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2020-07-13
Wu, Xiaoge, Zhang, Lin.  2019.  Chaos-based Information Rotated Polar Coding Scheme for Visible Light Wiretap Channel. 2019 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :864–868.
In this paper, we present a chaos-based information rotated polar coding scheme for enhancing the reliability and security of visible light communication (VLC) systems. In our scheme, we rotate the original information, wherein the rotation principle is determined by two chaotic sequences. Then the rotated information is encoded by secure polar coding scheme. After the channel polarization achieved by the polar coding, we could identify the bit-channels providing good transmission conditions for legitimate users and the bit-channels with bad conditions for eavesdroppers. Simulations are performed over the visible light wiretap channel. The results demonstrate that compared with existing schemes, the proposed scheme can achieve better reliability and security even when the eavesdroppers have better channel conditions.
2020-07-06
Frias, Alex Davila, Yodo, Nita, Yadav, Om Prakash.  2019.  Mixed-Degradation Profiles Assessment of Critical Components in Cyber-Physical Systems. 2019 Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS). :1–6.
This paper presents a general model to assess the mixed-degradation profiles of critical components in a Cyber-Physical System (CPS) based on the reliability of its critical physical and software components. In the proposed assessment, the cyber aspect of a CPS was approached from a software reliability perspective. Although extensive research has been done on physical components degradation and software reliability separately, research for the combined physical-software systems is still scarce. The non-homogeneous Poisson Processes (NHPP) software reliability models are deemed to fit well with the real data and have descriptive and predictive abilities, which could make them appropriate to estimate software components reliability. To show the feasibility of the proposed approach, a case study for mixed-degradation profiles assessment is presented with n physical components and one major software component forming a critical subsystem in CPS. Two physical components were assumed to have different degradation paths with the dependency between them. Series and parallel structures were investigated for physical components. The software component failure data was taken from a wireless network switching center and fitted into a Weibull software reliability model. The case study results revealed that mix-degradation profiles of physical components, combined with software component profile, produced a different CPS reliability profile.
2020-06-19
Chowdhury, Abdullahi, Karmakar, Gour, Kamruzzaman, Joarder.  2019.  Trusted Autonomous Vehicle: Measuring Trust using On-Board Unit Data. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :787—792.

Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) play an essential role in ensuring safe, reliable and faster transportation with the help of an Intelligent Transportation system. The trustworthiness of vehicles in VANETs is extremely important to ensure the authenticity of messages and traffic information transmitted in extremely dynamic topographical conditions where vehicles move at high speed. False or misleading information may cause substantial traffic congestions, road accidents and may even cost lives. Many approaches exist in literature to measure the trustworthiness of GPS data and messages of an Autonomous Vehicle (AV). To the best of our knowledge, they have not considered the trustworthiness of other On-Board Unit (OBU) components of an AV, along with GPS data and transmitted messages, though they have a substantial relevance in overall vehicle trust measurement. In this paper, we introduce a novel model to measure the overall trustworthiness of an AV considering four different OBU components additionally. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated with a traffic simulation model developed by Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) using realistic traffic data and considering different levels of uncertainty.

Demir, Mehmet özgÜn, Alp Topal, Ozan, Dartmann, Guido, Schmeink, Anke, Ascheid, Gerd, Kurt, GüneŞ, Pusane, Ali Emre.  2019.  Using Perfect Codes in Relay Aided Networks: A Security Analysis. 2019 International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob). :1—6.

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are state-of-the-art communication environments that offer various applications with distinct requirements. However, security in CPS is a nonnegotiable concept, since without a proper security mechanism the applications of CPS may risk human lives, the privacy of individuals, and system operations. In this paper, we focus on PHY-layer security approaches in CPS to prevent passive eavesdropping attacks, and we propose an integration of physical layer operations to enhance security. Thanks to the McEliece cryptosystem, error injection is firstly applied to information bits, which are encoded with the forward error correction (FEC) schemes. Golay and Hamming codes are selected as FEC schemes to satisfy power and computational efficiency. Then obtained codewords are transmitted across reliable intermediate relays to the legitimate receiver. As a performance metric, the decoding frame error rate of the eavesdropper is analytically obtained for the fragmentary existence of significant noise between relays and Eve. The simulation results validate the analytical calculations, and the obtained results show that the number of low-quality channels and the selected FEC scheme affects the performance of the proposed model.

