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Cao, Z., Deng, H., Lu, L., Duan, X..  2014.  An information-theoretic security metric for future wireless communication systems. 2014 XXXIth URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium (URSI GASS). :1–4.
Quantitative analysis of security properties in wireless communication systems is an important issue; it helps us get a comprehensive view of security and can be used to compare the security performance of different systems. This paper analyzes the security of future wireless communication system from an information-theoretic point of view and proposes an overall security metric. We demonstrate that the proposed metric is more reasonable than some existing metrics and it is highly sensitive to some basic parameters and helpful to do fine-grained tuning of security performance.
Xiao, Y., Zhang, N., Lou, W., Hou, Y. T..  2020.  Modeling the Impact of Network Connectivity on Consensus Security of Proof-of-Work Blockchain. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1648—1657.

Blockchain, the technology behind the popular Bitcoin, is considered a "security by design" system as it is meant to create security among a group of distrustful parties yet without a central trusted authority. The security of blockchain relies on the premise of honest-majority, namely, the blockchain system is assumed to be secure as long as the majority of consensus voting power is honest. And in the case of proof-of-work (PoW) blockchain, adversaries cannot control more than 50% of the network's gross computing power. However, this 50% threshold is based on the analysis of computing power only, with implicit and idealistic assumptions on the network and node behavior. Recent researches have alluded that factors such as network connectivity, presence of blockchain forks, and mining strategy could undermine the consensus security assured by the honest-majority, but neither concrete analysis nor quantitative evaluation is provided. In this paper we fill the gap by proposing an analytical model to assess the impact of network connectivity on the consensus security of PoW blockchain under different adversary models. We apply our analytical model to two adversarial scenarios: 1) honest-but-potentially-colluding, 2) selfish mining. For each scenario, we quantify the communication capability of nodes involved in a fork race and estimate the adversary's mining revenue and its impact on security properties of the consensus protocol. Simulation results validated our analysis. Our modeling and analysis provide a paradigm for assessing the security impact of various factors in a distributed consensus system.

Focardi, R., Luccio, F. L..  2020.  Automated Analysis of PUF-based Protocols. 2020 IEEE 33rd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :304—317.

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are a promising technology to secure low-cost devices. A PUF is a function whose values depend on the physical characteristics of the underlying hardware: the same PUF implemented on two identical integrated circuits will return different values. Thus, a PUF can be used as a unique fingerprint identifying one specific physical device among (apparently) identical copies that run the same firmware on the same hardware. PUFs, however, are tricky to implement, and a number of attacks have been reported in the literature, often due to wrong assumptions about the provided security guarantees and/or the attacker model. In this paper, we present the first mechanized symbolic model for PUFs that allows for precisely reasoning about their security with respect to a variegate set of attackers. We consider mutual authentication protocols based on different kinds of PUFs and model attackers that are able to access PUF values stored on servers, abuse the PUF APIs, model the PUF behavior and exploit error correction data to reproduce the PUF values. We prove security properties and we formally specify the capabilities required by the attacker to break them. Our analysis points out various subtleties, and allows for a systematic comparison between different PUF-based protocols. The mechanized models are easily extensible and can be automatically checked with the Tamarin prover.

Qin, Maoyuan, Hu, Wei, Mu, Dejun, Tai, Yu.  2018.  Property Based Formal Security Verification for Hardware Trojan Detection. 2018 IEEE 3rd International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :62—67.

The design of modern computer hardware heavily relies on third-party intellectual property (IP) cores, which may contain malicious hardware Trojans that could be exploited by an adversary to leak secret information or take control of the system. Existing hardware Trojan detection methods either require a golden reference design for comparison or extensive functional testing to identify suspicious signals. In this paper, we propose a new formal verification method to verify the security of hardware designs. The proposed solution formalizes fine grained gate level information flow model for proving security properties of hardware designs in the Coq theorem prover environment. Compare with existing register transfer level (RTL) information flow security models, our model only needs to translate a small number of logic primitives to their formal representations without the need of supporting the rich RTL HDL semantics or dealing with complex conditional branch or loop structures. As a result, a gate level information flow model can be created at much lower complexity while achieving significantly higher precision in modeling the security behavior of hardware designs. We use the AES-T1700 benchmark from Trust-HUB to demonstrate the effectiveness of our solution. Experimental results show that our method can detect and pinpoint the Trojan.

