Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is Uniform resource locators  [Clear All Filters]
2021-07-27
Islam, M., Rahaman, S., Meng, N., Hassanshahi, B., Krishnan, P., Yao, D. D..  2020.  Coding Practices and Recommendations of Spring Security for Enterprise Applications. 2020 IEEE Secure Development (SecDev). :49—57.
Spring security is tremendously popular among practitioners for its ease of use to secure enterprise applications. In this paper, we study the application framework misconfiguration vulnerabilities in the light of Spring security, which is relatively understudied in the existing literature. Towards that goal, we identify 6 types of security anti-patterns and 4 insecure vulnerable defaults by conducting a measurement-based approach on 28 Spring applications. Our analysis shows that security risks associated with the identified security anti-patterns and insecure defaults can leave the enterprise application vulnerable to a wide range of high-risk attacks. To prevent these high-risk attacks, we also provide recommendations for practitioners. Consequently, our study has contributed one update to the official Spring security documentation while other security issues identified in this study are being considered for future major releases by Spring security community.
2021-05-20
Razaque, Abdul, Frej, Mohamed Ben Haj, Sabyrov, Dauren, Shaikhyn, Aidana, Amsaad, Fathi, Oun, Ahmed.  2020.  Detection of Phishing Websites using Machine Learning. 2020 IEEE Cloud Summit. :103—107.

Phishing sends malicious links or attachments through emails that can perform various functions, including capturing the victim's login credentials or account information. These emails harm the victims, cause money loss, and identity theft. In this paper, we contribute to solving the phishing problem by developing an extension for the Google Chrome web browser. In the development of this feature, we used JavaScript PL. To be able to identify and prevent the fishing attack, a combination of Blacklisting and semantic analysis methods was used. Furthermore, a database for phishing sites is generated, and the text, links, images, and other data on-site are analyzed for pattern recognition. Finally, our proposed solution was tested and compared to existing approaches. The results validate that our proposed method is capable of handling the phishing issue substantially.

2021-04-27
Hammoud, O. R., Tarkhanov, I. A..  2020.  Blockchain-based open infrastructure for URL filtering in an Internet browser. 2020 IEEE 14th International Conference on Application of Information and Communication Technologies (AICT). :1—4.
This research is dedicated to the development of a prototype of open infrastructure for users’ internet traffic filtering on a browser level. We described the advantages of a distributed approach in comparison with current centralized solutions. Besides, we suggested a solution to define the optimum size for a URL storage block in Ethereum network. This solution may be used for the development of infrastructure of DApps applications on Ethereum network in future. The efficiency of the suggested approach is supported by several experiments.
Zhou, X..  2020.  Improvement of information System Audit to Deal With Network Information Security. 2020 International Conference on Communications, Information System and Computer Engineering (CISCE). :93–96.
With the rapid development of information technology and the increasing popularity of information and communication technology, the information age has come. Enterprises must adapt to changes in the times, introduce network and computer technologies in a timely manner, and establish more efficient and reasonable information systems and platforms. Large-scale information system construction is inseparable from related audit work, and network security risks have become an important part of information system audit concerns. This paper analyzes the objectives and contents of information system audits under the background of network information security through theoretical analysis, and on this basis, proposes how the IS audit work will be carried out.
2021-03-04
Abedin, N. F., Bawm, R., Sarwar, T., Saifuddin, M., Rahman, M. A., Hossain, S..  2020.  Phishing Attack Detection using Machine Learning Classification Techniques. 2020 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Sustainable Systems (ICISS). :1125—1130.

Phishing attacks are the most common form of attacks that can happen over the internet. This method involves attackers attempting to collect data of a user without his/her consent through emails, URLs, and any other link that leads to a deceptive page where a user is persuaded to commit specific actions that can lead to the successful completion of an attack. These attacks can allow an attacker to collect vital information of the user that can often allow the attacker to impersonate the victim and get things done that only the victim should have been able to do, such as carry out transactions, or message someone else, or simply accessing the victim's data. Many studies have been carried out to discuss possible approaches to prevent such attacks. This research work includes three machine learning algorithms to predict any websites' phishing status. In the experimentation these models are trained using URL based features and attempted to prevent Zero-Day attacks by using proposed software proposal that differentiates the legitimate websites and phishing websites by analyzing the website's URL. From observations, the random forest classifier performed with a precision of 97%, a recall 99%, and F1 Score is 97%. Proposed model is fast and efficient as it only works based on the URL and it does not use other resources for analysis, as was the case for past studies.

