Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-07-08
Khalid, Muhammad, Zhao, Ruiqin, Wang, Xin.  2020.  Node Authentication in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks Using Time-Reversal. Global Oceans 2020: Singapore – U.S. Gulf Coast. :1—4.
Physical layer authentication scheme for node authentication using the time-reversal (TR) process and the location-specific key feature of the channel impulse response (CIR) in an underwater time-varying multipath environment is proposed. TR is a well-known signal focusing technique in signal processing; this focusing effect is used by the database maintaining node to authenticate the sensor node by convolving the estimated CIR from a probe signal with its database of CIRs. Maximum time-reversal resonating strength (MTRRS) is calculated to make an authentication decision. This work considers a static underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) under the “Alice- Bob-Eve” scenario. The performance of the proposed scheme is expressed by the Probability of Detection (PD) and the Probability of False Alarm (PFA).
2021-05-18
Cho, Sunghwan, Chen, Gaojie, Coon, Justin P..  2020.  Enhancing Security in VLC Systems Through Beamforming. GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1–6.
This paper proposes a novel zero-forcing (ZF) beamforming strategy that can simultaneously cope with active and passive eavesdroppers (EDs) in visible light communication systems. A related optimization problem is formulated to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the legitimate user (UE) while suppressing the SNR of active ED to zero and constraining the average SNR of passive EDs. The proposed beamforming directs the transmission along a particular eigenmode related to the null space of the active ED channel and the intensity of the passive ED point process. An inverse free preconditioned Krylov subspace projection method is used to find the eigenmode. The numerical results show that the proposed ZF beamforming scheme yields better performance relative to a traditional ZF beamforming scheme in the sense of increasing the SNR of the UE and reducing the secrecy outage probability.
Sun, Yu, Zhao, Xiang.  2020.  On the Secrecy Performance of Random Mobile User in Visible Light Communication Systems. 2020 12th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN). :172–177.
For most of the current research on physical-layer security in indoor visible light communication (VLC) systems, a static communication environment was mainly considered, where secure communication about static users was investigated. However, much secure problems remain to be settled about mobile users. To improve the secrecy performance of mobile users, a two-dimensional circular optical atto-cell with security protected zone is considered. The proposed VLC systems include a LED transmitter Alice, a mobile user Bob and a passive eavesdropper Eve. A typical random waypoint model (RWP) being assumed, the secrecy outage probability (SOP) and secrecy throughput (ST) have been investigated for mobile users in VLC systems. The theoretical analysis results have been verified through Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results show that the secrecy performance of mobile users in VLC can be improved by enlarging the radius of protected zone, and it also depends on the target secrecy rate and the LEDs' configuration.
Soderi, Simone.  2020.  Enhancing Security in 6G Visible Light Communications. 2020 2nd 6G Wireless Summit (6G SUMMIT). :1–5.
This paper considers improving the confidentiality of the next generation of wireless communications by using the watermark-based blind physical layer security (WBPLSec) in Visible Light Communications (VLCs). Since the growth of wireless applications and service, the demand for a secure and fast data transfer connection requires new technology solutions capable to ensure the best countermeasure against security attacks. VLC is one of the most promising new wireless communication technology, due to the possibility of using environmental artificial lights as data transfer channel in free-space. On the other hand, VLCs are even inherently susceptible to eavesdropping attacks. This work proposes an innovative scheme in which red, green, blue (RGB) light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) and three color-tuned photo-diodes (PDs) are used to secure a VLC by using a jamming receiver in conjunction with the spread spectrum watermarking technique. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first work that deals with physical layer security on VLC by using RGB LEDs.
2021-05-13
Wang, Xiaoyu, Gao, Yuanyuan, Zhang, Guangna, Guo, Mingxi.  2020.  Prediction of Optimal Power Allocation for Enhancing Security-Reliability Tradeoff with the Application of Artificial Neural Networks. 2020 2nd International Conference on Advances in Computer Technology, Information Science and Communications (CTISC). :40–45.
