models to find the model that best indicates anomalous activity in an industrial control system that is under a software-based attack. The researched machine learning models are Random Forest, Gradient Boosting Machine, Artificial Neural Network, and Recurrent Neural Network classifiers built-in Python and tested against the HIL-based Augmented ICS dataset. Although the results showed that Random Forest, Gradient Boosting Machine, Artificial Neural Network, and Long Short-Term Memory classification models have great potential for anomaly detection in industrial control systems, we found that Random Forest with tuned hyperparameters slightly outperformed the other models.

Zhang, Z., Zhang, Q., Liu, T., Pang, Z., Cui, B., Jin, S., Liu, K..  2020.  Data-driven Stealthy Actuator Attack against Cyber-Physical Systems. 2020 39th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :4395–4399.
This paper studies the data-driven stealthy actuator attack against cyber-physical systems. The objective of the attacker is to add a certain bias to the output while keeping the detection rate of the χ2 detector less than a certain value. With the historical input and output data, the parameters of the system are estimated and the attack signal is the solution of a convex optimization problem constructed with the estimated parameters. The extension to the case of arbitrary detectors is also discussed. A numerical example is given to verify the effectiveness of the attack.
Siddiqui, A. S., Gui, Y., Saqib, F..  2019.  Boot time Bitstream Authentication for FPGAs. 2019 IEEE 16th International Conference on Smart Cities: Improving Quality of Life Using ICT IoT and AI (HONET-ICT). :189–190.
Major commercial Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) vendors provide encryption and authentication for programmable logic fabric (PL) bitstream using AES and RSA respectively. They are limited in scope of security that they provide and have proven to be vulnerable to different attacks. As-such, in-field deployed devices are susceptible to attacks where either a configuration bitstream, application software or dynamically reconfigurable bitstreams can be maliciously replaced. This hardware demo presents a framework for secure boot and runtime authentication for FPGAs. The presented system employs on-board cryptographic mechanisms and third-party established architectures such as Trusted Platform Module (TPM). The scope of this hardware demo is of systems level.
Whitefield, J., Chen, L., Sasse, R., Schneider, S., Treharne, H., Wesemeyer, S..  2019.  A Symbolic Analysis of ECC-Based Direct Anonymous Attestation. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :127–141.
Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA) is a cryptographic scheme that provides Trusted Platform Module TPM-backed anonymous credentials. We develop Tamarin modelling of the ECC-based version of the protocol as it is standardised and provide the first mechanised analysis of this standard. Our analysis confirms that the scheme is secure when all TPMs are assumed honest, but reveals a break in the protocol's expected authentication and secrecy properties for all TPMs even if only one is compromised. We propose and formally verify a minimal fix to the standard. In addition to developing the first formal analysis of ECC-DAA, the paper contributes to the growing body of work demonstrating the use of formal tools in supporting standardisation processes for cryptographic protocols.
Islam, M. S., Verma, H., Khan, L., Kantarcioglu, M..  2019.  Secure Real-Time Heterogeneous IoT Data Management System. 2019 First IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :228–235.
The growing adoption of IoT devices in our daily life engendered a need for secure systems to safely store and analyze sensitive data as well as the real-time data processing system to be as fast as possible. The cloud services used to store and process sensitive data are often come out to be vulnerable to outside threats. Furthermore, to analyze streaming IoT data swiftly, they are in need of a fast and efficient system. The Paper will envision the aspects of complexity dealing with real time data from various devices in parallel, building solution to ingest data from different IOT devices, forming a secure platform to process data in a short time, and using various techniques of IOT edge computing to provide meaningful intuitive results to users. The paper envisions two modules of building a real time data analytics system. In the first module, we propose to maintain confidentiality and integrity of IoT data, which is of paramount importance, and manage large-scale data analytics with real-time data collection from various IoT devices in parallel. We envision a framework to preserve data privacy utilizing Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) such as Intel SGX, end-to-end data encryption mechanism, and strong access control policies. Moreover, we design a generic framework to simplify the process of collecting and storing heterogeneous data coming from diverse IoT devices. In the second module, we envision a drone-based data processing system in real-time using edge computing and on-device computing. As, we know the use of drones is growing rapidly across many application domains including real-time monitoring, remote sensing, search and rescue, delivery of goods, security and surveillance, civil infrastructure inspection etc. This paper demonstrates the potential drone applications and their challenges discussing current research trends and provide future insights for potential use cases using edge and on-device computing.
Sundar, S., Yellai, P., Sanagapati, S. S. S., Pradhan, P. C., Y, S. K. K. R..  2019.  Remote Attestation based Software Integrity of IoT devices. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems (ANTS). :1–4.
Internet of Things is the new paradigm towards which the world is moving today. As these devices proliferate, security issues at these scales become more and more intimidating. Traditional approach like an antivirus does not work well with these devices and there is a need to look for a more trusted solution. For a device with reasonable computational power, we use a software trusted platform module for the cryptographic operations. In this paper, we have developed a model to remotely attest to the integrity of the processes running in the device. We have also explored the various features of the TPM (Trusted Platform Module) to gain insight into its working and also to ascertain those which can make this process better. This model depends on the server and the TPM to behave as roots of trust for this model. The client computes the HMAC (Hashed Message Authentication Code) values and appends a nonce and sends these values periodically to the server via asymmetric encryption. The HMAC values are verified by the server by comparing with its known good values (KGV) and the trustworthiness of the process is determined and accordingly an authorization response is sent.
Furtak, J., Zieliński, Z., Chudzikiewicz, J..  2019.  Security Domain for the Sensor Nodes with Strong Authentication. 2019 International Conference on Military Communications and Information Systems (ICMCIS). :1–6.
