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Santo, Walter E., de B. Salgueiro, Ricardo J. P., Santos, Reneilson, Souza, Danilo, Ribeiro, Admilson, Moreno, Edward.  2018.  Internet of Things: A Survey on Communication Protocol Security. Proceedings of the Euro American Conference on Telematics and Information Systems. :17:1–17:5.

This paper presents a survey on the main security problems that affect the communication protocols in the context of Internet of Things, in order to identify possible threats and vulnerabilities. The protocols RFID, NFC, 6LoWPAN, 6TiSCH, DTSL, CoAP and MQTT, for a better organization, were explored and categorized in layers according to the TCP / IP reference model. At the end, a summary is presented in tabular form with the security modes used for each protocol is used.

Kebande, V. R., Kigwana, I., Venter, H. S., Karie, N. M., Wario, R. D..  2018.  CVSS Metric-Based Analysis, Classification and Assessment of Computer Network Threats and Vulnerabilities. 2018 International Conference on Advances in Big Data, Computing and Data Communication Systems (icABCD). :1–10.

This paper provides a Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) metric-based technique for classifying and analysing the prevailing Computer Network Security Vulnerabilities and Threats (CNSVT). The problem that is addressed in this paper, is that, at the time of writing this paper, there existed no effective approaches for analysing and classifying CNSVT for purposes of assessments based on CVSS metrics. The authors of this paper have achieved this by generating a CVSS metric-based dynamic Vulnerability Analysis Classification Countermeasure (VACC) criterion that is able to rank vulnerabilities. The CVSS metric-based VACC has allowed the computation of vulnerability Similarity Measure (VSM) using the Hamming and Euclidean distance metric functions. Nevertheless, the CVSS-metric based on VACC also enabled the random measuring of the VSM for a selected number of vulnerabilities based on the [Ma-Ma], [Ma-Mi], [Mi-Ci], [Ma-Ci] ranking score. This is a technique that is aimed at allowing security experts to be able to conduct proper vulnerability detection and assessments across computer-based networks based on the perceived occurrence by checking the probability that given threats will occur or not. The authors have also proposed high-level countermeasures of the vulnerabilities that have been listed. The authors have evaluated the CVSS-metric based VACC and the results are promising. Based on this technique, it is worth noting that these propositions can help in the development of stronger computer and network security tools.

Essa, A., Al-Shoura, T., Nabulsi, A. Al, Al-Ali, A. R., Aloul, F..  2018.  Cyber Physical Sensors System Security: Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Solutions. 2018 2nd International Conference on Smart Grid and Smart Cities (ICSGSC). :62-67.
A Cyber Physical Sensor System (CPSS) consists of a computing platform equipped with wireless access points, sensors, and actuators. In a Cyber Physical System, CPSS constantly collects data from a physical object that is under process and performs local real-time control activities based on the process algorithm. The collected data is then transmitted through the network layer to the enterprise command and control center or to the cloud computing services for further processing and analysis. This paper investigates the CPSS' most common cyber security threats and vulnerabilities and provides countermeasures. Furthermore, the paper addresses how the CPSS are attacked, what are the leading consequences of the attacks, and the possible remedies to prevent them. Detailed case studies are presented to help the readers understand the CPSS threats, vulnerabilities, and possible solutions.
Vyamajala, S., Mohd, T. K., Javaid, A..  2018.  A Real-World Implementation of SQL Injection Attack Using Open Source Tools for Enhanced Cybersecurity Learning. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Electro/Information Technology (EIT). :0198–0202.

SQL injection is well known a method of executing SQL queries and retrieving sensitive information from a website connected database. This process poses a threat to those applications which are poorly coded in the today's world. SQL is considered as one of the top 10 vulnerabilities even in 2018. To keep a track of the vulnerabilities that each of the websites are facing, we employ a tool called Acunetix which allows us to find the vulnerabilities of a specific website. This tool also suggests measures on how to ensure preventive measures. Using this implementation, we discover vulnerabilities in an actual website. Such a real-world implementation would be useful for instructional use in a foundational cybersecurity course.

