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Xu, Zheng, Chen, Ming, Chen, Mingzhe, Yang, Zhaohui, Cang, Yihan, Poor, H. Vincent.  2021.  Physical Layer Security Optimization for MIMO Enabled Visible Light Communication Networks. 2021 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM). :1–6.
This paper investigates the optimization of physical layer security in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) enabled visible light communication (VLC) networks. In the considered model, one transmitter equipped with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) intends to send confidential messages to legitimate users while one eavesdropper attempts to eavesdrop on the communication between the transmitter and legitimate users. This security problem is formulated as an optimization problem whose goal is to minimize the sum mean-square-error (MSE) of all legitimate users while meeting the MSE requirement of the eavesdropper thus ensuring the security. To solve this problem, the original optimization problem is first transformed to a convex problem using successive convex approximation. An iterative algorithm with low complexity is proposed to solve this optimization problem. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can reduce the sum MSE of legitimate users by up to 40% compared to a conventional zero forcing scheme.
Qian, Lei, Chi, Xuefen, Zhao, Linlin, Chaaban, Anas.  2021.  Secure Visible Light Communications via Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces. ICC 2021 - IEEE International Conference on Communications. :1–6.
Intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRS) can improve the physical layer security (PLS) by providing a controllable wireless environment. In this paper, we propose a novel PLS technique with the help of IRS implemented by an intelligent mirror array for the visible light communication (VLC) system. First, for the IRS aided VLC system containing an access point (AP), a legitimate user and an eavesdropper, the IRS channel gain and a lower bound of the achievable secrecy rate are derived. Further, to enhance the IRS channel gain of the legitimate user while restricting the IRS channel gain of the eavesdropper, we formulate an achievable secrecy rate maximization problem for the proposed IRS-aided PLS technique to find the optimal orientations of mirrors. Since the sensitivity of mirrors’ orientations on the IRS channel gain makes the optimization problem hard to solve, we transform the original problem into a reflected spot position optimization problem and solve it by a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Our simulation results show that secrecy performance can be significantly improved by adding an IRS in a VLC system.
Pham, Thanh V., Pham, Anh T..  2021.  Energy-Efficient Friendly Jamming for Physical Layer Security in Visible Light Communication. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :1–6.
This work studies an energy-efficient jamming scheme for enhancing physical layer security in visible light communication (VLC). We consider a VLC system where multiple LED luminaries are deployed together with a legitimate user (i.e., Bob) and passive eavesdroppers (i.e., Eves). In such a scenario, the closest LED luminary to Bob serves as the transmitter while the rest of the luminaries act as jammers transmitting artificial noise (AN) to possibly degrade the quality of Eves' channels. A joint design of precoder and AN is then investigated to maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the communication channel to Bob while ensuring a certain amount of AN power to confuse Eves. To solve the design problem, we make use of a combination of the Dinkelbach and convex-concave procedure (CCCP), which guarantees to converge to a local optimum.
Su, Nuğman, Panayirci, Erdal, Koca, Mutlu, Haas, Harald.  2021.  Transmit Precoding for Physical Layer Security of MIMO-NOMA-Based Visible Light Communications. 2021 17th International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS). :1–6.
We consider the physical layer security (PLS) of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) enabled multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) visible light communication systems in the presence of a passive eavesdropper (Eve). In order to disrupt the decoding process at Eve, we propose a novel precoding scheme reinforced with random constellation coding. Multiple legitimate users (Bobs) will be served simultaneously using NOMA. For the proposed precoder design, we exploit the slow-fading characteristics of the visible light channel so that the transmitted symbols are successfully decoded at Bob, while Eve suffers from very high bit error ratios (BERs) due to precoding-induced jamming. Via computer simulations, we show that Bob can successfully decode their own information in various user configurations and receiver diversities. It is also shown that the BER at Eve's side is increased to the 0.5-level for similar and the asymmetrical positioning of Bob with respect to the transmitter, thus PLS is ensured by the proposed preceding technique.