In this paper, we propose a power allocation scheme in order to improve both secure and reliable performance in the wireless two-hop threshold-selection decode-and-forward (DF) relaying networks, which is so crucial to set a threshold value related the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the source signal at relay nodes for perfect decoding. We adapt the maximal-ratio combining (MRC) receiving SNR from the direct and relaying paths both at the destination and at the eavesdropper. Particularly worth mentioning is that the closed expression form of outage probability and intercept probability is driven, which can quantify the security and reliability, respectively. We also make endeavors to utilize a metric to tradeoff the security and the reliability (SRT) and find out the relevance between them in the balanced case. But beyond that, in the pursuit of tradeoff performance, power allocation tends to depend on the threshold value. In other words, it provides a new method optimizing total power to the source and the relay by the threshold value. The results are obtained from analysis, confirmed by simulation, and predicted by artificial neural networks (ANNs), which is trained with back propagation (BP) algorithm, and thus the feasibility of the proposed method is verified.
2021-05-05
Lu, Xinjin, Lei, Jing, Li, Wei.  2020.  A Physical Layer Encryption Algorithm Based on Length-Compatible Polar Codes. 2020 IEEE 92nd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Fall). :1—7.
The code length and rate of length-compatible polar codes can be adaptively adjusted and changed because of the special coding structure. In this paper, we propose a method to construct length-compatible polar codes by employing physical layer encryption technology. The deletion way of frozen bits and generator matrix are random, which makes polar codes more flexible and safe. Simulation analysis shows that the proposed algorithm can not only effectively improve the performance of length-compatible polar codes but also realize the physical layer security encryption of the system.
2021-03-15
Besser, K., Lonnstrom, A., Jorswieck, E. A..  2020.  Neural Network Wiretap Code Design for Multi-Mode Fiber Optical Channels. ICASSP 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :8738–8742.
The design of reliable and secure codes with finite block length is an important requirement for industrial machine type communications. In this work, we develop an autoencoder for the multi-mode fiber wiretap channel taking into account the error performance at the legitimate receiver and the information leakage at potential eavesdroppers. The estimate of the mutual information leakage includes AWGN and fading channels. The code design is tailored to the specific channel setup where the eavesdropper experiences a mode dependent loss. Numerical simulations illustrate the performance and show a Pareto improvement of the proposed scheme compared to the state-of-the-art polar wiretap codes.
2021-02-10
Bendary, A., Koksal, C. E..  2020.  Order-Optimal Scaling of Covert Communication over MIMO AWGN Channels. 2020 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1—9.
Covert communication, i.e., communication with a low probability of detection (LPD), has attracted a huge body of work. Recent studies have concluded that the maximal covert coding rate of the discrete memoryless channels and the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels is diminishing with the blocklength: the maximum information nats that can be transmitted covertly and reliably over such channels is only on the order of the square root of the blocklength. In this paper, we study covert communication over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) AWGN channels. We derive the order-optimal scaling law of the number of covert nats when the maximal covert coding rate of MIMO AWGN channels is diminishing with the blocklength. Furthermore, we provide a comparative discussion for the case in which secrecy and energy undetectability constraints are combined.
2020-12-28
Makarfi, A. U., Rabie, K. M., Kaiwartya, O., Li, X., Kharel, R..  2020.  Physical Layer Security in Vehicular Networks with Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces. 2020 IEEE 91st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Spring). :1—6.

This paper studies the physical layer security (PLS) of a vehicular network employing a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS). RIS technologies are emerging as an important paradigm for the realisation of smart radio environments, where large numbers of small, low-cost and passive elements, reflect the incident signal with an adjustable phase shift without requiring a dedicated energy source. Inspired by the promising potential of RIS-based transmission, we investigate two vehicular network system models: One with vehicle-to-vehicle communication with the source employing a RIS-based access point, and the other model in the form of a vehicular adhoc network (VANET), with a RIS-based relay deployed on a building. Both models assume the presence of an eavesdropper to investigate the average secrecy capacity of the considered systems. Monte-Carlo simulations are provided throughout to validate the results. The results show that performance of the system in terms of the secrecy capacity is affected by the location of the RIS-relay and the number of RIS cells. The effect of other system parameters such as source power and eavesdropper distances are also studied.