Duan, Huayi, Zheng, Yifeng, Du, Yuefeng, Zhou, Anxin, Wang, Cong, Au, Man Ho.  2019.  Aggregating Crowd Wisdom via Blockchain: A Private, Correct, and Robust Realization. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom. :1—10.

Crowdsensing, driven by the proliferation of sensor-rich mobile devices, has emerged as a promising data sensing and aggregation paradigm. Despite useful, traditional crowdsensing systems typically rely on a centralized third-party platform for data collection and processing, which leads to concerns like single point of failure and lack of operation transparency. Such centralization hinders the wide adoption of crowdsensing by wary participants. We therefore explore an alternative design space of building crowdsensing systems atop the emerging decentralized blockchain technology. While enjoying the benefits brought by the public blockchain, we endeavor to achieve a consolidated set of desirable security properties with a proper choreography of latest techniques and our customized designs. We allow data providers to safely contribute data to the transparent blockchain with the confidentiality guarantee on individual data and differential privacy on the aggregation result. Meanwhile, we ensure the service correctness of data aggregation and sanitization by delicately employing hardware-assisted transparent enclave. Furthermore, we maintain the robustness of our system against faulty data providers that submit invalid data, with a customized zero-knowledge range proof scheme. The experiment results demonstrate the high efficiency of our designs on both mobile client and SGX-enabled server, as well as reasonable on-chain monetary cost of running our task contract on Ethereum.

Kearney, Paul, Asal, Rasool.  2019.  ERAMIS: A Reference Architecture-Based Methodology for IoT Systems. 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services (SERVICES). 2642-939X:366—367.

Opportunities arising from IoT-enabled applications are significant, but market growth is inhibited by concerns over security and complexity. To address these issues, we propose the ERAMIS methodology, which is based on instantiation of a reference architecture that captures common design features, embodies best practice, incorporates good security properties by design, and makes explicit provision for operational security services and processes.

Patsonakis, Christos, Samari, Katerina, Kiayiasy, Aggelos, Roussopoulos, Mema.  2019.  On the Practicality of a Smart Contract PKI. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Decentralized Applications and Infrastructures (DAPPCON). :109–118.
Public key infrastructures (PKIs) are one of the main building blocks for securing communications over the Internet. Currently, PKIs are under the control of centralized authorities, which is problematic as evidenced by numerous incidents where they have been compromised. The distributed, fault tolerant log of transactions provided by blockchains and more recently, smart contract platforms, constitutes a powerful tool for the decentralization of PKIs. To verify the validity of identity records, blockchain-based identity systems store on chain either all identity records, or, a small (or even constant) sized amount of data for verifying identity records stored off chain. However, as most of these systems have never been implemented, there is little information regarding the practical implications of each design's tradeoffs. In this work, we first implement and evaluate the only provably secure, smart contract based PKI of Patsonakis et al. on top of Ethereum. This construction incurs constant-sized storage at the expense of computational complexity. To explore this tradeoff, we propose and implement a second construction which, eliminates the need for trusted setup, preserves the security properties of Patsonakis et al. and, as illustrated through our evaluation, is the only version with constant-sized state that can be deployed on the live chain of Ethereum. Furthermore, we compare these two systems with the simple approach of most prior works, e.g., the Ethereum Name Service, where all identity records are stored on the smart contract's state, to illustrate several shortcomings of Ethereum and its cost model. We propose several modifications for fine tuning the model, which would be useful to be considered for any smart contract platform like Ethereum so that it reaches its full potential to support arbitrary distributed applications.
Nandi, Giann Spilere, Pereira, David, Vigil, Martín, Moraes, Ricardo, Morales, Analúcia Schiaffino, Araújo, Gustavo.  2019.  Security in Wireless Sensor Networks: A formal verification of protocols. 2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN). 1:425—431.