Ben, Yanglin, Chen, Ming, Cao, Binghao, Yang, Zhaohui, Li, Zhiyang, Cang, Yihan, Xu, Zheng.  2021.  On Secrecy Sum-Rate of Artificial-Noise-Aided Multi-user Visible Light Communication Systems. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :1–6.
Recently, the physical layer security (PLS) is becoming an important research area for visible light communication (VLC) systems. In this paper, the secrecy rate performance is investigated for an indoor multi-user visible light communication (VLC) system using artificial noise (AN). In the considered model, all users simultaneously communicate with the legitimate receiver under wiretap channels. The legitimate receiver uses the minimum mean squared error (MMSE) equalizer to detect the received signals. Both lower bound and upper bound of the secrecy rate are obtained for the case that users' signals are uniformly distributed. Simulation results verify the theoretical findings and show the system secrecy rate performance for various positions of illegal eavesdropper.
Liu, Yao, Li, Luyu, Fan, Rong, Ma, Suya, Liu, Xuan, Su, Yishan.  2021.  A Physical Layer Security Mechanism based on Cooperative Jamming in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. 2021 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC Workshops). :239—243.
Due to broadcast nature of acoustic signal, underwater acoustic sensor networks face security challenge. In the paper, we propose a physical layer security transmission scheme with cooperative jamming. The proposed scheme takes advantage of the long propagation delay of the underwater acoustic channel to interfere with eavesdropper without affecting the reception of intended users. The results of both simulation and field experiment show that the proposed mechanism can improve the secrecy capacity of the network and effectively jam eavesdropper.
Zhang, Qian, Rothe, Stefan, Koukourakis, Nektarios, Czarske, Jürgen.  2021.  Multimode Fiber Transmission Matrix Inversion with Densely Connected Convolutional Network for Physical Layer Security. 2021 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO). :1—2.
For exploiting multimode fiber optic communication networks towards physical layer security, we have trained a neural network performing mode decomposition of 10 modes. The approach is based on intensity-only camera images and works in real-time.
Shahzad, Khurram, Zhou, Xiangyun.  2021.  Covert Wireless Communications Under Quasi-Static Fading With Channel Uncertainty. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 16:1104–1116.
Covert communications enable a transmitter to send information reliably in the presence of an adversary, who looks to detect whether the transmission took place or not. We consider covert communications over quasi-static block fading channels, where users suffer from channel uncertainty. We investigate the adversary Willie's optimal detection performance in two extreme cases, i.e., the case of perfect channel state information (CSI) and the case of channel distribution information (CDI) only. It is shown that in the large detection error regime, Willie's detection performances of these two cases are essentially indistinguishable, which implies that the quality of CSI does not help Willie in improving his detection performance. This result enables us to study the covert transmission design without the need to factor in the exact amount of channel uncertainty at Willie. We then obtain the optimal and suboptimal closed-form solution to the covert transmission design. Our result reveals fundamental difference in the design between the case of quasi-static fading channel and the previously studied case of non-fading AWGN channel.
Conference Name: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security
Gürcüo\u glu, O\u guz, Erdem, Mehmet Can, Çirkino\u glu, H. Ozan, Ferhanoglu, Onur, Kurt, Güne\c s Karabulut, Panayırcı, Erdal.  2021.  Improved Physical Layer Security in Visible Light Communications by Using Focused Light Emitters. 2021 29th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU). :1–4.

A conventional visible light communication system consists of a transmitter, a jammer that includes a few light emitting diodes, a legal listener and an eavesdropper. In this work, a similar system is designed with a collimating lens in order to create an extra layer of practical physical security measure. The use of a collimating lens makes it available to spatially limiting data transmission to an area under the lensed transmitter. Also focused data transmission through the optical lens, increases the secrecy rate. To investigate the applicability of the proposed design we designed a sample experimental setup using USRP and implemented in a laboratory environment. In the proposed set up, the receiver is in a fixed position. However, it is possible to implement an easy, practical and cheap hardware solution with respect to a beamforming type VLC that uses directional beam forming method to establish transmission to a dynamic target. In addition, it is achievable to control the size of the area where a receiver can access data by manipulating the distance between the optical lens and transmitter.