2020-11-20
Dung, L. T., Tran, H. T. K., Hoa, N. T. T., Choi, S..  2019.  Analysis of Local Secure Connectivity of Legitimate User in Stochastic Wireless Networks. 2019 3rd International Conference on Recent Advances in Signal Processing, Telecommunications Computing (SigTelCom). :155—159.
In this paper, we investigate the local secure connectivity in terms of the probability of existing a secure wireless connection between two legitimate users and the isolated security probability of a legitimate user in stochastic wireless networks. Specifically, the closed-form expressions of the probability that there is a secure wireless communication between two legitimate users are derived first. Then, based on these equations, the corresponding isolated secure probability are given. The characteristics of local secure connectivity are examined in four scenarios combined from two wireless channel conditions (deterministic/Rayleigh fading) and two eavesdropper configurations (non-colluding/colluding). All the derived mathematical equations are validated by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The obtained numerical results in this paper reveal some interesting features of the impact of eavesdropper collusion, wireless channel fading, and density ratio on the secure connection probability and the isolated security probability of legitimate user in stochastic networks.
2020-09-18
Simpson, Oluyomi, Sun, Yichuang.  2019.  A Stochastic based Physical Layer Security in Cognitive Radio Networks: Cognitive Relay to Fusion Center. 2019 IEEE 38th International Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC). :1—7.
Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) are found to be, without difficulty wide-open to external malicious threats. Secure communication is an important prerequisite for forthcoming fifth-generation (5G) systems, and CRs are not exempt. A framework for developing the accomplishable benefits of physical layer security (PLS) in an amplify-and-forward cooperative spectrum sensing (AF-CSS) in a cognitive radio network (CRN) using a stochastic geometry is proposed. In the CRN the spectrum sensing data from secondary users (SU) are collected by a fusion center (FC) with the assistance of access points (AP) as cognitive relays, and when malicious eavesdropping SU are listening. In this paper we focus on the secure transmission of active APs relaying their spectrum sensing data to the FC. Closed expressions for the average secrecy rate are presented. Analytical formulations and results substantiate our analysis and demonstrate that multiple antennas at the APs is capable of improving the security of an AF-CSSCRN. The obtained numerical results also show that increasing the number of FCs, leads to an increase in the secrecy rate between the AP and its correlated FC.
Torabi, Mohammad, Pouri, Alireza Baghaei.  2019.  Physical Layer Security of a Two-Hop Mixed RF-FSO System in a Cognitive Radio Network. 2019 2nd West Asian Colloquium on Optical Wireless Communications (WACOWC). :167—170.
In this paper, the physical layer (PHY)security performance of a dual-hop cooperative relaying in a cognitive-radio system in the presence of an eavesdropper is investigated. The dual-hop transmission is composed of an asymmetric radio frequency (RF)link and a free space optical (FSO)link. In the considered system, an unlicensed secondary user (SU)uses the spectrum which is shared by a licensed primary user (PU)in a controlled manner to keep the interference at PU receiver, below a predefined value. Furthermore, among M available relays, one relay with the best end-to-end signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR)is selected for transmission. It is assumed that all of the RF links follow Rayleigh fading and all of the FSO links follow Gamma-Gamma distribution. Simulations results for some important security metrics, such as the average secrecy capacity (SC), and secrecy outage probability (SOP)are presented, where some practical issues of FSO links such as atmospheric turbulence, and pointing errors are taken into consideration.
Besser, Karl-Ludwig, Janda, Carsten R., Lin, Pin-Hsun, Jorswieck, Eduard A..  2019.  Flexible Design of Finite Blocklength Wiretap Codes by Autoencoders. ICASSP 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :2512—2516.

With an increasing number of wireless devices, the risk of being eavesdropped increases as well. From information theory, it is well known that wiretap codes can asymptotically achieve vanishing decoding error probability at the legitimate receiver while also achieving vanishing leakage to eavesdroppers. However, under finite blocklength, there exists a tradeoff among different parameters of the transmission. In this work, we propose a flexible wiretap code design for Gaussian wiretap channels under finite blocklength by neural network autoencoders. We show that the proposed scheme has higher flexibility in terms of the error rate and leakage tradeoff, compared to the traditional codes.