Nicho, M., Oluwasegun, A., Kamoun, F..  2018.  Identifying Vulnerabilities in APT Attacks: A Simulated Approach. 2018 9th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS). :1–4.
This research aims to identify some vulnerabilities of advanced persistent threat (APT) attacks using multiple simulated attacks in a virtualized environment. Our experimental study shows that while updating the antivirus software and the operating system with the latest patches may help in mitigating APTs, APT threat vectors could still infiltrate the strongest defenses. Accordingly, we highlight some critical areas of security concern that need to be addressed.
Ali, S., Khan, M. A., Ahmad, J., Malik, A. W., ur Rehman, A..  2018.  Detection and Prevention of Black Hole Attacks in IOT Amp;Amp; WSN. 2018 Third International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC). :217–226.
Wireless Sensor Network is the combination of small devices called sensor nodes, gateways and software. These nodes use wireless medium for transmission and are capable to sense and transmit the data to other nodes. Generally, WSN composed of two types of nodes i.e. generic nodes and gateway nodes. Generic nodes having the ability to sense while gateway nodes are used to route that information. IoT now extended to IoET (internet of Everything) to cover all electronics exist around, like a body sensor networks, VANET's, smart grid stations, smartphone, PDA's, autonomous cars, refrigerators and smart toasters that can communicate and share information using existing network technologies. The sensor nodes in WSN have very limited transmission range as well as limited processing speed, storage capacities and low battery power. Despite a wide range of applications using WSN, its resource constrained nature given birth to a number severe security attacks e.g. Selective Forwarding attack, Jamming-attack, Sinkhole attack, Wormhole attack, Sybil attack, hello Flood attacks, Grey Hole, and the most dangerous BlackHole Attacks. Attackers can easily exploit these vulnerabilities to compromise the WSN network.
Keenan, T. P..  2017.  Alice in Blockchains: Surprising Security Pitfalls in PoW and PoS Blockchain Systems. 2017 15th Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST). :400–4002.
If, as most experts agree, the mathematical basis of major blockchain systems is (probably if not provably) sound, why do they have a bad reputation? Human misbehavior (such as failed Bitcoin exchanges) accounts for some of the issues, but there are also deeper and more interesting vulnerabilities here. These include design faults and code-level implementation defects, ecosystem issues (such as wallets), as well as approaches such as the "51% attack" all of which can compromise the integrity of blockchain systems. With particular attention to the emerging non-financial applications of blockchain technology, this paper demonstrates the kinds of attacks that are possible and provides suggestions for minimizing the risks involved.
Jillepalli, A. A., Sheldon, F. T., Leon, D. C. de, Haney, M., Abercrombie, R. K..  2017.  Security management of cyber physical control systems using NIST SP 800-82r2. 2017 13th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :1864–1870.

Cyber-attacks and intrusions in cyber-physical control systems are, currently, difficult to reliably prevent. Knowing a system's vulnerabilities and implementing static mitigations is not enough, since threats are advancing faster than the pace at which static cyber solutions can counteract. Accordingly, the practice of cybersecurity needs to ensure that intrusion and compromise do not result in system or environment damage or loss. In a previous paper [2], we described the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES), which is a stakeholder-aware and economics-based risk assessment method for cybersecurity. CSES allows an analyst to assess a system in terms of estimated loss resulting from security breakdowns. In this paper, we describe two new related contributions: 1) We map the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) method to the evaluation and mitigation steps described by the NIST Guide to Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security, Special Publication 800-82r2. Hence, presenting an economics-based and stakeholder-aware risk evaluation method for the implementation of the NIST-SP-800-82 guide; and 2) We describe the application of this tailored method through the use of a fictitious example of a critical infrastructure system of an electric and gas utility.

Vargas, C., Langfinger, M., Vogel-Heuser, B..  2017.  A Tiered Security Analysis of Industrial Control System Devices. 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN). :399–404.