Nowadays interest in IoT solutions is growing. A significant barrier to the use of these solutions in military applications is to ensure the security of data transmission and authentication of data sources and recipients of the data. Developing an efficient solution to these problems requires finding a compromise between the facts that the sensors often are mobile, use wireless communication, usually have the small processing power and have little energy resources. The article presents the security domain designated for cooperating mobile sensor nodes. The domain has the following features: the strong authentication of each domain member, cryptographic protection of data exchange in the data link layer and protection of data stored in the sensor node resources. The domain is also prepared to perform diagnostic procedures and to exchange sensory data with other domains securely. At each node, the Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is used to support these procedures.
Xu, M., Huber, M., Sun, Z., England, P., Peinado, M., Lee, S., Marochko, A., Mattoon, D., Spiger, R., Thom, S..  2019.  Dominance as a New Trusted Computing Primitive for the Internet of Things. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1415–1430.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly emerging as one of the dominant computing paradigms of this decade. Applications range from in-home entertainment to large-scale industrial deployments such as controlling assembly lines and monitoring traffic. While IoT devices are in many respects similar to traditional computers, user expectations and deployment scenarios as well as cost and hardware constraints are sufficiently different to create new security challenges as well as new opportunities. This is especially true for large-scale IoT deployments in which a central entity deploys and controls a large number of IoT devices with minimal human interaction. Like traditional computers, IoT devices are subject to attack and compromise. Large IoT deployments consisting of many nearly identical devices are especially attractive targets. At the same time, recovery from root compromise by conventional means becomes costly and slow, even more so if the devices are dispersed over a large geographical area. In the worst case, technicians have to travel to all devices and manually recover them. Data center solutions such as the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) which rely on separate service processors and network connections are not only not supported by existing IoT hardware, but are unlikely to be in the foreseeable future due to the cost constraints of mainstream IoT devices. This paper presents CIDER, a system that can recover IoT devices within a short amount of time, even if attackers have taken root control of every device in a large deployment. The recovery requires minimal manual intervention. After the administrator has identified the compromise and produced an updated firmware image, he/she can instruct CIDER to force the devices to reset and to install the patched firmware on the devices. We demonstrate the universality and practicality of CIDER by implementing it on three popular IoT platforms (HummingBoard Edge, Raspberry Pi Compute Module 3 and Nucleo-L476RG) spanning the range from high to low end. Our evaluation shows that the performance overhead of CIDER is generally negligible.
Hamadeh, H., Tyagi, A..  2019.  Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) Entangled Trusted Computing Base. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :177–180.
The center-piece of this work is a software measurement physical unclonable function (PUF). It measures processor chip ALU silicon biometrics in a manner similar to all PUFs. Additionally, it composes the silicon measurement with the data-dependent delay of a particular program instruction in a way that is difficult to decompose through a mathematical model. This approach ensures that each software instruction is measured if computed. The SW-PUF measurements bind the execution of software to a specific processor with a corresponding certificate. This makes the SW-PUF a promising candidate for applications requiring Trusted Computing. For instance, it could measure the integrity of an execution path by generating a signature that is unique to the specific program execution path and the processor chip. We present an area and energy-efficient scheme based on the SW-PUF to provide a more robust root of trust for measurement than the existing trusted platform module (TPM). To explore the feasibility of the proposed design, the SW-PUF has been implemented in HSPICE using 45 nm technology and evaluated on the FPGA platform.
Yekini, T. Akeem, Jaafar, F., Zavarsky, P..  2019.  Study of Trust at Device Level of the Internet of Things Architecture. 2019 IEEE 19th International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE). :150–155.
In the Internet of Things architecture, devices are frequently connected to the Internet either directly or indirectly. However, many IoT devices lack built-in security features such as device level encryption, user authentication and basic firewall protection. This paper discusses security risks in the layers of general Internet of Things architecture and shows examples of potential risks at each level of the architecture. The paper also compares IoT security solutions provided by three major vendors and shows that the solutions are mutually complementary. Nevertheless, none of the examined IoT solutions provides security at the device level of the IoT architecture model. In order to address risks at the device level of the architecture, an implementation of Trusted Platform Module and Unique Device Identifier on IoT devices and gateways for encryption, authentication and device management is advocated in the paper.
Qian, Y..  2019.  Research on Trusted Authentication Model and Mechanism of Data Fusion. 2019 IEEE 10th International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS). :479–482.
Firstly, this paper analyses the technical foundation of single sign-on solution of unified authentication platform, and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Secondly, from the point of view of software engineering, such as function requirement, performance requirement, development mode, architecture scheme, technology development framework and system configuration environment of the unified authentication platform, the unified authentication platform is analyzed and designed, and the database design and system design framework of the system are put forward according to the system requirements. Thirdly, the idea and technology of unified authentication platform based on JA-SIG CAS are discussed, and the design and implementation of each module of unified authentication platform based on JA-SIG CAS are analyzed, which has been applied in ship cluster platform.
Zhang, Xin, Cai, Xiaobo, Wang, Chaogang, Han, Ke, Zhang, Shujuan.  2019.  A Dynamic Security Control Architecture for Industrial Cyber-Physical System. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Internet (ICII). :148—151.