Natalino, Carlos, Manso, Carlos, Vilalta, Ricard, Monti, Paolo, Munõz, Raul, Furdek, Marija.  2021.  Scalable Physical Layer Security Components for Microservice-Based Optical SDN Controllers. 2021 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC). :1—4.
We propose and demonstrate a set of microservice-based security components able to perform physical layer security assessment and mitigation in optical networks. Results illustrate the scalability of the attack detection mechanism and the agility in mitigating attacks.
Yu, Panlong, Zhao, Xu, Liu, Qiao, Qiu, Sihai, Wu, Yucheng.  2021.  Resource Allocation Scheme for Secure Transmission in D2D Underlay Communications. 2021 IEEE 21st International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT). :965–970.
Device-to-Device (D2D) communications play a key role in the mobile communication networks. In spite of its benefits, new system architecture expose the D2D communications to unique security threats. Due to D2D users share the same licensed spectrum resources with the cellular users, both the cellular user and D2D receiver can eavesdrop each other's critical information. Thus, to maximize the secrecy rate from the perspective of physical layer security, the letter proposed a optimal power allocation scheme and subsequently to optimization problem of resource allocation is systematically investigated. The efficacy of the proposed scheme is assessed numerically.
Xiong, Jiaqi, Zeng, Xin, Xue, Xiaoping, Ma, Jingxiao.  2021.  An Efficient Group Secret Key Generation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Network. 2021 International Conference on Wireless Communications and Smart Grid (ICWCSG). :302–308.
The Internet of Things technology is one of the important directions of Smart Grid research, involving many wireless sensors and communication facilities, and has high requirements for security. The physical layer security technology can effectively solve the security problems under wireless communication. As the most common application scenario of wireless communication is multi-node wireless network communication, group secret key (GSK) based on physical layer security and information theory security is gradually attracting investigator’s interest. In this paper, a novel physical layer GSK generation scheme based on code-domain exchange of channel information in mesh network is proposed. Instead of traditional side-information exchange in symbol-domain, error-correcting code is applied to finish information exchange and reconciliation simultaneously in code-domain. Each node processes the known channel bit sequence and then encodes it to generate a check sequence. After broadcasting the check bit sequence to other nodes, each node decodes the received check bit sequences to obtained the unknown channel information. The simulation results show that the scheme can effectively reduce the times of information exchanges while keeping a good performance including low bit error rate and low block error rate.
Hu, Lei, Li, Guyue, Luo, Hongyi, Hu, Aiqun.  2021.  On the RIS Manipulating Attack and Its Countermeasures in Physical-Layer Key Generation. 2021 IEEE 94th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2021-Fall). :1–5.
Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface (RIS) is a new paradigm that enables the reconfiguration of the wireless environment. Based on this feature, RIS can be employed to facilitate Physical-layer Key Generation (PKG). However, this technique could also be exploited by the attacker to destroy the key generation process via manipulating the channel features at the legitimate user side. Specifically, this paper proposes a new RIS-assisted Manipulating attack (RISM) that reduces the wireless channel reciprocity by rapidly changing the RIS reflection coefficient in the uplink and downlink channel probing step in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The vulnerability of traditional key generation technology based on channel frequency response (CFR) under this attack is analyzed. Then, we propose a slewing rate detection method based on path separation. The attacked path is removed from the time domain and a flexible quantization method is employed to maximize the Key Generation Rate (KGR). The simulation results show that under RISM attack, when the ratio of the attack path variance to the total path variance is 0.17, the Bit Disagreement Rate (BDR) of the CFR-based method is greater than 0.25, and the KGR is close to zero. In addition, the proposed detection method can successfully detect the attacked path for SNR above 0 dB in the case of 16 rounds of probing and the KGR is 35 bits/channel use at 23.04MHz bandwidth.