The increase of the digitalization taking place in various industrial domains is leading developers towards the design and implementation of more and more complex networked control systems (NCS) supported by Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). This naturally raises new challenges for the current WSN technology, namely in what concerns improved guarantees of technical aspects such as real-time communications together with safe and secure transmissions. Notably, in what concerns security aspects, several cryptographic protocols have been proposed. Since the design of these protocols is usually error-prone, security breaches can still be exposed and MALICIOUSly exploited unless they are rigorously analyzed and verified. In this paper we formally verify, using ProVerif, three cryptographic protocols used in WSN, regarding the security properties of secrecy and authenticity. The security analysis performed in this paper is more robust than the ones performed in related work. Our contributions involve analyzing protocols that were modeled considering an unbounded number of participants and actions, and also the use of a hierarchical system to classify the authenticity results. Our verification shows that the three analyzed protocols guarantee secrecy, but can only provide authenticity in specific scenarios.

Jiang, Qi, Zhang, Xin, Zhang, Ning, Tian, Youliang, Ma, Xindi, Ma, Jianfeng.  2019.  Two-Factor Authentication Protocol Using Physical Unclonable Function for IoV. 2019 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :195–200.
As an extension of Internet of Things (IoT) in transportation sector, the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) can greatly facilitate vehicle management and route planning. With ever-increasing penetration of IoV, the security and privacy of driving data should be guaranteed. Moreover, since vehicles are often left unattended with minimum human interventions, the onboard sensors are vulnerable to physical attacks. Therefore, the physically secure authentication and key agreement (AKA) protocol is urgently needed for IoV to implement access control and information protection. In this paper, physical unclonable function (PUF) is introduced in the AKA protocol to ensure that the system is secure even if the user devices or sensors are compromised. Specifically, PUF, as a hardware fingerprint generator, eliminates the storage of any secret information in user devices or vehicle sensors. By combining password with PUF, the user device cannot be used by someone else to be successfully authenticated as the user. By resorting to public key cryptography, the proposed protocol can provide anonymity and desynchronization resilience. Finally, the elaborate security analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is free from the influence of known attacks and can achieve expected security properties, and the performance evaluation indicates the efficiency of our protocol.
Abate, Carmine, Blanco, Roberto, Garg, Deepak, Hritcu, Catalin, Patrignani, Marco, Thibault, Jérémy.  2019.  Journey Beyond Full Abstraction: Exploring Robust Property Preservation for Secure Compilation. 2019 IEEE 32nd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :256–25615.
Good programming languages provide helpful abstractions for writing secure code, but the security properties of the source language are generally not preserved when compiling a program and linking it with adversarial code in a low-level target language (e.g., a library or a legacy application). Linked target code that is compromised or malicious may, for instance, read and write the compiled program's data and code, jump to arbitrary memory locations, or smash the stack, blatantly violating any source-level abstraction. By contrast, a fully abstract compilation chain protects source-level abstractions all the way down, ensuring that linked adversarial target code cannot observe more about the compiled program than what some linked source code could about the source program. However, while research in this area has so far focused on preserving observational equivalence, as needed for achieving full abstraction, there is a much larger space of security properties one can choose to preserve against linked adversarial code. And the precise class of security properties one chooses crucially impacts not only the supported security goals and the strength of the attacker model, but also the kind of protections a secure compilation chain has to introduce. We are the first to thoroughly explore a large space of formal secure compilation criteria based on robust property preservation, i.e., the preservation of properties satisfied against arbitrary adversarial contexts. We study robustly preserving various classes of trace properties such as safety, of hyperproperties such as noninterference, and of relational hyperproperties such as trace equivalence. This leads to many new secure compilation criteria, some of which are easier to practically achieve and prove than full abstraction, and some of which provide strictly stronger security guarantees. For each of the studied criteria we propose an equivalent “property-free” characterization that clarifies which proof techniques apply. For relational properties and hyperproperties, which relate the behaviors of multiple programs, our formal definitions of the property classes themselves are novel. We order our criteria by their relative strength and show several collapses and separation results. Finally, we adapt existing proof techniques to show that even the strongest of our secure compilation criteria, the robust preservation of all relational hyperproperties, is achievable for a simple translation from a statically typed to a dynamically typed language.
Simon, Laurent, Chisnall, David, Anderson, Ross.  2018.  What You Get is What You C: Controlling Side Effects in Mainstream C Compilers. 2018 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :1–15.
Security engineers have been fighting with C compilers for years. A careful programmer would test for null pointer dereferencing or division by zero; but the compiler would fail to understand, and optimize the test away. Modern compilers now have dedicated options to mitigate this. But when a programmer tries to control side effects of code, such as to make a cryptographic algorithm execute in constant time, the problem remains. Programmers devise complex tricks to obscure their intentions, but compiler writers find ever smarter ways to optimize code. A compiler upgrade can suddenly and without warning open a timing channel in previously secure code. This arms race is pointless and has to stop. We argue that we must stop fighting the compiler, and instead make it our ally. As a starting point, we analyze the ways in which compiler optimization breaks implicit properties of crypto code; and add guarantees for two of these properties in Clang/LLVM. Our work explores what is actually involved in controlling side effects on modern CPUs with a standard toolchain. Similar techniques can and should be applied to other security properties; achieving intentions by compiler commands or annotations makes them explicit, so we can reason about them. It is already understood that explicitness is essential for cryptographic protocol security and for compiler performance; it is essential for language security too. We therefore argue that this should be only the first step in a sustained engineering effort.
Dreier, Jannik, Hirschi, Lucca, Radomirovic, Sasa, Sasse, Ralf.  2018.  Automated Unbounded Verification of Stateful Cryptographic Protocols with Exclusive OR. 2018 IEEE 31st Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :359-373.