2020-06-03
Chopade, Mrunali, Khan, Sana, Shaikh, Uzma, Pawar, Renuka.  2019.  Digital Forensics: Maintaining Chain of Custody Using Blockchain. 2019 Third International conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :744—747.

The fundamental aim of digital forensics is to discover, investigate and protect an evidence, increasing cybercrime enforces digital forensics team to have more accurate evidence handling. This makes digital evidence as an important factor to link individual with criminal activity. In this procedure of forensics investigation, maintaining integrity of the evidence plays an important role. A chain of custody refers to a process of recording and preserving details of digital evidence from collection to presenting in court of law. It becomes a necessary objective to ensure that the evidence provided to the court remains original and authentic without tampering. Aim is to transfer these digital evidences securely using encryption techniques.

2020-05-26
Satav, Pravin R, Jawandhiya, Pradeep M., Thakare, Vilas M..  2018.  Secure Route Selection Mechanism in the Presence of Black Hole Attack with AOMDV Routing Algorithm. 2018 Fourth International Conference on Computing Communication Control and Automation (ICCUBEA). :1–6.
The research in MANET has been carried out for the development of various techniques which will increase the competency of the network only. A plenty number of proposed routing protocols are magnificent in terms of efficiency. However, proposed protocols were generally fulfilling the set of trusted network and not considered for adversarial network setting, hence there is no security mechanism has been considered. MANET is widely used in sensitive fields like battlefield, police rescue operation and many more in such type of sensitive field an attacker may try to gather information about the conversation starting from the origin node to the terminal node. Secure route selection approach for route selection in adverse environment is discussed in this article. The results shows that proposed algorithm, will resolve the single & collaborative attack by increasing the computational & storage overhead and by improving the significant PDR, achieves a noticeable enhancement in the end to end delay.
2020-04-24
Yang, Yi, Xu, Wei, Wang, Sixin, Wei, Kunlun.  2018.  Modeling and Analysis of CPS Availability Based on the Object-oriented Timed Petri Nets. 2018 37th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :6172—6177.

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) is mostly deployed in security-critical applications where their failures can cause serious consequences, and therefore it is critical to evaluate its availability. In this paper, an architecture model of CPS is established from the perspective of object-oriented system. The system is a unified whole formed by various independent objects (including sensors, controllers and actuators) through communication connection. Then the paper presents the Object-oriented Timed Petri Net to model the system. The modeling method can be used to describe the whole system and the characteristics of the object. At the same time, the availability analysis of the system is carried out by using the mathematical analysis method and simulation tool of Petri net. Finally, a concrete case is given to verify the feasibility of the modeling method in CPS availability analysis.