Golstein, Sidney, Nguyen, Trung-Hien, Horlin, François, Doncker, Philippe De, Sarrazin, Julien.  2020.  Physical Layer Security in Frequency-Domain Time-Reversal SISO OFDM Communication. 2020 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :222–227.
A frequency domain (FD) time-reversal (TR) pre-coder is proposed to perform physical layer security (PLS) in single-input single-output (SISO) system using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). To maximize the secrecy of the communication, the design of an artificial noise (AN) signal well-suited to the proposed FD TR-based OFDM SISO system is derived. This new scheme guarantees the secrecy of a communication toward a legitimate user when the channel state information (CSI) of a potential eavesdropper is not known. In particular, we derive an AN signal that does not corrupt the data transmission to the legitimate receiver but degrades the decoding performance of the eavesdropper. A closed-form approximation of the AN energy to inject is defined in order to maximize the secrecy rate (SR) of the communication. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the security performance of the proposed secure FD TR SISO OFDM system.
Zhu, Tian, Tong, Fei.  2020.  A Cluster-Based Cooperative Jamming Scheme for Secure Communication in Wireless Sensor Network. 2020 IEEE 92nd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Fall). :1–5.
The environment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) makes the communication not only have the broadcast nature of wireless transmission, but also be limited to the low power and communication capability of sensor equipment. Both of them make it hard to ensure the confidentiality of communication. In this paper, we propose a cluster-based cooperative jamming scheme based on physical layer security for WSNs. The mathematical principle of the scheme is based on the design principle of code division multiple access. By using the orthogonality of orthogonal vectors, the legitimate receiver can effectively eliminate the noise, which is generated by the cooperative jamming nodes to disturb the eavesdropper. This scheme enables the legitimate receiver to ensure a strong communication confidentiality even if there is no location or channel advantage comparing with eavesdroppers. Through extensive simulations, the security performance of the proposed scheme is investigated in terms of secrecy rate.
Zhao, Bing-Qing, Wang, Hui-Ming, Jiang, Jia-Cheng.  2020.  Safeguarding Backscatter RFID Communication against Proactive Eavesdropping. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Passive radio frequency identification (RFID) systems raise new transmission secrecy protection challenges against the special proactive eavesdropper, since it is able to both enhance the information wiretap and interfere with the information detection at the RFID reader simultaneously by broadcasting its own continuous wave (CW) signal. To defend against proactive eavesdropping attacks, we propose an artificial noise (AN) aided secure transmission scheme for the RFID reader, which superimposes an AN signal on the CW signal to confuse the proactive eavesdropper. The power allocation between the AN signal and the CW signal are optimized to maximize the secrecy rate. Furthermore, we model the attack and defense process between the proactive eavesdropper and the RFID reader as a hierarchical security game, and prove it can achieve the equilibrium. Simulation results show the superiority of our proposed scheme in terms of the secrecy rate and the interactions between the RFID reader and the proactive eavesdropper.
Xu, Peng, Hu, Dongyang, Chen, Gaojie.  2020.  Physical-Layer Cooperative Key Generation with Correlated Eavesdropping Channels in IoT. 2020 International Conferences on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData) and IEEE Congress on Cybermatics (Cybermatics). :29—36.
With a massive amount of wireless sensor nodes in Internet of Things (IoT), it is difficult to establish key distribution and management mechanism for traditional encryption technology. Alternatively, the physical layer key generation technology is promising to implement in IoT, since it is based on the principle of information-theoretical security and has the advantage of low complexity. Most existing key generation schemes assume that eavesdropping channels are independent of legitimate channels, which may not be practical especially when eavesdropper nodes are near to legitimate nodes. However, this paper investigates key generation problems for a multi-relay wireless network in IoT, where the correlation between eavesdropping and legitimate channels are considered. Key generation schemes are proposed for both non-colluding and partially colluding eavesdroppers situations. The main idea is to divide the key agreement process into three phases: 1) we first generate a secret key by exploiting the difference between the random channels associated with each relay node and the eavesdropping channels; 2) another key is generated by integrating the residual common randomness associated with each relay pair; 3) the two keys generated in the first two phases are concatenated into the final key. The secrecy key performance of the proposed key generation schemes is also derived with closed-forms.