According to the information security requirements of the industrial control system and the technical features of the existing defense measures, a dynamic security control strategy based on trusted computing is proposed. According to the strategy, the Industrial Cyber-Physical System system information security solution is proposed, and the linkage verification mechanism between the internal fire control wall of the industrial control system, the intrusion detection system and the trusted connection server is provided. The information exchange of multiple network security devices is realized, which improves the comprehensive defense capability of the industrial control system, and because the trusted platform module is based on the hardware encryption, storage, and control protection mode, It overcomes the common problem that the traditional repairing and stitching technique based on pure software leads to easy breakage, and achieves the goal of significantly improving the safety of the industrial control system . At the end of the paper, the system analyzes the implementation of the proposed secure industrial control information security system based on the trustworthy calculation.

Zhu, Ziming.  2019.  Game theoretic framework for cyber-physical system security incorporating bounded rationality. 2019 International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob). :360–365.

This paper presents a novel game theoretic attack-defence decision making framework for cyber-physical system (CPS) security. Game theory is a powerful tool to analyse the interaction between the attacker and the defender in such scenarios. In the formulation of games, participants are usually assumed to be rational. They will always choose the action to pursuit maximum payoff according to the knowledge of the strategic situation they are in. However, in reality the capacity of rationality is often bounded by the level of intelligence, computational resources and the amount of available information. This paper formulates the concept of bounded rationality into the decision making process, in order to optimise the defender's strategy considering that the defender and the attacker have incomplete information of each other and limited computational capacity. Under the proposed framework, the defender can often benefit from deviating from the minimax Nash Equilibrium strategy, the theoretically expected outcome of rational game playing. Numerical results are presented and discussed in order to demonstrate the proposed technique.

Kabiri, Peyman, Chavoshi, Mahdieh.  2019.  Destructive Attacks Detection and Response System for Physical Devices in Cyber-Physical Systems. 2019 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1–6.

Nowadays, physical health of equipment controlled by Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) is a significant concern. This paper reports a work, in which, a hardware is placed between Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and the actuator as a solution. The proposed hardware operates in two conditions, i.e. passive and active. Operation of the proposed solution is based on the repetitive operational profile of the actuators. The normal operational profile of the actuator is fed to the protective hardware and is considered as the normal operating condition. In the normal operating condition, the middleware operates in its passive mode and simply monitors electronic signals passing between PLC and Actuator. In case of any malicious operation, the proposed hardware operates in its active mode and both slowly stops the actuator and sends an alert to SCADA server initiating execution of the actuator's emergency profile. Thus, the proposed hardware gains control over the actuator and prevents any physical damage on the operating devices. Two sample experiments are reported in which, results of implementing the proposed solution are reported and assessed. Results show that once the PLC sends incorrect data to actuator, the proposed hardware detects it as an anomaly. Therefore, it does not allow the PLC to send incorrect and unauthorized data pattern to its actuator. Significance of the paper is in introducing a solution to prevent destruction of physical devices apart from source or purpose of the encountered anomaly and apart from CPS functionality or PLC model and operation.