2020-04-17
Wang, Congli, Lin, Jingqiang, Li, Bingyu, Li, Qi, Wang, Qiongxiao, Zhang, Xiaokun.  2019.  Analyzing the Browser Security Warnings on HTTPS Errors. ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1—6.
HTTPS provides authentication, data confidentiality, and integrity for secure web applications in the Internet. In order to establish secure connections with the target website but not a man-in-the-middle or impersonation attacker, a browser shows security warnings to users, when different HTTPS errors happen (e.g., it fails to build a valid certificate chain, or the certificate subject does not match the domain visited). Each browser implements its own design of warnings on HTTPS errors, to balance security and usability. This paper presents a list of common HTTPS errors, and we investigate the browser behaviors on each error. Our study discloses browser defects on handling HTTPS errors in terms of cryptographic algorithm, certificate verification, name validation, HPKP, and HSTS.
2020-04-10
Ebrahimi, Najme, Yektakhah, Behzad, Sarabandi, Kamal, Kim, Hun Seok, Wentzloff, David, Blaauw, David.  2019.  A Novel Physical Layer Security Technique Using Master-Slave Full Duplex Communication. 2019 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS). :1096—1099.
In this work we present a novel technique for physical layer security in the Internet-of-Things (IoT) networks. In the proposed architecture, each IoT node generates a phase-modulated random key/data and transmits it to a master node in the presence of an eavesdropper, referred to as Eve. The master node, simultaneously, broadcasts a high power signal using an omni-directional antenna, which is received as interference by Eve. This interference masks the generated key by the IoT node and will result in a higher bit-error rate in the data received by Eve. The two legitimate intended nodes communicate in a full-duplex manner and, consequently, subtract their transmitted signals, as a known reference, from the received signal (self-interference cancellation). We compare our proposed method with a conventional approach to physical layer security based on directional antennas. In particular, we show, using theoretical and measurement results, that our proposed approach provides significantly better security measures, in terms bit error rate (BER) at Eve's location. Also, it is proven that in our novel system, the possible eavesdropping region, defined by the region with BER \textbackslashtextless; 10-1, is always smaller than the reliable communication region with BER \textbackslashtextless; 10-3.
2020-04-06
Frahat, Rzan Tarig, Monowar, Muhammed Mostafa, Buhari, Seyed M.  2019.  Secure and Scalable Trust Management Model for IoT P2P Network. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1–6.
IoT trust management is a security solution that assures the trust between different IoT entities before establishing any relationship with other anonymous devices. Recent researches presented in the literature tend to use a Blockchain-based trust management model for IoT besides the fog node approach in order to address the constraints of IoT resources. Actually, Blockchain has solved many drawbacks of centralized models. However, it is still not preferable for dealing with massive data produced by IoT because of its drawbacks such as delay, network overhead, and scalability issues. Therefore, in this paper we define some factors that should be considered when designing scalable models, and we propose a fully distributed trust management model for IoT that provide a large-scale trust model and address the limitations of Blockchain. We design our model based on a new approach called Holochain considering some security issues, such as detecting misbehaviors, data integrity and availability.
Chin, Paul, Cao, Yuan, Zhao, Xiaojin, Zhang, Leilei, Zhang, Fan.  2019.  Locking Secret Data in the Vault Leveraging Fuzzy PUFs. 2019 Asian Hardware Oriented Security and Trust Symposium (AsianHOST). :1–6.
Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are considered as an attractive low-cost security anchor. The unique features of PUFs are dependent on the Nanoscale variations introduced during the manufacturing variations. Most PUFs exhibit an unreliability problem due to aging and inherent sensitivity to the environmental conditions. As a remedy to the reliability issue, helper data algorithms are used in practice. A helper data algorithm generates and stores the helper data in the enrollment phase in a secure environment. The generated helper data are used then for error correction, which can transform the unique feature of PUFs into a reproducible key. The key can be used to encrypt secret data in the security scheme. In contrast, this work shows that the fuzzy PUFs can be used to secret important data directly by an error-tolerant protocol without the enrollment phase and error-correction algorithm. In our proposal, the secret data is locked in a vault leveraging the unique fuzzy pattern of PUF. Although the noise exists, the data can then be released only by this unique PUF. The evaluation was performed on the most prominent intrinsic PUF - DRAM PUF. The test results demonstrate that our proposal can reach an acceptable reconstruction rate in various environment. Finally, the security analysis of the new proposal is discussed.
Demir, Mehmet özgÜn, Kurty, GÜne Karabulut, Dartmannz, Guido, Ascheidx, Gerd, Pusane, Ali Emre.  2018.  Security Analysis of Forward Error Correction Codes in Relay Aided Networks. 2018 Global Information Infrastructure and Networking Symposium (GIIS). :1–5.

Network security and data confidentiality of transmitted information are among the non-functional requirements of industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) in addition to latency, reliability and energy efficiency requirements. Physical layer security techniques are promising solutions to assist cryptographic methods in the presence of an eavesdropper in IWSN setups. In this paper, we propose a physical layer security scheme, which is based on both insertion of an random error vector to forward error correction (FEC) codewords and transmission over decentralized relay nodes. Reed-Solomon and Golay codes are selected as FEC coding schemes and the security performance of the proposed model is evaluated with the aid of decoding error probability of an eavesdropper. The results show that security level is highly based on the location of the eavesdropper and secure communication can be achieved when some of channels between eavesdropper and relay nodes are significantly noisier.