The discussion of threats and vulnerabilities in Industrial Control Systems has gained popularity during the last decade due to the increase in interest and growing concern to secure these systems. In order to provide an overview of the complete landscape of these threats and vulnerabilities this contribution provides a tiered security analysis of the assets that constitute Industrial Control Systems. The identification of assets is obtained from a generalization of the system's architecture. Additionally, the security analysis is complemented by discussing security countermeasures and solutions that can be used to counteract the vulnerabilities and increase the security of control systems.

Allodi, Luca, Etalle, Sandro.  2017.  Towards Realistic Threat Modeling: Attack Commodification, Irrelevant Vulnerabilities, and Unrealistic Assumptions. Proceedings of the 2017 Workshop on Automated Decision Making for Active Cyber Defense. :23–26.
Current threat models typically consider all possible ways an attacker can penetrate a system and assign probabilities to each path according to some metric (e.g. time-to-compromise). In this paper we discuss how this view hinders the realness of both technical (e.g. attack graphs) and strategic (e.g. game theory) approaches of current threat modeling, and propose to steer away by looking more carefully at attack characteristics and attacker environment. We use a toy threat model for ICS attacks to show how a realistic view of attack instances can emerge from a simple analysis of attack phases and attacker limitations.
Ullah, I., Mahmoud, Q. H..  2017.  A hybrid model for anomaly-based intrusion detection in SCADA networks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :2160–2167.

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems complexity and interconnectivity increase in recent years have exposed the SCADA networks to numerous potential vulnerabilities. Several studies have shown that anomaly-based Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) achieves improved performance to identify unknown or zero-day attacks. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model for anomaly-based intrusion detection in SCADA networks using machine learning approach. In the first part, we present a robust hybrid model for anomaly-based intrusion detection in SCADA networks. Finally, we present a feature selection model for anomaly-based intrusion detection in SCADA networks by removing redundant and irrelevant features. Irrelevant features in the dataset can affect modeling power and reduce predictive accuracy. These models were evaluated using an industrial control system dataset developed at the Distributed Analytics and Security Institute Mississippi State University Starkville, MS, USA. The experimental results show that our proposed model has a key effect in reducing the time and computational complexity and achieved improved accuracy and detection rate. The accuracy of our proposed model was measured as 99.5 % for specific-attack-labeled.

Ran, L., Lu, L., Lin, H., Han, M., Zhao, D., Xiang, J., Yu, H., Ma, X..  2017.  An Experimental Study of Four Methods for Homology Analysis of Firmware Vulnerability. 2017 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Their Applications (DSA). :42–50.

In the production process of embedded device, due to the frequent reuse of third-party libraries or development kits, there are large number of same vulnerabilities that appear in more than one firmware. Homology analysis is often used in detecting this kind of vulnerabilities caused by code reuse or third-party reuse and in the homology analysis, the widely used methods are mainly Binary difference analysis, Normalized compression distance, String feature matching and Fuzz hash. But when we use these methods for homology analysis, we found that the detection result is not ideal and there is a high false positive rate. Focusing on this problem, we analyzed the application scenarios of these four methods and their limitations by combining different methods and different types of files and the experiments show that the combination of methods and files have a better performance in homology analysis.

Ibdah, D., Kanani, M., Lachtar, N., Allan, N., Al-Duwairi, B..  2017.  On the security of SDN-enabled smartgrid systems. 2017 International Conference on Electrical and Computing Technologies and Applications (ICECTA). :1–5.

Software Defined Networks (SDNs) is a new networking paradigm that has gained a lot of attention in recent years especially in implementing data center networks and in providing efficient security solutions. The popularity of SDN and its attractive security features suggest that it can be used in the context of smart grid systems to address many of the vulnerabilities and security problems facing such critical infrastructure systems. This paper studies the impact of different cyber attacks that can target smart grid communication network which is implemented as a software defined network on the operation of the smart grid system in general. In particular, we perform different attack scenarios including DDoS attacks, location highjacking and link overloading against SDN networks of different controller types that include POX, Floodlight and RYU. Our experiments were carried out using the mininet simulator. The experiments show that SDN-enabled smartgrid systems are vulnerable to different types of attacks.

