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2022-09-30
Park, Wonhyung, Ahn, GwangHyun.  2021.  A Study on the Next Generation Security Control Model for Cyber Threat Detection in the Internet of Things (IoT) Environment. 2021 21st ACIS International Winter Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD-Winter). :213–217.
Recently, information leakage accidents have been continuously occurring due to cyberattacks, and internal information leakage has also been occurring additionally. In this situation, many hacking accidents and DDoS attacks related to IoT are reported, and cyber threat detection field is expanding. Therefore, in this study, the trend related to the commercialization and generalization of IoT technology and the degree of standardization of IoT have been analyzed. Based on the reality of IoT analyzed through this process, research and analysis on what points are required in IoT security control was conducted, and then IoT security control strategy was presented. In this strategy, the IoT environment was divided into IoT device, IoT network/communication, and IoT service/platform in line with the basic strategic framework of 'Pre-response-accident response-post-response', and the strategic direction of security control was established suitable for each of them.
Kim, Byoungkoo, Yoon, Seungyong, Kang, Yousung.  2021.  PUF-based IoT Device Authentication Scheme on IoT Open Platform. 2021 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :1873–1875.
Recently, it is predicted that interworking between heterogeneous devices will be accelerated due to the openness of the IoT (Internet of Things) platform, but various security threats are also expected to increase. However, most IoT open platforms remain at the level that utilizes existing security technologies. Therefore, a more secure security technology is required to prevent illegal copying and leakage of important data through stealing, theft, and hacking of IoT devices. In addition, a technique capable of ensuring interoperability with existing standard technologies is required. This paper proposes an IoT device authentication method based on PUF (Physical Unclonable Function) that operates on an IoT open platform. By utilizing PUF technology, the proposed method can effectively respond to the threat of exposure of the authentication key of the existing IoT open platform. Above all, the proposed method can contribute to compatibility and interoperability with existing technologies by providing a device authentication method that can be effectively applied to the OCF Iotivity standard specification, which is a representative IoT open platform.
Stojkovski, Borce, Lenzini, Gabriele.  2021.  A workflow and toolchain proposal for analyzing users’ perceptions in cyber threat intelligence sharing platforms. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :324–330.
Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) sharing platforms are valuable tools in cybersecurity. However, despite the fact that effective CTI exchange highly depends on human aspects, cyber behavior in CTI sharing platforms has been notably less investigated by the security research community.Motivated by this research gap, we ground our work in the concrete challenge of understanding users’ perceptions of information sharing in CTI platforms. To this end, we propose a conceptual workflow and toolchain that would seek to verify whether users have an accurate comprehension of how far information travels when shared in a CTI sharing platform.We contextualize our concept within MISP as a use case, and discuss the benefits of our socio-technical approach as a potential tool for security analysis, simulation, or education/training support. We conclude with a brief outline of future work that would seek to evaluate and validate the proposed model.
2022-09-29
Johnson, Chelsea K., Gutzwiller, Robert S., Gervais, Joseph, Ferguson-Walter, Kimberly J..  2021.  Decision-Making Biases and Cyber Attackers. 2021 36th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering Workshops (ASEW). :140–144.
Cyber security is reliant on the actions of both machine and human and remains a domain of importance and continual evolution. While the study of human behavior has grown, less attention has been paid to the adversarial operator. Cyber environments consist of complex and dynamic situations where decisions are made with incomplete information. In such scenarios people form strategies based on simplified models of the world and are often efficient and effective, yet may result in judgement or decision-making bias. In this paper, we examine an initial list of biases affecting adversarial cyber actors. We use subject matter experts to derive examples and demonstrate these biases likely exist, and play a role in how attackers operate.
2022-09-16
Almseidin, Mohammad, Al-Sawwa, Jamil, Alkasassbeh, Mouhammd.  2021.  Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System Using Fuzzy Logic. 2021 International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). :290—295.
Recently, the Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) attacks has been used for different aspects to denial the number of services for the end-users. Therefore, there is an urgent need to design an effective detection method against this type of attack. A fuzzy inference system offers the results in a more readable and understandable form. This paper introduces an anomaly-based Intrusion Detection (IDS) system using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy logic inference system implemented as a detection method for Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) attacks. The suggested method was applied to an open-source DDOS dataset. Experimental results show that the anomaly-based Intrusion Detection system using fuzzy logic obtained the best result by utilizing the InfoGain features selection method besides the fuzzy inference system, the results were 91.1% for the true-positive rate and 0.006% for the false-positive rate.