Exclusive-or (XOR) operations are common in cryptographic protocols, in particular in RFID protocols and electronic payment protocols. Although there are numerous applications, due to the inherent complexity of faithful models of XOR, there is only limited tool support for the verification of cryptographic protocols using XOR. The Tamarin prover is a state-of-the-art verification tool for cryptographic protocols in the symbolic model. In this paper, we improve the underlying theory and the tool to deal with an equational theory modeling XOR operations. The XOR theory can be freely combined with all equational theories previously supported, including user-defined equational theories. This makes Tamarin the first tool to support simultaneously this large set of equational theories, protocols with global mutable state, an unbounded number of sessions, and complex security properties including observational equivalence. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by analyzing several protocols that rely on XOR, in particular multiple RFID-protocols, where we can identify attacks as well as provide proofs.

Eugster, P., Marson, G. A., Poettering, B..  2018.  A Cryptographic Look at Multi-party Channels. 2018 IEEE 31st Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :31–45.
Cryptographic channels aim to enable authenticated and confidential communication over the Internet. The general understanding seems to be that providing security in the sense of authenticated encryption for every (unidirectional) point-to-point link suffices to achieve this goal. As recently shown (in FSE17/ToSC17), however, the security properties of the unidirectional links do not extend, in general, to the bidirectional channel as a whole. Intuitively, the reason for this is that the increased interaction in bidirectional communication can be exploited by an adversary. The same applies, a fortiori, in a multi-party setting where several users operate concurrently and the communication develops in more directions. In the cryptographic literature, however, the targeted goals for group communication in terms of channel security are still unexplored. Applying the methodology of provable security, we fill this gap by defining exact (game-based) authenticity and confidentiality goals for broadcast communication, and showing how to achieve them. Importantly, our security notions also account for the causal dependencies between exchanged messages, thus naturally extending the bidirectional case where causal relationships are automatically captured by preserving the sending order. On the constructive side we propose a modular and yet efficient protocol that, assuming only point-to-point links between users, leverages (non-cryptographic) broadcast and standard cryptographic primitives to a full-fledged broadcast channel that provably meets the security notions we put forth.
Kulik, T., Tran-Jørgensen, P. W. V., Boudjadar, J., Schultz, C..  2018.  A Framework for Threat-Driven Cyber Security Verification of IoT Systems. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW). :89-97.