2020-09-08
Wang, Yufan, Peng, Linning, Fu, Hua, Li, Guyue, Hu, Aiqun.  2019.  Performance Analysis of Concatenated Error Correction Code in Secret Key Generation System. 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT). :270–275.
Secret key generation from wireless channel is an emerging technique of physical layer security. At present, most of the secret key generation schemes use information reconciliation to obtain symmetric keys. This paper introduces a non-interactive information reconciliation scheme based on channel coding and stream encryption, and considering the error correction capability, we design a concatenated code of BCH and RS codes as channel coding. The performance of concatenated error correction code has been analyzed in this scheme. Then, we compare the concatenated code with first-level error correction code in different test environments. Extensive numerical simulations and experiments demonstrate that the decoding performance of this second-level concatenated code is better than the first-level error correction code, and it can also effectively eliminate third-party eavesdropping.
2020-08-10
Li, Wei, Mclernon, Des, Wong, Kai-Kit, Wang, Shilian, Lei, Jing, Zaidi, Syed Ali Raza.  2019.  Asymmetric Physical Layer Encryption for Wireless Communications. IEEE Access. 7:46959–46967.
In this paper, we establish a cryptographic primitive for wireless communications. An asymmetric physical layer encryption (PLE) scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography is proposed. Compared with the conventional symmetric PLE, asymmetric PLE avoids the need of key distribution on a private channel, and it has more tools available for processing complex-domain signals to confuse possible eavesdroppers when compared with upper-layer public key encryption. We use quantized information entropy to measure the constellation confusion degree. The numerical results show that the proposed scheme provides greater confusion to eavesdroppers and yet does not affect the bit error rate (BER) of the intended receiver (the information entropy of the constellation increases to 17.5 for 9-bit quantization length). The scheme also has low latency and complexity [O(N2.37), where N is a fixed block size], which is particularly attractive for implementation.
Liao, Runfa, Wen, Hong, Pan, Fei, Song, Huanhuan, Xu, Aidong, Jiang, Yixin.  2019.  A Novel Physical Layer Authentication Method with Convolutional Neural Network. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Applications (ICAICA). :231–235.
This paper investigates the physical layer (PHY-layer) authentication that exploits channel state information (CSI) to enhance multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system security by detecting spoofing attacks in wireless networks. A multi-user authentication system is proposed using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) which also can distinguish spoofers effectively. In addition, the mini batch scheme is used to train the neural networks and accelerate the training speed. Meanwhile, L1 regularization is adopted to prevent over-fitting and improve the authentication accuracy. The convolutional-neural-network-based (CNN-based) approach can authenticate legitimate users and detect attackers by CSIs with higher performances comparing to traditional hypothesis test based methods.
2020-07-13
Ge, Hong, Dai, Jianxin, Huang, Bo, Wang, Jin-Yuan.  2019.  Secrecy Rate Analysis for Visible Light Communications Using Spatial Modulation. 2019 IEEE 21st International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 17th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 5th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :1241–1248.
This paper mainly investigates the physical layer security for visible light communication (VLC) based on spatial modulation (SM). The indoor VLC system includes multiple transmitters, a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper. In the system, we consider two constraints of the input signal: non-negative and dimmable average optical intensity constraints. According to the principle of information theory and the spatial modulation scheme of uniform selection (US), the upper and the lower bounds on the secrecy rate for SM based VLC are derived, respectively. Numerical results show that the performance gap between the upper and lower bounds of the secrecy rate is small and relatively close, which indicates that the derived secrecy rate bounds can be used to evaluate the system performance. Moreover, when the number of transmitters is set to be one, the spatial modulation disappears, and the secrecy rate bounds in this paper are consistent with the existing results. To further improve the secrecy performance, a channel adaptive selection (CAS) scheme is proposed for selecting the active transmitter. Numerical result indicates that the CAS scheme has better performance than the US scheme.
2020-06-19
Khandani, Amir K., Bateni, E..  2019.  A Practical, Provably Unbreakable Approach to Physical Layer Security. 2019 16th Canadian Workshop on Information Theory (CWIT). :1—6.