Tang, Jie, Xu, Aidong, Jiang, Yixin, Zhang, Yunan, Wen, Hong, Zhang, Tengyue.  2020.  Secret Key Attaches in MIMO IoT Communications by Using Self-injection Artificial Noise. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Information Systems (ICAIIS). :225–229.
Internet of Things (IoT) enable information transmission and sharing among massive IoT devices. However, the key establishment and management in IoT become more challenging due to the low latency requirements and resource constrained IoT devices. In this work, we propose a practical physical layer based secret key sharing scheme for MIMO (multiple-input-multiple-output) IoT devices to reduce the communication delay caused by key establishment of MIMO IoT devices. This is because the proposed scheme attachs secret key sharing with communication simultaneously. It is achieved by the proposed MIMO self-injection AN (SAN) tranmsission, which is designed to deliberately maximum the receive SNR (signal to noise ratio) at different antenna of the legitimate IoT device, based on the value of secret key sharing to him. The simulation results verified the validity and security of the proposed scheme.
Jin, Liang, Wang, Xu, Lou, Yangming, Xu, Xiaoming.  2020.  Achieving one-time pad via endogenous secret keys in wireless communication. 2020 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :1092–1097.
The open and broadcast nature of wireless channels makes eavesdropping possible, leading to the inherent problem of information leakage. Inherent problems should be solved by endogenous security functions. Accordingly, wireless security problems should be resolved by channel-based endogenous security mechanisms. Firstly, this paper analyzes the endogenous security principle of the physical-layer-secret-key method. Afterward, we propose a novel conjecture that in a fast-fading environment, there must exist wireless systems where the endogenous secret key rate can match the user data rate. Moreover, the conjecture is well founded by the instantiation validation in a wireless system with BPSK inputs from the perspectives of both theoretical analysis and simulation experiments. These results indicate that it is possible to accomplish the one-time pad via endogenous secret keys in wireless communication.
Khalid, Muhammad, Zhao, Ruiqin, Wang, Xin.  2020.  Node Authentication in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks Using Time-Reversal. Global Oceans 2020: Singapore – U.S. Gulf Coast. :1—4.
Physical layer authentication scheme for node authentication using the time-reversal (TR) process and the location-specific key feature of the channel impulse response (CIR) in an underwater time-varying multipath environment is proposed. TR is a well-known signal focusing technique in signal processing; this focusing effect is used by the database maintaining node to authenticate the sensor node by convolving the estimated CIR from a probe signal with its database of CIRs. Maximum time-reversal resonating strength (MTRRS) is calculated to make an authentication decision. This work considers a static underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) under the “Alice- Bob-Eve” scenario. The performance of the proposed scheme is expressed by the Probability of Detection (PD) and the Probability of False Alarm (PFA).
Cho, Sunghwan, Chen, Gaojie, Coon, Justin P..  2020.  Enhancing Security in VLC Systems Through Beamforming. GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1–6.
This paper proposes a novel zero-forcing (ZF) beamforming strategy that can simultaneously cope with active and passive eavesdroppers (EDs) in visible light communication systems. A related optimization problem is formulated to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the legitimate user (UE) while suppressing the SNR of active ED to zero and constraining the average SNR of passive EDs. The proposed beamforming directs the transmission along a particular eigenmode related to the null space of the active ED channel and the intensity of the passive ED point process. An inverse free preconditioned Krylov subspace projection method is used to find the eigenmode. The numerical results show that the proposed ZF beamforming scheme yields better performance relative to a traditional ZF beamforming scheme in the sense of increasing the SNR of the UE and reducing the secrecy outage probability.