2021-03-01
Kerim, A., Genc, B..  2020.  Mobile Games Success and Failure: Mining the Hidden Factors. 2020 7th International Conference on Soft Computing Machine Intelligence (ISCMI). :167–171.
Predicting the success of a mobile game is a prime issue in game industry. Thousands of games are being released each day. However, a few of them succeed while the majority fail. Towards the goal of investigating the potential correlation between the success of a mobile game and its specific attributes, this work was conducted. More than 17 thousands games were considered for that reason. We show that specific game attributes, such as number of IAPs (In-App Purchases), belonging to the puzzle genre, supporting different languages and being produced by a mature developer highly and positively affect the success of the game in the future. Moreover, we show that releasing the game in July and not including any IAPs seems to be highly associated with the game’s failure. Our second main contribution, is the proposal of a novel success score metric that reflects multiple objectives, in contrast to evaluating only revenue, average rating or rating count. We also employ different machine learning models, namely, SVM (Support Vector Machine), RF (Random Forest) and Deep Learning (DL) to predict this success score metric of a mobile game given its attributes. The trained models were able to predict this score, as well as the rating average and rating count of a mobile game with more than 70% accuracy. This prediction can help developers before releasing their game to the market to avoid any potential disappointments.
2021-02-10
Anagandula, K., Zavarsky, P..  2020.  An Analysis of Effectiveness of Black-Box Web Application Scanners in Detection of Stored SQL Injection and Stored XSS Vulnerabilities. 2020 3rd International Conference on Data Intelligence and Security (ICDIS). :40—48.

Black-box web application scanners are used to detect vulnerabilities in the web application without any knowledge of the source code. Recent research had shown their poor performance in detecting stored Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) and stored SQL Injection (SQLI). The detection efficiency of four black-box scanners on two testbeds, Wackopicko and Custom testbed Scanit (obtained from [5]), have been analyzed in this paper. The analysis showed that the scanners need to be improved for better detection of multi-step stored XSS and stored SQLI. This study involves the interaction between the selected scanners and the web application to measure their efficiency of inserting proper attack vectors in appropriate fields. The results of this research paper indicate that there is not much difference in terms of performance between open-source and commercial black-box scanners used in this research. However, it may depend on the policies and trust issues of the companies using them according to their needs. Some of the possible recommendations are provided to improve the detection rate of stored SQLI and stored XSS vulnerabilities in this paper. The study concludes that the state-of-the-art of automated black-box web application scanners in 2020 needs to be improved to detect stored XSS and stored SQLI more effectively.