Industrial control systems are changing from monolithic to distributed and interconnected architectures, entering the era of industrial IoT. One fundamental issue is that security properties of such distributed control systems are typically only verified empirically, during development and after system deployment. We propose a novel modelling framework for the security verification of distributed industrial control systems, with the goal of moving towards early design stage formal verification. In our framework we model industrial IoT infrastructures, attack patterns, and mitigation strategies for countering attacks. We conduct model checking-based formal analysis of system security through scenario execution, where the analysed system is exposed to attacks and implement mitigation strategies. We study the applicability of our framework for large systems using a scalability analysis.

Shrestha, Roshan, Mehrpouyan, Hoda, Xu, Dianxiang.  2018.  Model Checking of Security Properties in Industrial Control Systems (ICS). Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy. :164-166.

With the increasing inter-connection of operation technology to the IT network, the security threat to the Industrial Control System (ICS) is increasing daily. Therefore, it is critical to utilize formal verification technique such as model checking to mathematically prove the correctness of security and safety requirements in the controller logic before it is deployed on the field. However, model checking requires considerable effort for regular ICS users and control technician to verify properties. This paper, provides a simpler approach to the model checking of temperature process control system by first starting with the control module design without formal verification. Second, identifying possible vulnerabilities in such design. Third, verifying the safety and security properties with a formal method. 

Lyu, C., Pande, A., Zhang, Y., Gu, D., Mohapatra, P..  2018.  FastTrust: Fast and Anonymous Spatial-Temporal Trust for Connected Cars on Expressways. 2018 15th Annual IEEE International Conference on Sensing, Communication, and Networking (SECON). :1–9.

Connected cars have received massive attention in Intelligent Transportation System. Many potential services, especially safety-related ones, rely on spatial-temporal messages periodically broadcast by cars. Without a secure authentication algorithm, malicious cars may send out invalid spatial-temporal messages and then deny creating them. Meanwhile, a lot of private information may be disclosed from these spatial-temporal messages. Since cars move on expressways at high speed, any authentication must be performed in real-time to prevent crashes. In this paper, we propose a Fast and Anonymous Spatial-Temporal Trust (FastTrust) mechanism to ensure these properties. In contrast to most authentication protocols which rely on fixed infrastructures, FastTrust is distributed and mostly designed on symmetric-key cryptography and an entropy-based commitment, and is able to fast authenticate spatial-temporal messages. FastTrust also ensures the anonymity and unlinkability of spatial-temporal messages by developing a pseudonym-varying scheduling scheme on cars. We provide both analytical and simulation evaluations to show that FastTrust achieves the security and privacy properties. FastTrust is low-cost in terms of communication and computational resources, authenticating 20 times faster than existing Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm.

Jung, M. Y., Jang, J. W..  2017.  Data management and searching system and method to provide increased security for IoT platform. 2017 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :873–878.

Existing data management and searching system for Internet of Things uses centralized database. For this reason, security vulnerabilities are found in this system which consists of server such as IP spoofing, single point of failure and Sybil attack. This paper proposes data management system is based on blockchain which ensures security by using ECDSA digital signature and SHA-256 hash function. Location that is indicated as IP address of data owner and data name are transcribed in block which is included in the blockchain. Furthermore, we devise data manegement and searching method through analyzing block hash value. By using security properties of blockchain such as authentication, non-repudiation and data integrity, this system has advantage of security comparing to previous data management and searching system using centralized database or P2P networks.

Silva, M. R., Zeferino, C. A..  2017.  Confidentiality and Authenticity in a Platform Based on Network-on-Chip. 2017 VII Brazilian Symposium on Computing Systems Engineering (SBESC). :225–230.