This article presents a practical approach for secure key exchange exploiting reciprocity in wireless transmission. The method relies on the reciprocal channel phase to mask points of a Phase Shift Keying (PSK) constellation. Masking is achieved by adding (modulo 2π) the measured reciprocal channel phase to the PSK constellation points carrying some of the key bits. As the channel phase is uniformly distributed in [0, 2π], knowing the sum of the two phases does not disclose any information about any of its two components. To enlarge the key size over a static or slow fading channel, the Radio Frequency (RF) propagation path is perturbed to create independent realizations of multi-path fading. Prior techniques have relied on quantizing the reciprocal channel state measured at the two ends and thereby suffer from information leakage in the process of key consolidation (ensuring the two ends have access to the same key). The proposed method does not suffer from such shortcomings as raw key bits can be equipped with Forward Error Correction (FEC) without affecting the masking (zero information leakage) property. To eavesdrop a phase value shared in this manner, the Eavesdropper (Eve) would require to solve a system of linear equations defined over angles, each equation corresponding to a possible measurement by the Eve. Channel perturbation is performed such that each new channel state creates an independent channel realization for the legitimate nodes, as well as for each of Eves antennas. As a result, regardless of the Eves Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and number of antennas, Eve will always face an under-determined system of equations. On the other hand, trying to solve any such under-determined system of linear equations in terms of an unknown phase will not reveal any useful information about the actual answer, meaning that the distribution of the answer remains uniform in [0, 2π].

2020-06-02
Gong, Shixun, Li, Na, Wu, Huici, Tao, Xiaofeng.  2019.  Cooperative Two-Key Generation in Source-Type Model With Partial-Trusted Helpers. 2019 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :689—694.

This paper investigates the problem of generating two secret keys (SKs) simultaneously over a five-terminal system with terminals labelled as 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Each of terminal 2 and terminal 3 wishes to generate an SK with terminal 1 over a public channel wiretapped by a passive eavesdropper. Terminal 4 and terminal 5 respectively act as a trusted helper and an untrusted helper to assist the SK generation. All the terminals observe correlated source sequences from discrete memoryless sources (DMS) and can exchange information over a public channel with no rate constraint that the eavesdropper has access to. Based on the considered model, key capacity region is fully characterized and a source coding scheme that can achieve the capacity region is provided. Furthermore, expression for key leakage rate is obtained to analyze the security performance of the two generated keys.

2020-04-10
Mucchi, Lorenzo, Nizzi, Francesca, Pecorella, Tommaso, Fantacci, Romano, Esposito, Flavio.  2019.  Benefits of Physical Layer Security to Cryptography: Tradeoff and Applications. 2019 IEEE International Black Sea Conference on Communications and Networking (BlackSeaCom). :1—3.
Physical-layer security (PLS) has raised the attention of the research community in recent years, particularly for Internet of things (IoT) applications. Despite the use of classical cryptography, PLS provides security at physical layer, regardless of the computational power owned by the attacker. The investigations on PLS are numerous in the literature, but one main issue seems to be kept apart: how to measure the benefit that PLS can bring to cryptography? This paper tries to answer this question with an initial performance analysis of PLS in conjunction with typical cryptography of wireless communication protocols. Our results indicate that PLS can help cryptography to harden the attacker job in real operative scenario: PLS can increase the detection errors at the attacker's receiver, leading to inability to recover the cipher key, even if the plaintext is known.
Simpson, Oluyomi, Sun, Yichuang.  2019.  A Stochastic Method to Physical Layer Security of an Amplify-and-Forward Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks: Secondary User to Relay. 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :197—202.
In this paper, a framework for capitalizing on the potential benefits of physical layer security in an amplify-and-forward cooperative spectrum sensing (AF-CSS) in a cognitive radio network (CRN) using a stochastic geometry is proposed. In the CRN network the sensing data from secondary users (SUs) are collected by a fusion center (FC) with the help of access points (AP) as relays, and when malicious eavesdropping secondary users (SUs) are listening. We focus on the secure transmission of active SUs transmitting their sensing data to the AP. Closed expressions for the average secrecy rate are presented. Numerical results corroborate our analysis and show that multiple antennas at the APs can enhance the security of the AF-CSS-CRN. The obtained numerical results show that average secrecy rate between the AP and its correlated FC decreases when the number of AP is increased. Nevertheless, we find that an increase in the number of AP initially increases the overall average secrecy rate, with a perilous value at which the overall average secrecy rate then decreases. While increasing the number of active SUs, there is a decrease in the secrecy rate between the sensor and its correlated AP.