Banerjee, R., Baksi, A., Singh, N., Bishnu, S. K..  2020.  Detection of XSS in web applications using Machine Learning Classifiers. 2020 4th International Conference on Electronics, Materials Engineering Nano-Technology (IEMENTech). :1—5.
Considering the amount of time we spend on the internet, web pages have evolved over a period of time with rapid progression and momentum. With such advancement, we find ourselves fronting a few hostile ideologies, breaching the security levels of webpages as such. The most hazardous of them all is XSS, known as Cross-Site Scripting, is one of the attacks which frequently occur in website-based applications. Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) attacks happen when malicious data enters a web application through an untrusted source. The spam attacks happen in the form of Wall posts, News feed, Message spam and mostly when a user is open to download content of webpages. This paper investigates the use of machine learning to build classifiers to allow the detection of XSS. Establishing our approach, we target the detection modus operandi of XSS attack via two features: URLs and JavaScript. To predict the level of XSS threat, we will be using four machine learning algorithms (SVM, KNN, Random forest and Logistic Regression). Proposing these classified algorithms, webpages will be branded as malicious or benign. After assessing and calculating the dataset features, we concluded that the Random Forest Classifier performed most accurately with the lowest False Positive Rate of 0.34. This precision will ensure a method much efficient to evaluate threatening XSS for the smooth functioning of the system.
2021-01-15
Korolev, D., Frolov, A., Babalova, I..  2020.  Classification of Websites Based on the Content and Features of Sites in Onion Space. 2020 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :1680—1683.
This paper describes a method for classifying onion sites. According to the results of the research, the most spread model of site in onion space is built. To create such a model, a specially trained neural network is used. The classification of neural network is based on five different categories such as using authentication system, corporate email, readable URL, feedback and type of onion-site. The statistics of the most spread types of websites in Dark Net are given.
2020-12-14
Yu, L., Chen, L., Dong, J., Li, M., Liu, L., Zhao, B., Zhang, C..  2020.  Detecting Malicious Web Requests Using an Enhanced TextCNN. 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :768–777.
This paper proposes an approach that combines a deep learning-based method and a traditional machine learning-based method to efficiently detect malicious requests Web servers received. The first few layers of Convolutional Neural Network for Text Classification (TextCNN) are used to automatically extract powerful semantic features and in the meantime transferable statistical features are defined to boost the detection ability, specifically Web request parameter tampering. The semantic features from TextCNN and transferable statistical features from artificially-designing are grouped together to be fed into Support Vector Machine (SVM), replacing the last layer of TextCNN for classification. To facilitate the understanding of abstract features in form of numerical data in vectors extracted by TextCNN, this paper designs trace-back functions that map max-pooling outputs back to words in Web requests. After investigating the current available datasets for Web attack detection, HTTP Dataset CSIC 2010 is selected to test and verify the proposed approach. Compared with other deep learning models, the experimental results demonstrate that the approach proposed in this paper is competitive with the state-of-the-art.
Habibi, G., Surantha, N..  2020.  XSS Attack Detection With Machine Learning and n-Gram Methods. 2020 International Conference on Information Management and Technology (ICIMTech). :516–520.

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) is an attack most often carried out by attackers to attack a website by inserting malicious scripts into a website. This attack will take the user to a webpage that has been specifically designed to retrieve user sessions and cookies. Nearly 68% of websites are vulnerable to XSS attacks. In this study, the authors conducted a study by evaluating several machine learning methods, namely Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), and Naïve Bayes (NB). The machine learning algorithm is then equipped with the n-gram method to each script feature to improve the detection performance of XSS attacks. The simulation results show that the SVM and n-gram method achieves the highest accuracy with 98%.

2020-12-11
Huang, S., Chuang, T., Huang, S., Ban, T..  2019.  Malicious URL Linkage Analysis and Common Pattern Discovery. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :3172—3179.

Malicious domain names are consistently changing. It is challenging to keep blacklists of malicious domain names up-to-date because of the time lag between its creation and detection. Even if a website is clean itself, it does not necessarily mean that it won't be used as a pivot point to redirect users to malicious destinations. To address this issue, this paper demonstrates how to use linkage analysis and open-source threat intelligence to visualize the relationship of malicious domain names whilst verifying their categories, i.e., drive-by download, unwanted software etc. Featured by a graph-based model that could present the inter-connectivity of malicious domain names in a dynamic fashion, the proposed approach proved to be helpful for revealing the group patterns of different kinds of malicious domain names. When applied to analyze a blacklisted set of URLs in a real enterprise network, it showed better effectiveness than traditional methods and yielded a clearer view of the common patterns in the data.

2020-12-02
Wang, W., Xuan, S., Yang, W., Chen, Y..  2019.  User Credibility Assessment Based on Trust Propagation in Microblog. 2019 Computing, Communications and IoT Applications (ComComAp). :270—275.