Sun, Yu, Zhao, Xiang.  2020.  On the Secrecy Performance of Random Mobile User in Visible Light Communication Systems. 2020 12th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN). :172–177.
For most of the current research on physical-layer security in indoor visible light communication (VLC) systems, a static communication environment was mainly considered, where secure communication about static users was investigated. However, much secure problems remain to be settled about mobile users. To improve the secrecy performance of mobile users, a two-dimensional circular optical atto-cell with security protected zone is considered. The proposed VLC systems include a LED transmitter Alice, a mobile user Bob and a passive eavesdropper Eve. A typical random waypoint model (RWP) being assumed, the secrecy outage probability (SOP) and secrecy throughput (ST) have been investigated for mobile users in VLC systems. The theoretical analysis results have been verified through Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results show that the secrecy performance of mobile users in VLC can be improved by enlarging the radius of protected zone, and it also depends on the target secrecy rate and the LEDs' configuration.
Soderi, Simone.  2020.  Enhancing Security in 6G Visible Light Communications. 2020 2nd 6G Wireless Summit (6G SUMMIT). :1–5.
This paper considers improving the confidentiality of the next generation of wireless communications by using the watermark-based blind physical layer security (WBPLSec) in Visible Light Communications (VLCs). Since the growth of wireless applications and service, the demand for a secure and fast data transfer connection requires new technology solutions capable to ensure the best countermeasure against security attacks. VLC is one of the most promising new wireless communication technology, due to the possibility of using environmental artificial lights as data transfer channel in free-space. On the other hand, VLCs are even inherently susceptible to eavesdropping attacks. This work proposes an innovative scheme in which red, green, blue (RGB) light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) and three color-tuned photo-diodes (PDs) are used to secure a VLC by using a jamming receiver in conjunction with the spread spectrum watermarking technique. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first work that deals with physical layer security on VLC by using RGB LEDs.
Wang, Xiaoyu, Gao, Yuanyuan, Zhang, Guangna, Guo, Mingxi.  2020.  Prediction of Optimal Power Allocation for Enhancing Security-Reliability Tradeoff with the Application of Artificial Neural Networks. 2020 2nd International Conference on Advances in Computer Technology, Information Science and Communications (CTISC). :40–45.
In this paper, we propose a power allocation scheme in order to improve both secure and reliable performance in the wireless two-hop threshold-selection decode-and-forward (DF) relaying networks, which is so crucial to set a threshold value related the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the source signal at relay nodes for perfect decoding. We adapt the maximal-ratio combining (MRC) receiving SNR from the direct and relaying paths both at the destination and at the eavesdropper. Particularly worth mentioning is that the closed expression form of outage probability and intercept probability is driven, which can quantify the security and reliability, respectively. We also make endeavors to utilize a metric to tradeoff the security and the reliability (SRT) and find out the relevance between them in the balanced case. But beyond that, in the pursuit of tradeoff performance, power allocation tends to depend on the threshold value. In other words, it provides a new method optimizing total power to the source and the relay by the threshold value. The results are obtained from analysis, confirmed by simulation, and predicted by artificial neural networks (ANNs), which is trained with back propagation (BP) algorithm, and thus the feasibility of the proposed method is verified.
Lu, Xinjin, Lei, Jing, Li, Wei.  2020.  A Physical Layer Encryption Algorithm Based on Length-Compatible Polar Codes. 2020 IEEE 92nd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Fall). :1—7.
The code length and rate of length-compatible polar codes can be adaptively adjusted and changed because of the special coding structure. In this paper, we propose a method to construct length-compatible polar codes by employing physical layer encryption technology. The deletion way of frozen bits and generator matrix are random, which makes polar codes more flexible and safe. Simulation analysis shows that the proposed algorithm can not only effectively improve the performance of length-compatible polar codes but also realize the physical layer security encryption of the system.