Bhattacharya, S., Kumar, C. R. S..  2017.  Ransomware: The CryptoVirus Subverting Cloud Security. 2017 International Conference on Algorithms, Methodology, Models and Applications in Emerging Technologies (ICAMMAET). :1–6.

Cloud computing presents unlimited prospects for Information Technology (IT) industry and business enterprises alike. Rapid advancement brings a dark underbelly of new vulnerabilities and challenges unfolding with alarming regularity. Although cloud technology provides a ubiquitous environment facilitating business enterprises to conduct business across disparate locations, security effectiveness of this platform interspersed with threats which can bring everything that subscribes to the cloud, to a halt raises questions. However advantages of cloud platforms far outweighs drawbacks and study of new challenges helps overcome drawbacks of this technology. One such emerging security threat is of ransomware attack on the cloud which threatens to hold systems and data on cloud network to ransom with widespread damaging implications. This provides huge scope for IT security specialists to sharpen their skillset to overcome this new challenge. This paper covers the broad cloud architecture, current inherent cloud threat mechanisms, ransomware vulnerabilities posed and suggested methods to mitigate it.

Holm, H., Sommestad, T..  2016.  SVED: Scanning, Vulnerabilities, Exploits and Detection. MILCOM 2016 - 2016 IEEE Military Communications Conference. :976–981.

This paper presents the Scanning, Vulnerabilities, Exploits and Detection tool (SVED). SVED facilitates reliable and repeatable cyber security experiments by providing a means to design, execute and log malicious actions, such as software exploits, as well the alerts provided by intrusion detection systems. Due to its distributed architecture, it is able to support large experiments with thousands of attackers, sensors and targets. SVED is automatically updated with threat intelligence information from various services.

Costin, Andrei.  2016.  Security of CCTV and Video Surveillance Systems: Threats, Vulnerabilities, Attacks, and Mitigations. Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Trustworthy Embedded Devices. :45–54.

Video surveillance, closed-circuit TV and IP-camera systems became virtually omnipresent and indispensable for many organizations, businesses, and users. Their main purpose is to provide physical security, increase safety, and prevent crime. They also became increasingly complex, comprising many communication means, embedded hardware and non-trivial firmware. However, most research to date focused mainly on the privacy aspects of such systems, and did not fully address their issues related to cyber-security in general, and visual layer (i.e., imagery semantics) attacks in particular. In this paper, we conduct a systematic review of existing and novel threats in video surveillance, closed-circuit TV and IP-camera systems based on publicly available data. The insights can then be used to better understand and identify the security and the privacy risks associated with the development, deployment and use of these systems. We study existing and novel threats, along with their existing or possible countermeasures, and summarize this knowledge into a comprehensive table that can be used in a practical way as a security checklist when assessing cyber-security level of existing or new CCTV designs and deployments. We also provide a set of recommendations and mitigations that can help improve the security and privacy levels provided by the hardware, the firmware, the network communications and the operation of video surveillance systems. We hope the findings in this paper will provide a valuable knowledge of the threat landscape that such systems are exposed to, as well as promote further research and widen the scope of this field beyond its current boundaries.

Nagesh, K., Sumathy, R., Devakumar, P., Sathiyamurthy, K..  2016.  A Survey on Denial of Service Attacks and Preclusions. Proceedings of the International Conference on Informatics and Analytics. :118:1–118:10.

Security is concerned with protecting assets. The aspects of security can be applied to any situation- defense, detection and deterrence. Network security plays important role of protecting information, hardware and software on a computer network. Denial of service (DOS) attacks causes great impacts on the internet world. These attacks attempt to disrupt legitimate user's access to services. By exploiting computer's vulnerabilities, attackers easily consume victim's resources. Many special techniques have been developed to protest against DOS attacks. Some organizations constitute several defense mechanism tools to tackle the security problems. This paper has proposed various types of attacks and solutions associated with each layers of OSI model. These attacks and solutions have different impacts on the different environment. Thus the rapid growth of new technologies may constitute still worse impacts of attacks in the future.

Woody, Carol.  2016.  Security Engineering Risk Analysis (SERA). Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Software Engineering Research and Industrial Practice. :23–24.