2022-09-09
Sobb, Theresa May, Turnbull, Benjamin.  2020.  Assessment of Cyber Security Implications of New Technology Integrations into Military Supply Chains. 2020 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :128—135.
Military supply chains play a critical role in the acquisition and movement of goods for defence purposes. The disruption of these supply chain processes can have potentially devastating affects to the operational capability of military forces. The introduction and integration of new technologies into defence supply chains can serve to increase their effectiveness. However, the benefits posed by these technologies may be outweighed by significant consequences to the cyber security of the entire defence supply chain. Supply chains are complex Systems of Systems, and the introduction of an insecure technology into such a complex ecosystem may induce cascading system-wide failure, and have catastrophic consequences to military mission assurance. Subsequently, there is a need for an evaluative process to determine the extent to which a new technology will affect the cyber security of military supply chains. This work proposes a new model, the Military Supply Chain Cyber Implications Model (M-SCCIM), that serves to aid military decision makers in understanding the potential cyber security impact of introducing new technologies to supply chains. M-SCCIM is a multiphase model that enables understanding of cyber security and supply chain implications through the lenses of theoretical examinations, pilot applications and system wide implementations.
2022-08-26
Zhang, Fan, Bu, Bing.  2021.  A Cyber Security Risk Assessment Methodology for CBTC Systems Based on Complex Network Theory and Attack Graph. 2021 7th Annual International Conference on Network and Information Systems for Computers (ICNISC). :15—20.
Cyber security risk assessment is very important to quantify the security level of communication-based train control (CBTC) systems. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to assess the cyber security risk of CBTC systems that integrates complex network theory and attack graph method. On one hand, in order to determine the impact of malicious attacks on train control, we analyze the connectivity of movement authority (MA) paths based on the working state of nodes, the connectivity of edges. On the other hand, attack graph is introduced to quantify the probabilities of potential attacks that combine multiple vulnerabilities in the cyber world of CBTC. Experiments show that our methodology can assess the security risks of CBTC systems and improve the security level after implementing reinforcement schemes.
de Moura, Ralf Luis, Franqueira, Virginia N. L., Pessin, Gustavo.  2021.  Towards Safer Industrial Serial Networks: An Expert System Framework for Anomaly Detection. 2021 IEEE 33rd International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI). :1197—1205.

Cyber security is a topic of increasing relevance in relation to industrial networks. The higher intensity and intelligent use of data pushed by smart technology (Industry 4.0) together with an augmented integration between the operational technology (production) and the information technology (business) parts of the network have considerably raised the level of vulnerabilities. On the other hand, many industrial facilities still use serial networks as underlying communication system, and they are notoriously limited from a cyber security perspective since protection mechanisms available for ТСР/IР communication do not apply. Therefore, an attacker gaining access to a serial network can easily control the industrial components, potentially causing catastrophic incidents, jeopardizing assets and human lives. This study proposes a framework to act as an anomaly detection system (ADS) for industrial serial networks. It has three ingredients: an unsupervised К-means component to analyse message content, a knowledge-based Expert System component to analyse message metadata, and a voting process to generate alerts for security incidents, anomalous states, and faults. The framework was evaluated using the Proflbus-DP, a network simulator which implements a serial bus system. Results for the simulated traffic were promising: 99.90% for accuracy, 99,64% for precision, and 99.28% for F1-Score. They indicate feasibility of the framework applied to serial-based industrial networks.

2022-08-12
Choi, Heeyoung, Young, Kang Ju.  2021.  Practical Approach of Security Enhancement Method based on the Protection Motivation Theory. 2021 21st ACIS International Winter Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD-Winter). :96—97.

In order to strengthen information security, practical solutions to reduce information security stress are needed because the motivation of the members of the organization who use it is needed to work properly. Therefore, this study attempts to suggest the key factors that can enhance security while reducing the information security stress of organization members. To this end, based on the theory of protection motivation, trust and security stress in information security policies are set as mediating factors to explain changes in security reinforcement behavior, and risk, efficacy, and reaction costs of cyberattacks are considered as prerequisites. Our study suggests a solution to the security reinforcement problem by analyzing the factors that influence the behavior of organization members that can raise the protection motivation of the organization members.

2022-08-03
de Biase, Maria Stella, Marulli, Fiammetta, Verde, Laura, Marrone, Stefano.  2021.  Improving Classification Trustworthiness in Random Forests. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :563—568.