Tan, Yeteng, Pu, Tao, Zheng, Jilin, Zhou, Hua, Su, Guorui, Shi, Haiqin.  2019.  Study on the Effect of System Parameters on Physical-Layer Security of Optical CDMA Systems. 2019 18th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN). :1—3.
Optical CDMA (OCMDA) technology directly encrypts optical transmission links at the physical layer, which can improve the security of communication system against fibre-optic eavesdropping attacks. System parameters will affect the performances of OCDMA systems, based on the wiretap channel model of OCDMA systems, "secrecy capacity" is employed as an indicator to estimate the effects of system parameters (the type of code words, the length of code words) on the security of the systems. Simulation results demonstrate that system parameters play an important role and choosing the code words with better cross-correlation characteristics can improve the security of OCDMA systems.
Hao, Hao, Ying Li, Xin.  2019.  Research on Physical Layer Security of Cooperative Networks Based on Swipt. 2019 International Conference on Smart Grid and Electrical Automation (ICSGEA). :583—586.
In Cooperative Networks based on simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT), relay nodes collect the energy of radio signals received from source node and transmit the information of source nodes to destination nodes, which not only prolongs the service life of energy-constrained nodes, but also improves the ability of long-distance transmission of information. Due to the openness of energy harvesting, there may be eavesdropping users with malicious decoding. In order to study the security performance of the Cooperative Networks based on SWIPT, this paper mainly studies the physical layer security performance of this network, derives and simulates the expression of system security outage probability and throughput. The simulation results show that the system security performance is mainly influenced by time allocation parameter of SWIPT and decreases with the increase of target rate.
Srinu, Sesham, Reddy, M. Kranthi Kumar, Temaneh-Nyah, Clement.  2019.  Physical layer security against cooperative anomaly attack using bivariate data in distributed CRNs. 2019 11th International Conference on Communication Systems Networks (COMSNETS). :410—413.
Wireless communication network (WCN) performance is primarily depends on physical layer security which is critical among all other layers of OSI network model. It is typically prone to anomaly/malicious user's attacks owing to openness of wireless channels. Cognitive radio networking (CRN) is a recently emerged wireless technology that is having numerous security challenges because of its unlicensed access of wireless channels. In CRNs, the security issues occur mainly during spectrum sensing and is more pronounced during distributed spectrum sensing. In recent past, various anomaly effects are modelled and developed detectors by applying advanced statistical techniques. Nevertheless, many of these detectors have been developed based on sensing data of one variable (energy measurement) and degrades their performance drastically when the data is contaminated with multiple anomaly nodes, that attack the network cooperatively. Hence, one has to develop an efficient multiple anomaly detection algorithm to eliminate all possible cooperative attacks. To achieve this, in this work, the impact of anomaly on detection probability is verified beforehand in developing an efficient algorithm using bivariate data to detect possible attacks with mahalanobis distance measure. Result discloses that detection error of cooperative attacks by anomaly has significant impact on eigenvalue-based sensing.
Huang, Weiqing, Zhang, Qiaoyu, Wei, Dong, Li, Huiyan.  2019.  A Secure and Power-Efficient Constellations for Physical Layer Security. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Smart Internet of Things (SmartIoT). :479—483.
With the development of wireless networks, the security of wireless systems is becoming more and more important. In this paper, a novel double layers constellations is proposed to protect the polarization modulation information from being acquired by the eavesdropper. Based on the double layers constellations, a constellations' optimization algorithm for achieving high power-efficiency is proposed. Based on this algorithm, 4,8,16-order double-layer constellations are designed. We use Monte Carlo simulation to test the security performance and symbol error rate performance of this constellations. The results show that the double layers constellations can effectively ensure communication security and the SER performance has superiority over the classic symmetrical constellations.