In this presentation, I describe how the SEI's Security Engineering Risk Analysis (SERA) method provides a structure that connects desired system functionality with the underlying software to evaluate the sufficiency of requirements for software security and the potential operational security risks based on mission impact.

Benjamin, V., Li, W., Holt, T., Chen, H..  2015.  Exploring threats and vulnerabilities in hacker web: Forums, IRC and carding shops. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :85–90.

Cybersecurity is a problem of growing relevance that impacts all facets of society. As a result, many researchers have become interested in studying cybercriminals and online hacker communities in order to develop more effective cyber defenses. In particular, analysis of hacker community contents may reveal existing and emerging threats that pose great risk to individuals, businesses, and government. Thus, we are interested in developing an automated methodology for identifying tangible and verifiable evidence of potential threats within hacker forums, IRC channels, and carding shops. To identify threats, we couple machine learning methodology with information retrieval techniques. Our approach allows us to distill potential threats from the entirety of collected hacker contents. We present several examples of identified threats found through our analysis techniques. Results suggest that hacker communities can be analyzed to aid in cyber threat detection, thus providing promising direction for future work.

Poornachandran, P., Sreeram, R., Krishnan, M. R., Pal, S., Sankar, A. U. P., Ashok, A..  2015.  Internet of Vulnerable Things (IoVT): Detecting Vulnerable SOHO Routers. 2015 International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). :119–123.

There has been a rampant surge in compromise of consumer grade small scale routers in the last couple of years. Attackers are able to manipulate the Domain Name Space (DNS) settings of these devices hence making them capable of initiating different man-in-the-middle attacks. By this study we aim to explore and comprehend the current state of these attacks. Focusing on the Indian Autonomous System Number (ASN) space, we performed scans over 3 months to successfully find vulnerable routers and extracted the DNS information from these vulnerable routers. In this paper we present the methodology followed for scanning, a detailed analysis report of the information we were able to collect and an insight into the current trends in the attack patterns. We conclude by proposing recommendations for mitigating these attacks.

Coelho Martins da Fonseca, J.C., Amorim Vieira, M.P..  2014.  A Practical Experience on the Impact of Plugins in Web Security. Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS), 2014 IEEE 33rd International Symposium on. :21-30.

In an attempt to support customization, many web applications allow the integration of third-party server-side plugins that offer diverse functionality, but also open an additional door for security vulnerabilities. In this paper we study the use of static code analysis tools to detect vulnerabilities in the plugins of the web application. The goal is twofold: 1) to study the effectiveness of static analysis on the detection of web application plugin vulnerabilities, and 2) to understand the potential impact of those plugins in the security of the core web application. We use two static code analyzers to evaluate a large number of plugins for a widely used Content Manage-ment System. Results show that many plugins that are current-ly deployed worldwide have dangerous Cross Site Scripting and SQL Injection vulnerabilities that can be easily exploited, and that even widely used static analysis tools may present disappointing vulnerability coverage and false positive rates.

Rocha, T.S., Souto, E..  2014.  ETSSDetector: A Tool to Automatically Detect Cross-Site Scripting Vulnerabilities. Network Computing and Applications (NCA), 2014 IEEE 13th International Symposium on. :306-309.

The inappropriate use of features intended to improve usability and interactivity of web applications has resulted in the emergence of various threats, including Cross-Site Scripting(XSS) attacks. In this work, we developed ETSS Detector, a generic and modular web vulnerability scanner that automatically analyzes web applications to find XSS vulnerabilities. ETSS Detector is able to identify and analyze all data entry points of the application and generate specific code injection tests for each one. The results shows that the correct filling of the input fields with only valid information ensures a better effectiveness of the tests, increasing the detection rate of XSS attacks.

Subramani, Shweta, Vouk, Mladen, Williams, Laurie.  2014.  An Analysis of Fedora Security Profile. Proceedings of the 2014 Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security. :35:1–35:2.

This paper examines security faults/vulnerabilities reported for Fedora. Results indicate that, at least in some situations, fault roughly constant may be used to guide estimation of residual vulnerabilities in an already released product, as well as possibly guide testing of the next version of the product.