Machine learning algorithms are becoming more and more widespread in industrial as well as in societal settings. This diffusion is starting to become a critical aspect of new software-intensive applications due to the need of fast reactions to changes, even if temporary, in data. This paper investigates on the improvement of reliability in the Machine Learning based classification by extending Random Forests with Bayesian Network models. Such models, combined with a mechanism able to adjust the reputation level of single learners, may improve the overall classification trustworthiness. A small example taken from the healthcare domain is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach.
2022-07-14
Pagán, Alexander, Elleithy, Khaled.  2021.  A Multi-Layered Defense Approach to Safeguard Against Ransomware. 2021 IEEE 11th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0942–0947.
There has been a significant rise in ransomware attacks over the last few years. Cyber attackers have made use of tried and true ransomware viruses to target the government, health care, and educational institutions. Ransomware variants can be purchased on the dark web by amateurs giving them the same attack tools used by professional cyber attackers without experience or skill. Traditional antivirus and antimalware products have improved, but they alone fall short when it comes to catching and stopping ransomware attacks. Employee training has become one of the most important aspects of being prepared for attempted cyberattacks. However, training alone only goes so far; human error is still the main entry point for malware and ransomware infections. In this paper, we propose a multi-layered defense approach to safeguard against ransomware. We have come to the startling realization that it is not a matter of “if” your organization will be hit with ransomware, but “when” your organization will be hit with ransomware. If an organization is not adequately prepared for an attack or how to respond to an attack, the effects can be costly and devastating. Our approach proposes having innovative antimalware software on the local machines, properly configured firewalls, active DNS/Web filtering, email security, backups, and staff training. With the implementation of this layered defense, the attempt can be caught and stopped at multiple points in the event of an attempted ransomware attack. If the attack were successful, the layered defense provides the option for recovery of affected data without paying a ransom.
Lee, Sun-Jin, Shim, Hye-Yeon, Lee, Yu-Rim, Park, Tae-Rim, Park, So-Hyun, Lee, Il-Gu.  2021.  Study on Systematic Ransomware Detection Techniques. 2021 23rd International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :297–301.
Cyberattacks have been progressed in the fields of Internet of Things, and artificial intelligence technologies using the advanced persistent threat (APT) method recently. The damage caused by ransomware is rapidly spreading among APT attacks, and the range of the damages of individuals, corporations, public institutions, and even governments are increasing. The seriousness of the problem has increased because ransomware has been evolving into an intelligent ransomware attack that spreads over the network to infect multiple users simultaneously. This study used open source endpoint detection and response tools to build and test a framework environment that enables systematic ransomware detection at the network and system level. Experimental results demonstrate that the use of EDR tools can quickly extract ransomware attack features and respond to attacks.
Bishwas, Arit Kumar, Advani, Jai.  2021.  Managing Cyber Security with Quantum Techniques. 2021 International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Energy Technologies (ICECET). :1—7.
Recent advancements in quantum information theory and quantum computation intend the possibilities of breaking the existing classical cryptographic systems. To mitigate these kinds of threats with quantum computers we need some advanced quantum-based cryptographic systems. The research orientation towards this is tremendous in recent years, and many excellent approaches have been reported. In this article, we discuss the probable approaches of the quantum cryptographic systems from implementation point of views to handle the post-quantum cryptographic attacks.
Ali, Arshad.  2021.  A Pragmatic Analysis of Pre- and Post-Quantum Cyber Security Scenarios. 2021 International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technologies (IBCAST). :686—692.
The advancements in quantum computing and quantum cryptology have recently started to gain momentum and transformation of usable quantum technologies from dream to reality has begun to look viable. This has created an immediate requirement to comprehend quantum attacks and their cryptographic implications, which is a prerequisite obligation to design cryptographic systems resistant to current and futuristic projected quantum and conventional attacks. In this context, this paper reviews the prevalent quantum concepts and analyses their envisaged impact on various aspects of modern-day communication and information security technologies. Moreover, the paper also presents six open-problems and two conjectures, which are formulated to define prerequisite technological obligations for fully comprehending the futuristic quantum threats to contemporary communication security technologies and information assets processed through these systems. Furthermore, the paper also presents some important concepts in the form of questions and discusses some recent trends adapted in cryptographic designs to thwart quantum attacks.
2022-07-13
Koutsouris, Nikolaos, Vassilakis, Costas, Kolokotronis, Nicholas.  2021.  Cyber-Security Training Evaluation Metrics. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :192—197.