Nowadays, Microblog has become an important online social networking platform, and a large number of users share information through Microblog. Many malicious users have released various false news driven by various interests, which seriously affects the availability of Microblog platform. Therefore, the evaluation of Microblog user credibility has become an important research issue. This paper proposes a microblog user credibility evaluation algorithm based on trust propagation. In view of the high consumption and low precision caused by malicious users' attacking algorithms and manual selection of seed sets by establishing false social relationships, this paper proposes two optimization strategies: pruning algorithm based on social activity and similarity and based on The seed node selection algorithm of clustering. The pruning algorithm can trim off the attack edges established by malicious users and normal users. The seed node selection algorithm can efficiently select the highly available seed node set, and finally use the user social relationship graph to perform the two-way propagation trust scoring, so that the low trusted user has a lower trusted score and thus identifies the malicious user. The related experiments verify the effectiveness of the trustworthiness-based user credibility evaluation algorithm in the evaluation of Microblog user credibility.

2020-11-20
Lavrenovs, A., Melón, F. J. R..  2018.  HTTP security headers analysis of top one million websites. 2018 10th International Conference on Cyber Conflict (CyCon). :345—370.
We present research on the security of the most popular websites, ranked according to Alexa's top one million list, based on an HTTP response headers analysis. For each of the domains included in the list, we made four different requests: an HTTP/1.1 request to the domain itself and to its "www" subdomain and two more equivalent HTTPS requests. Redirections were always followed. A detailed discussion of the request process and main outcomes is presented, including X.509 certificate issues and comparison of results with equivalent HTTP/2 requests. The body of the responses was discarded, and the HTTP response header fields were stored in a database. We analysed the prevalence of the most important response headers related to web security aspects. In particular, we took into account Strict- Transport-Security, Content-Security-Policy, X-XSS-Protection, X-Frame-Options, Set-Cookie (for session cookies) and X-Content-Type. We also reviewed the contents of response HTTP headers that potentially could reveal unwanted information, like Server (and related headers), Date and Referrer-Policy. This research offers an up-to-date survey of current prevalence of web security policies implemented through HTTP response headers and concludes that most popular sites tend to implement it noticeably more often than less popular ones. Equally, HTTPS sites seem to be far more eager to implement those policies than HTTP only websites. A comparison with previous works show that web security policies based on HTTP response headers are continuously growing, but still far from satisfactory widespread adoption.
2020-09-28
Akaishi, Sota, Uda, Ryuya.  2019.  Classification of XSS Attacks by Machine Learning with Frequency of Appearance and Co-occurrence. 2019 53rd Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS). :1–6.
Cross site scripting (XSS) attack is one of the attacks on the web. It brings session hijack with HTTP cookies, information collection with fake HTML input form and phishing with dummy sites. As a countermeasure of XSS attack, machine learning has attracted a lot of attention. There are existing researches in which SVM, Random Forest and SCW are used for the detection of the attack. However, in the researches, there are problems that the size of data set is too small or unbalanced, and that preprocessing method for vectorization of strings causes misclassification. The highest accuracy of the classification was 98% in existing researches. Therefore, in this paper, we improved the preprocessing method for vectorization by using word2vec to find the frequency of appearance and co-occurrence of the words in XSS attack scripts. Moreover, we also used a large data set to decrease the deviation of the data. Furthermore, we evaluated the classification results with two procedures. One is an inappropriate procedure which some researchers tend to select by mistake. The other is an appropriate procedure which can be applied to an attack detection filter in the real environment.
2020-09-14
Ortiz Garcés, Ivan, Cazares, Maria Fernada, Andrade, Roberto Omar.  2019.  Detection of Phishing Attacks with Machine Learning Techniques in Cognitive Security Architecture. 2019 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :366–370.
The number of phishing attacks has increased in Latin America, exceeding the operational skills of cybersecurity analysts. The cognitive security application proposes the use of bigdata, machine learning, and data analytics to improve response times in attack detection. This paper presents an investigation about the analysis of anomalous behavior related with phishing web attacks and how machine learning techniques can be an option to face the problem. This analysis is made with the use of an contaminated data sets, and python tools for developing machine learning for detect phishing attacks through of the analysis of URLs to determinate if are good or bad URLs in base of specific characteristics of the URLs, with the goal of provide realtime information for take proactive decisions that minimize the impact of an attack.