Martínez-Peñas, Umberto, Kschischang, Frank R..  2018.  Reliable and Secure Multishot Network Coding using Linearized Reed-Solomon Codes. 2018 56th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing (Allerton). :702–709.
Multishot network coding is considered in a worst-case adversarial setting in which an omniscient adversary with unbounded computational resources may inject erroneous packets in up to t links, erase up to ρ packets, and wire-tap up to μ links, all throughout ℓ shots of a (random) linearly-coded network. Assuming no knowledge of the underlying linear network code (in particular, the network topology and underlying linear code may change with time), a coding scheme achieving zero-error communication and perfect secrecy is obtained based on linearized Reed-Solomon codes. The scheme achieves the maximum possible secret message size of ℓn'-2t-ρ-μ packets, where n' is the number of outgoing links at the source, for any packet length m ≥ n' (largest possible range), with only the restriction that ℓ\textbackslashtextless;q (size of the base field). By lifting this construction, coding schemes for non-coherent communication are obtained with information rates close to optimal for practical instances. A Welch-Berlekamp sum-rank decoding algorithm for linearized Reed-Solomon codes is provided, having quadratic complexity in the total length n = ℓn', and which can be adapted to handle not only errors, but also erasures, wire-tap observations and non-coherent communication.
2020-04-03
Fattahi, Jaouhar, Mejri, Mohamed, Pricop, Emil.  2019.  On the Security of Cryptographic Protocols Using the Little Theorem of Witness Functions. 2019 IEEE Canadian Conference of Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE). :1—5.

In this paper, we show how practical the little theorem of witness functions is in detecting security flaws in some categories of cryptographic protocols. We convey a formal analysis of the Needham-Schroeder symmetric-key protocol in the theory of witness functions. We show how it helps to warn about a security vulnerability in a given step of this protocol where the value of security of a sensitive ticket in a sent message unexpectedly decreases compared with its value when received. This vulnerability may be exploited by an intruder to mount a replay attack as described by Denning and Sacco.

2020-03-30
Hu, Zhengbing, Vasiliu, Yevhen, Smirnov, Oleksii, Sydorenko, Viktoriia, Polishchuk, Yuliia.  2019.  Abstract Model of Eavesdropper and Overview on Attacks in Quantum Cryptography Systems. 2019 10th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 1:399–405.
In today's world, it's almost impossible to find a sphere of human life in which information technologies would not be used. On the one hand, it simplifies human life - virtually everyone carries a mini-computer in his pocket and it allows to perform many operations, that took a lot of time, in minutes. In addition, IT has simplified and promptly developed areas such as medicine, banking, document circulation, military, and many other infrastructures of the state. Nevertheless, even today, privacy remains a major problem in many information transactions. One of the most important directions for ensuring the information confidentiality in open communication networks has been and remains its protection by cryptographic methods. Although it is known that traditional cryptography methods give reasons to doubt in their reliability, quantum cryptography has proven itself as a more reliable information security technology. As far is it quite new direction there is no sufficiently complete classification of attacks on quantum cryptography methods, in view of this new extended classification of attacks on quantum protocols and quantum cryptosystems is proposed in this work. Classification takes into account the newest attacks (which use devices loopholes) on quantum key distribution equipment. These attacks have been named \textbackslashtextless; \textbackslashtextless; quantum hacking\textbackslashtextgreater\textbackslashtextgreater. Such classification may be useful for choosing commercially available quantum key distribution system. Also abstract model of eavesdropper in quantum systems was created and it allows to determine a set of various nature measures that need to be further implemented to provide reliable security with the help of specific quantum systems.
Thida, Aye, Shwe, Thanda.  2020.  Process Provenance-based Trust Management in Collaborative Fog Environment. 2020 IEEE Conference on Computer Applications(ICCA). :1–5.
With the increasing popularity and adoption of IoT technology, fog computing has been used as an advancement to cloud computing. Although trust management issues in cloud have been addressed, there are still very few studies in a fog area. Trust is needed for collaborating among fog nodes and trust can further improve the reliability by assisting in selecting the fog nodes to collaborate. To address this issue, we present a provenance based trust mechanism that traces the behavior of the process among fog nodes. Our approach adopts the completion rate and failure rate as the process provenance in trust scores of computing workload, especially obvious measures of trustworthiness. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system can effectively be used for collaboration in a fog environment.
2020-03-18
Offenberger, Spencer, Herman, Geoffrey L., Peterson, Peter, Sherman, Alan T, Golaszewski, Enis, Scheponik, Travis, Oliva, Linda.  2019.  Initial Validation of the Cybersecurity Concept Inventory: Pilot Testing and Expert Review. 2019 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE). :1–9.
We analyze expert review and student performance data to evaluate the validity of the Cybersecurity Concept Inventory (CCI) for assessing student knowledge of core cybersecurity concepts after a first course on the topic. A panel of 12 experts in cybersecurity reviewed the CCI, and 142 students from six different institutions took the CCI as a pilot test. The panel reviewed each item of the CCI and the overwhelming majority rated every item as measuring appropriate cybersecurity knowledge. We administered the CCI to students taking a first cybersecurity course either online or proctored by the course instructor. We applied classical test theory to evaluate the quality of the CCI. This evaluation showed that the CCI is sufficiently reliable for measuring student knowledge of cybersecurity and that the CCI may be too difficult as a whole. We describe the results of the expert review and the pilot test and provide recommendations for the continued improvement of the CCI.
2020-03-16
Ablaev, Farid, Andrianov, Sergey, Soloviev, Aleksey.  2019.  Quantum Electronic Generator of Random Numbers for Information Security in Automatic Control Systems. 2019 International Russian Automation Conference (RusAutoCon). :1–5.