Cyber-security training has evolved into an imperative need, aiming to provide cyber-security professionals with the knowledge and skills required to confront cyber-attacks that are increasing in number and sophistication. Training activities are typically associated with evaluation means, aimed to assess the extent to which the trainee has acquired the knowledge and skills whose development is targeted by the training programme, while cyber-security awareness and skill level evaluation means may be used to support additional security-related aspects of organizations. In this paper, we review trainee performance assessment metrics in cyber-security training, aiming to assist designers of cyber-security training activities to identify the most prominent trainee performance assessment means for their training programmes, while additional research directions involving cyber-security training evaluation metrics are also identified.
Diakoumakos, Jason, Chaskos, Evangelos, Kolokotronis, Nicholas, Lepouras, George.  2021.  Cyber-Range Federation and Cyber-Security Games: A Gamification Scoring Model. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :186—191.
Professional training is essential for organizations to successfully defend their assets against cyber-attacks. Successful detection and prevention of security incidents demands that personnel is not just aware about the potential threats, but its security expertise goes far beyond the necessary background knowledge. To fill-in the gap for competent security professionals, platforms offering realistic training environments and scenarios are designed that are referred to as cyber-ranges. Multiple cyber-ranges listed under a common platform can simulate more complex environments, referred as cyber-range federations. Security education approaches often implement gamification mechanics to increase trainees’ engagement and maximize the outcome of the training process. Scoring is an integral part of a gamification scheme, allowing both the trainee and the trainer to monitor the former’s performance and progress. In this article, a novel scoring model is presented that is designed to be agnostic with respect to the source of information: either a CR or a variety of different CRs being part of a federated environment.
Mennecozzi, Gian Marco, Hageman, Kaspar, Panum, Thomas Kobber, Türkmen, Ahmet, Mahmoud, Rasmi-Vlad, Pedersen, Jens Myrup.  2021.  Bridging the Gap: Adapting a Security Education Platform to a New Audience. 2021 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON). :153—159.
The current supply of a highly specialized cyber security professionals cannot meet the demands for societies seeking digitization. To close the skill gap, there is a need for introducing students in higher education to cyber security, and to combine theoretical knowledge with practical skills. This paper presents how the cyber security training platform Haaukins, initially developed to increase interest and knowledge of cyber security among high school students, was further developed to support the need for training in higher education. Based on the differences between the existing and new target audiences, a set of design principles were derived which shaped the technical adjustments required to provide a suitable platform - mainly related to dynamic tooling, centralized access to exercises, and scalability of the platform to support courses running over longer periods of time. The implementation of these adjustments has led to a series of teaching sessions in various institutions of higher education, demonstrating the viability for Haaukins for the new target audience.
Swann, Matthew, Rose, Joseph, Bendiab, Gueltoum, Shiaeles, Stavros, Li, Fudong.  2021.  Open Source and Commercial Capture The Flag Cyber Security Learning Platforms - A Case Study. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :198—205.
The use of gamified learning platforms as a method of introducing cyber security education, training and awareness has risen greatly. With this rise, the availability of platforms to create, host or otherwise provide the challenges that make up the foundation of this education has also increased. In order to identify the best of these platforms, we need a method to compare their feature sets. In this paper, we compare related work on identifying the best platforms for a gamified cyber security learning platform as well as contemporary literature that describes the most needed feature sets for an ideal platform. We then use this to develop a metric for comparing these platforms, before then applying this metric to popular current platforms.
2022-07-12
T⊘ndel, Inger Anne, Vefsnmo, Hanne, Gjerde, Oddbj⊘rn, Johannessen, Frode, Fr⊘ystad, Christian.  2021.  Hunting Dependencies: Using Bow-Tie for Combined Analysis of Power and Cyber Security. 2020 2nd International Conference on Societal Automation (SA). :1—8.
Modern electric power systems are complex cyber-physical systems. The integration of traditional power and digital technologies result in interdependencies that need to be considered in risk analysis. In this paper we argue the need for analysis methods that can combine the competencies of various experts in a common analysis focusing on the overall system perspective. We report on our experiences on using the Vulnerability Analysis Framework (VAF) and bow-tie diagrams in a combined analysis of the power and cyber security aspects in a realistic case. Our experiences show that an extended version of VAF with increased support for interdependencies is promising for this type of analysis.
Oikonomou, Nikos, Mengidis, Notis, Spanopoulos-Karalexidis, Minas, Voulgaridis, Antonis, Merialdo, Matteo, Raisr, Ivo, Hanson, Kaarel, de La Vallee, Paloma, Tsikrika, Theodora, Vrochidis, Stefanos et al..  2021.  ECHO Federated Cyber Range: Towards Next-Generation Scalable Cyber Ranges. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :403—408.