2020-09-04
Velan, Petr, Husák, Martin, Tovarňák, Daniel.  2018.  Rapid prototyping of flow-based detection methods using complex event processing. NOMS 2018 - 2018 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. :1—3.
Detection of network attacks is the first step to network security. Many different methods for attack detection were proposed in the past. However, descriptions of these methods are often not complete and it is difficult to verify that the actual implementation matches the description. In this demo paper, we propose to use Complex Event Processing (CEP) for developing detection methods based on network flows. By writing the detection methods in an Event Processing Language (EPL), we can address the above-mentioned problems. The SQL-like syntax of most EPLs is easily readable so the detection method is self-documented. Moreover, it is directly executable in the CEP system, which eliminates inconsistencies between documentation and implementation. The demo will show a running example of a multi-stage HTTP brute force attack detection using Esper and its EPL.
2020-07-13
Paschalides, Demetris, Christodoulou, Chrysovalantis, Andreou, Rafael, Pallis, George, Dikaiakos, Marios D., Kornilakis, Alexandros, Markatos, Evangelos.  2019.  Check-It: A plugin for Detecting and Reducing the Spread of Fake News and Misinformation on the Web. 2019 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI). :298–302.
Over the past few years, we have been witnessing the rise of misinformation on the Internet. People fall victims of fake news continuously, and contribute to their propagation knowingly or inadvertently. Many recent efforts seek to reduce the damage caused by fake news by identifying them automatically with artificial intelligence techniques, using signals from domain flag-lists, online social networks, etc. In this work, we present Check-It, a system that combines a variety of signals into a pipeline for fake news identification. Check-It is developed as a web browser plugin with the objective of efficient and timely fake news detection, while respecting user privacy. In this paper, we present the design, implementation and performance evaluation of Check-It. Experimental results show that it outperforms state-of-the-art methods on commonly-used datasets.
2020-05-18
Peng, Tianrui, Harris, Ian, Sawa, Yuki.  2018.  Detecting Phishing Attacks Using Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning. 2018 IEEE 12th International Conference on Semantic Computing (ICSC). :300–301.
Phishing attacks are one of the most common and least defended security threats today. We present an approach which uses natural language processing techniques to analyze text and detect inappropriate statements which are indicative of phishing attacks. Our approach is novel compared to previous work because it focuses on the natural language text contained in the attack, performing semantic analysis of the text to detect malicious intent. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we have evaluated it using a large benchmark set of phishing emails.
2020-04-10
Wang, Cheng, Liu, Xin, Zhou, Xiaokang, Zhou, Rui, Lv, Dong, lv, Qingquan, Wang, Mingsong, Zhou, Qingguo.  2019.  FalconEye: A High-Performance Distributed Security Scanning System. 2019 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :282—288.
Web applications, as a conventional platform for sensitive data and important transactions, are of great significance to human society. But with its open source framework, the existing security vulnerabilities can easily be exploited by malicious users, especially when web developers fail to follow the secure practices. Here we present a distributed scanning system, FalconEye, with great precision and high performance, it will help prevent potential threats to Web applications. Besides, our system is also capable of covering basically all the web vulnerabilities registered in the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE). The FalconEye system is consists of three modules, an input source module, a scanner module and a support platform module. The input module is used to improve the coverage of target server, and other modules make the system capable of generic vulnerabilities scanning. We then experimentally demonstrate this system in some of the most common vulnerabilities test environment. The results proved that the FalconEye system can be a strong contender among the various detection systems in existence today.
Robic-Butez, Pierrick, Win, Thu Yein.  2019.  Detection of Phishing websites using Generative Adversarial Network. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :3216—3221.

Phishing is typically deployed as an attack vector in the initial stages of a hacking endeavour. Due to it low-risk rightreward nature it has seen a widespread adoption, and detecting it has become a challenge in recent times. This paper proposes a novel means of detecting phishing websites using a Generative Adversarial Network. Taking into account the internal structure and external metadata of a website, the proposed approach uses a generator network which generates both legitimate as well as synthetic phishing features to train a discriminator network. The latter then determines if the features are either normal or phishing websites, before improving its detection accuracy based on the classification error. The proposed approach is evaluated using two different phishing datasets and is found to achieve a detection accuracy of up to 94%.