The problems of random numbers application to the information security of data, communication lines, computer units and automated driving systems are considered. The possibilities for making up quantum generators of random numbers and existing solutions for acquiring of sufficiently random sequences are analyzed. The authors found out the method for the creation of quantum generators on the basis of semiconductor electronic components. The electron-quantum generator based on electrons tunneling is experimentally demonstrated. It is shown that it is able to create random sequences of high security level and satisfying known NIST statistical tests (P-Value\textbackslashtextgreater0.9). The generator created can be used for formation of both closed and open cryptographic keys in computer systems and other platforms and has great potential for realization of random walks and probabilistic computing on the basis of neural nets and other IT problems.

Eneh, Joy Nnenna, Onyekachi Orah, Harris, Emeka, Aka Benneth.  2019.  Improving the Reliability and Security of Active Distribution Networks Using SCADA Systems. 2019 IEEE PES/IAS PowerAfrica. :110–115.
The traditional electricity distribution system is rapidly shifting from the passive infrastructure to a more active infrastructure, giving rise to a smart grid. In this project an active electricity distribution network and its components have been studied. A 14-node SCADA-based active distribution network model has been proposed for managing this emerging network infrastructure to ensure reliability and protection of the network The proposed model was developed using matlab /simulink software and the fuzzy logic toolbox. Surge arresters and circuit breakers were modelled and deployed in the network at different locations for protection and isolation of fault conditions. From the reliability analysis of the proposed model, the failure rate and outage hours were reduced due to better response of the system to power fluctuations and fault conditions.
2020-03-12
Zhang, Haibo, Nakamura, Toru, Sakurai, Kouichi.  2019.  Security and Trust Issues on Digital Supply Chain. 2019 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :338–343.

This exploratory investigation aims to discuss current status and challenges, especially in aspect of security and trust problems, of digital supply chain management system with applying some advanced information technologies, such as Internet of Things, cloud computing and blockchain, for improving various system performance and properties, i.e. transparency, visibility, accountability, traceability and reliability. This paper introduces the general histories and definitions, in terms of information science, of the supply chain and relevant technologies which have been applied or are potential to be applied on supply chain with purpose of lowering cost, facilitating its security and convenience. It provides a comprehensive review of current relative research work and industrial cases from several famous companies. It also illustrates requirements or performance of digital supply chain system, security management and trust issues. Finally, this paper concludes several potential or existing security issues and challenges which supply chain management is facing.

2020-03-09
Xie, Yuanpeng, Jiang, Yixin, Liao, Runfa, Wen, Hong, Meng, Jiaxiao, Guo, Xiaobin, Xu, Aidong, Guan, Zewu.  2015.  User Privacy Protection for Cloud Computing Based Smart Grid. 2015 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China - Workshops (CIC/ICCC). :7–11.

The smart grid aims to improve the efficiency, reliability and safety of the electric system via modern communication system, it's necessary to utilize cloud computing to process and store the data. In fact, it's a promising paradigm to integrate smart grid into cloud computing. However, access to cloud computing system also brings data security issues. This paper focuses on the protection of user privacy in smart meter system based on data combination privacy and trusted third party. The paper demonstrates the security issues for smart grid communication system and cloud computing respectively, and illustrates the security issues for the integration. And we introduce data chunk storage and chunk relationship confusion to protect user privacy. We also propose a chunk information list system for inserting and searching data.