In many-core systems, the processing elements are interconnected using Networks-on-Chip. An example of on-chip network is SoCIN, a low-cost interconnect architecture whose original design did not take into account security aspects. This network is vulnerable to eavesdropping and spoofing attacks, what limits its use in systems that require security. This work addresses this issue and aims to ensure the security properties of confidentiality and authenticity of SoCIN-based systems. For this, we propose the use of security mechanisms based on symmetric encryption at the network level using the AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) model. A reference multi-core platform was implemented and prototyped in programmable logic aiming at performing experiments to evaluate the implemented mechanisms. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solution in protecting the system against the target attacks. The impact on the network performance is acceptable and the silicon overhead is equivalent to other solutions found in the literature.

Smith, A. M., Mayo, J. R., Kammler, V., Armstrong, R. C., Vorobeychik, Y..  2017.  Using computational game theory to guide verification and security in hardware designs. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :110–115.

Verifying that hardware design implementations adhere to specifications is a time intensive and sometimes intractable problem due to the massive size of the system's state space. Formal methods techniques can be used to prove certain tractable specification properties; however, they are expensive, and often require subject matter experts to develop and solve. Nonetheless, hardware verification is a critical process to ensure security and safety properties are met, and encapsulates problems associated with trust and reliability. For complex designs where coverage of the entire state space is unattainable, prioritizing regions most vulnerable to security or reliability threats would allow efficient allocation of valuable verification resources. Stackelberg security games model interactions between a defender, whose goal is to assign resources to protect a set of targets, and an attacker, who aims to inflict maximum damage on the targets after first observing the defender's strategy. In equilibrium, the defender has an optimal security deployment strategy, given the attacker's best response. We apply this Stackelberg security framework to synthesized hardware implementations using the design's network structure and logic to inform defender valuations and verification costs. The defender's strategy in equilibrium is thus interpreted as a prioritization of the allocation of verification resources in the presence of an adversary. We demonstrate this technique on several open-source synthesized hardware designs.

Patrignani, M., Garg, D..  2017.  Secure Compilation and Hyperproperty Preservation. 2017 IEEE 30th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :392–404.

The area of secure compilation aims to design compilers which produce hardened code that can withstand attacks from low-level co-linked components. So far, there is no formal correctness criterion for secure compilers that comes with a clear understanding of what security properties the criterion actually provides. Ideally, we would like a criterion that, if fulfilled by a compiler, guarantees that large classes of security properties of source language programs continue to hold in the compiled program, even as the compiled program is run against adversaries with low-level attack capabilities. This paper provides such a novel correctness criterion for secure compilers, called trace-preserving compilation (TPC). We show that TPC preserves a large class of security properties, namely all safety hyperproperties. Further, we show that TPC preserves more properties than full abstraction, the de-facto criterion used for secure compilation. Then, we show that several fully abstract compilers described in literature satisfy an additional, common property, which implies that they also satisfy TPC. As an illustration, we prove that a fully abstract compiler from a typed source language to an untyped target language satisfies TPC.

Y. Seifi, S. Suriadi, E. Foo, C. Boyd.  2014.  Security properties analysis in a TPM-based protocol. Int. J. of Security and Networks, 2014 Vol.9, No.2, pp.85 - 103.

Security protocols are designed in order to provide security properties (goals). They achieve their goals using cryptographic primitives such as key agreement or hash functions. Security analysis tools are used in order to verify whether a security protocol achieves its goals or not. The analysed property by specific purpose tools are predefined properties such as secrecy (confidentiality), authentication or non-repudiation. There are security goals that are defined by the user in systems with security requirements. Analysis of these properties is possible with general purpose analysis tools such as coloured petri nets (CPN). This research analyses two security properties that are defined in a protocol that is based on trusted platform module (TPM). The analysed protocol is proposed by Delaune to use TPM capabilities and secrets in order to open only one secret from two submitted secrets to a recipient.

Xu, Shouhuai.  2014.  Emergent Behavior in Cybersecurity. Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security. :13:1–13:2.

We argue that emergent behavior is inherent to cybersecurity.