Bhattacharjee, Shameek, Thakur, Aditya, Das, Sajal K..  2018.  Towards Fast and Semi-supervised Identification of Smart Meters Launching Data Falsification Attacks. Proceedings of the 2018 on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :173–185.

Compromised smart meters sending false power consumption data in Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) may have drastic consequences on the smart grid»s operation. Most existing defense models only deal with electricity theft from individual customers (isolated attacks) using supervised classification techniques that do not offer scalable or real time solutions. Furthermore, the cyber and interconnected nature of AMIs can also be exploited by organized adversaries who have the ability to orchestrate simultaneous data falsification attacks after compromising several meters, and also have more complex goals than just electricity theft. In this paper, we first propose a real time semi-supervised anomaly based consensus correction technique that detects the presence and type of smart meter data falsification, and then performs a consensus correction accordingly. Subsequently, we propose a semi-supervised consensus based trust scoring model, that is able to identify the smart meters injecting false data. The main contribution of the proposed approach is to provide a practical framework for compromised smart meter identification that (i) is not supervised (ii) enables quick identification (iii) scales classification error rates better for larger sized AMIs; (iv) counters threats from both isolated and orchestrated attacks; and (v) simultaneously works for a variety of data falsification types. Extensive experimental validation using two real datasets from USA and Ireland, demonstrates the ability of our proposed method to identify compromised meters in near real time across different datasets.

Kwon, Y., Kim, H. K., Koumadi, K. M., Lim, Y. H., Lim, J. I..  2017.  Automated Vulnerability Analysis Technique for Smart Grid Infrastructure. 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT). :1–5.

A smart grid is a fully automated power electricity network, which operates, protects and controls all its physical environments of power electricity infrastructure being able to supply energy in an efficient and reliable way. As the importance of cyber-physical system (CPS) security is growing, various vulnerability analysis methodologies for general systems have been suggested, whereas there has been few practical research targeting the smart grid infrastructure. In this paper, we highlight the significance of security vulnerability analysis in the smart grid environment. Then we introduce various automated vulnerability analysis techniques from executable files. In our approach, we propose a novel binary-based vulnerability discovery method for AMI and EV charging system to automatically extract security-related features from the embedded software. Finally, we present the test result of vulnerability discovery applied for AMI and EV charging system in Korean smart grid environment.

Jin, X., Haddad, W. M., Hayakawa, T..  2017.  An Adaptive Control Architecture for Cyber-Physical System Security in the Face of Sensor and Actuator Attacks and Exogenous Stochastic Disturbances. 2017 IEEE 56th Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :1380–1385.

In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive control architecture for addressing security and safety in cyber-physical systems subject to exogenous disturbances. Specifically, we develop an adaptive controller for time-invariant, state-dependent adversarial sensor and actuator attacks in the face of stochastic exogenous disturbances. We show that the proposed controller guarantees uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop dynamical system in a mean-square sense. We further discuss the practicality of the proposed approach and provide a numerical example involving the lateral directional dynamics of an aircraft to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed adaptive control architecture.

Orojloo, H., Azgomi, M. A..  2015.  Evaluating the complexity and impacts of attacks on cyber-physical systems. 2015 CSI Symposium on Real-Time and Embedded Systems and Technologies (RTEST). :1–8.

In this paper, a new method for quantitative evaluation of the security of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) is proposed. The proposed method models the different classes of adversarial attacks against CPSs, including cross-domain attacks, i.e., cyber-to-cyber and cyber-to-physical attacks. It also takes the secondary consequences of attacks on CPSs into consideration. The intrusion process of attackers has been modeled using attack graph and the consequence estimation process of the attack has been investigated using process model. The security attributes and the special parameters involved in the security analysis of CPSs, have been identified and considered. The quantitative evaluation has been done using the probability of attacks, time-to-shutdown of the system and security risks. The validation phase of the proposed model is performed as a case study by applying it to a boiling water power plant and estimating the suitable security measures.

Sabaliauskaite, G., Mathur, A.P..  2014.  Countermeasures to Enhance Cyber-physical System Security and Safety. Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops (COMPSACW), 2014 IEEE 38th International. :13-18.

An application of two Cyber-Physical System (CPS) security countermeasures - Intelligent Checker (IC) and Cross-correlator - for enhancing CPS safety and achieving required CPS safety integrity level is presented. ICs are smart sensors aimed at detecting attacks in CPS and alerting the human operators. Cross-correlator is an anomaly detection technique for detecting deception attacks. We show how ICs could be implemented at three different CPS safety protection layers to maintain CPS in a safe state. In addition, we combine ICs with the cross-correlator technique to assure high probability of failure detection. Performance simulations show that a combination of these two security countermeasures is effective in detecting and mitigating CPS failures, including catastrophic failures.