Portolan, Michele, Savino, Alessandro, Leveugle, Regis, Di Carlo, Stefano, Bosio, Alberto, Di Natale, Giorgio.  2019.  Alternatives to Fault Injections for Early Safety/Security Evaluations. 2019 IEEE European Test Symposium (ETS). :1–10.
Functional Safety standards like ISO 26262 require a detailed analysis of the dependability of components subjected to perturbations. Radiation testing or even much more abstract RTL fault injection campaigns are costly and complex to set up especially for SoCs and Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) comprising intertwined hardware and software. Moreover, some approaches are only applicable at the very end of the development cycle, making potential iterations difficult when market pressure and cost reduction are paramount. In this tutorial, we present a summary of classical state-of-the-art approaches, then alternative approaches for the dependability analysis that can give an early yet accurate estimation of the safety or security characteristics of HW-SW systems. Designers can rely on these tools to identify issues in their design to be addressed by protection mechanisms, ensuring that system dependability constraints are met with limited risk when subjected later to usual fault injections and to e.g., radiation testing or laser attacks for certification.
2020-03-02
Kharchenko, Vyacheslav, Ponochovniy, Yuriy, Abdulmunem, Al-Sudani Mustafa Qahtan, Shulga, Iryna.  2019.  AvTA Based Assessment of Dependability Considering Recovery After Failures and Attacks on Vulnerabilities. 2019 10th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 2:1036–1040.

The paper describes modification of the ATA (Attack Tree Analysis) technique for assessment of instrumentation and control systems (ICS) dependability (reliability, availability and cyber security) called AvTA (Availability Tree Analysis). The techniques FMEA, FMECA and IMECA applied to carry out preliminary semi-formal and criticality oriented analysis before AvTA based assessment are described. AvTA models combine reliability and cyber security subtrees considering probabilities of ICS recovery in case of hardware (physical) and software (design) failures and attacks on components casing failures. Successful recovery events (SREs) avoid corresponding failures in tree using OR gates if probabilities of SRE for assumed time are more than required. Case for dependability AvTA based assessment (model, availability function and technology of decision-making for choice of component and system parameters) for smart building ICS (Building Automation Systems, BAS) is discussed.

2020-02-26
Diahovchenko, Illia, Kandaperumal, Gowtham, Srivastava, Anurag.  2019.  Distribution Power System Resiliency Improvement Using Distributed Generation and Automated Switching. 2019 IEEE 6th International Conference on Energy Smart Systems (ESS). :126–131.

The contemporary power distribution system is facing an increase in extreme weather events, cybersecurity threats and even physical threats such as terrorism. Therefore there is a growing interest towards resiliency estimation and improvement. In this paper the resiliency enhancement strategy by means of Distributed Energy Resources and Automated Switches is presented. Resiliency scores are calculated using Analytical Hierarchy Process. The developed algorithm was validated on the modified IEEE 123 node system. It provides the most resiliency feasible network that satisfies the primary goal of serving the critical loads.

2020-02-17
Ullah, N., Ali, S. M., Khan, B., Mehmood, C. A., Anwar, S. M., Majid, M., Farid, U., Nawaz, M. A., Ullah, Z..  2019.  Energy Efficiency: Digital Signal Processing Interactions Within Smart Grid. 2019 International Conference on Engineering and Emerging Technologies (ICEET). :1–6.
Smart Grid (SG) is regarded as complex electrical power system due to massive penetration of Renewable Energy Resources and Distribution Generations. The implementation of adjustable speed drives, advance power electronic devices, and electric arc furnaces are incorporated in SG (the transition from conventional power system). Moreover, SG is an advance, automated, controlled, efficient, digital, and intelligent system that ensures pertinent benefits, such as: (a) consumer empowerment, (b) advanced communication infrastructure, (c) user-friendly system, and (d) supports bi-directional power flow. Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is key tool for SG deployment and provides key solutions to a vast array of complex SG challenges. This research provides a comprehensive study on DSP interactions within SG. The prominent challenges posed by conventional grid, such as: (a) monitoring and control, (b) Electric Vehicles infrastructure, (c) cyber data injection attack, (d) Demand Response management and (e) cyber data injection attack are thoroughly investigated in this research.