Huang, Yongjie, Qin, Jinghui, Wen, Wushao.  2019.  Phishing URL Detection Via Capsule-Based Neural Network. 2019 IEEE 13th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :22—26.

As a cyber attack which leverages social engineering and other sophisticated techniques to steal sensitive information from users, phishing attack has been a critical threat to cyber security for a long time. Although researchers have proposed lots of countermeasures, phishing criminals figure out circumventions eventually since such countermeasures require substantial manual feature engineering and can not detect newly emerging phishing attacks well enough, which makes developing an efficient and effective phishing detection method an urgent need. In this work, we propose a novel phishing website detection approach by detecting the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) of a website, which is proved to be an effective and efficient detection approach. To be specific, our novel capsule-based neural network mainly includes several parallel branches wherein one convolutional layer extracts shallow features from URLs and the subsequent two capsule layers generate accurate feature representations of URLs from the shallow features and discriminate the legitimacy of URLs. The final output of our approach is obtained by averaging the outputs of all branches. Extensive experiments on a validated dataset collected from the Internet demonstrate that our approach can achieve competitive performance against other state-of-the-art detection methods while maintaining a tolerable time overhead.

Yadollahi, Mohammad Mehdi, Shoeleh, Farzaneh, Serkani, Elham, Madani, Afsaneh, Gharaee, Hossein.  2019.  An Adaptive Machine Learning Based Approach for Phishing Detection Using Hybrid Features. 2019 5th International Conference on Web Research (ICWR). :281—286.

Nowadays, phishing is one of the most usual web threats with regards to the significant growth of the World Wide Web in volume over time. Phishing attackers always use new (zero-day) and sophisticated techniques to deceive online customers. Hence, it is necessary that the anti-phishing system be real-time and fast and also leverages from an intelligent phishing detection solution. Here, we develop a reliable detection system which can adaptively match the changing environment and phishing websites. Our method is an online and feature-rich machine learning technique to discriminate the phishing and legitimate websites. Since the proposed approach extracts different types of discriminative features from URLs and webpages source code, it is an entirely client-side solution and does not require any service from the third-party. The experimental results highlight the robustness and competitiveness of our anti-phishing system to distinguish the phishing and legitimate websites.

Chapla, Happy, Kotak, Riddhi, Joiser, Mittal.  2019.  A Machine Learning Approach for URL Based Web Phishing Using Fuzzy Logic as Classifier. 2019 International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :383—388.

Phishing is the major problem of the internet era. In this era of internet the security of our data in web is gaining an increasing importance. Phishing is one of the most harmful ways to unknowingly access the credential information like username, password or account number from the users. Users are not aware of this type of attack and later they will also become a part of the phishing attacks. It may be the losses of financial found, personal information, reputation of brand name or trust of brand. So the detection of phishing site is necessary. In this paper we design a framework of phishing detection using URL.

2020-03-09
Nathezhtha, T., Sangeetha, D., Vaidehi, V..  2019.  WC-PAD: Web Crawling based Phishing Attack Detection. 2019 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). :1–6.
Phishing is a criminal offense which involves theft of user's sensitive data. The phishing websites target individuals, organizations, the cloud storage hosting sites and government websites. Currently, hardware based approaches for anti-phishing is widely used but due to the cost and operational factors software based approaches are preferred. The existing phishing detection approaches fails to provide solution to problem like zero-day phishing website attacks. To overcome these issues and precisely detect phishing occurrence a three phase attack detection named as Web Crawler based Phishing Attack Detector(WC-PAD) has been proposed. It takes the web traffics, web content and Uniform Resource Locator(URL) as input features, based on these features classification of phishing and non phishing websites are done. The experimental analysis of the proposed WC-PAD is done with datasets collected from real phishing cases. From the experimental results, it is found that the proposed WC-PAD gives 98.9% accuracy in both phishing and zero-day phishing attack detection.