Cyber ranges are valuable assets but have limitations in simulating complex realities and multi-sector dependencies; to address this, federated cyber ranges are emerging. This work presents the ECHO Federated Cyber Range, a marketplace for cyber range services, that establishes a mechanism by which independent cyber range capabilities can be interconnected and accessed via a convenient portal. This allows for more complex and complete emulations, spanning potentially multiple sectors and complex exercises. Moreover, it supports a semi-automated approach for processing and deploying service requests to assist customers and providers interfacing with the marketplace. Its features and architecture are described in detail, along with the design, validation and deployment of a training scenario.
Vekaria, Komal Bhupendra, Calyam, Prasad, Wang, Songjie, Payyavula, Ramya, Rockey, Matthew, Ahmed, Nafis.  2021.  Cyber Range for Research-Inspired Learning of “Attack Defense by Pretense” Principle and Practice. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies. 14:322—337.
There is an increasing trend in cloud adoption of enterprise applications in, for example, manufacturing, healthcare, and finance. Such applications are routinely subject to targeted cyberattacks, which result in significant loss of sensitive data (e.g., due to data exfiltration in advanced persistent threats) or valuable utilities (e.g., due to resource the exfiltration of power in cryptojacking). There is a critical need to train highly skilled cybersecurity professionals, who are capable of defending against such targeted attacks. In this article, we present the design, development, and evaluation of the Mizzou Cyber Range, an online platform to learn basic/advanced cyber defense concepts and perform training exercises to engender the next-generation cybersecurity workforce. Mizzou Cyber Range features flexibility, scalability, portability, and extendability in delivering cyberattack/defense learning modules to students. We detail our “research-inspired learning” and “learn-apply-create” three-phase pedagogy methodologies in the development of four learning modules that include laboratory exercises and self-study activities using realistic cloud-based application testbeds. The learning modules allow students to gain skills in using latest technologies (e.g., elastic capacity provisioning, software-defined everything infrastructure) to implement sophisticated “attack defense by pretense” techniques. Students can also use the learning modules to understand the attacker-defender game in order to create disincentives (i.e., pretense initiation) that make the attacker's tasks more difficult, costly, time consuming, and uncertain. Lastly, we show the benefits of our Mizzou Cyber Range through the evaluation of student learning using auto-grading, rank assessments with peer standing, and monitoring of students' performance via feedback from prelab evaluation surveys and postlab technical assessments.
2022-06-09
AlMedires, Motaz, AlMaiah, Mohammed.  2021.  Cybersecurity in Industrial Control System (ICS). 2021 International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). :640–647.
The paper gives an overview of the ICS security and focuses on Control Systems. Use of internet had security challenges which led to the development of ICS which is designed to be dependable and safe. PCS, DCS and SCADA all are subsets of ICS. The paper gives a description of the developments in the ICS security and covers the most interesting work done by researchers. The paper also provides research information about the parameters on which a remotely executed cyber-attack depends.
2022-06-06
Rasmi Al-Mousa, Mohammad.  2021.  Generic Proactive IoT Cybercrime Evidence Analysis Model for Digital Forensics. 2021 International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). :654–659.
With the widespread adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) applications around the world, security related problems become a challenge since the number of cybercrimes that must be identified and investigated increased dramatically. The volume of data generated and handled is immense due to the increased number of IoT applications around the world. As a result, when a cybercrime happens, the volume of digital data needs to be dealt with is massive. Consequently, more effort and time are needed to handle the security issues. As a result, in digital forensics, the analysis phase is an important and challenging phase. This paper proposes a generic proactive model for the cybercrime analysis process in the Internet of Things. The model is focused on the classification of evidences in advance based on its significance and relation to past crimes, as well as the severity of the evidence in terms of the probability occurrence of a cybercrime. This model is supposed to save time and effort during the automated forensic investigation process.
Yeboah-Ofori, Abel, Ismail, Umar Mukhtar, Swidurski, Tymoteusz, Opoku-Boateng, Francisca.  2021.  Cyberattack Ontology: A Knowledge Representation for Cyber Supply Chain Security. 2021 International Conference on Computing, Computational Modelling and Applications (ICCMA). :65–70.
Cyberattacks on cyber supply chain (CSC) systems and the cascading impacts have brought many challenges and different threat levels with unpredictable consequences. The embedded networks nodes have various loopholes that could be exploited by the threat actors leading to various attacks, risks, and the threat of cascading attacks on the various systems. Key factors such as lack of common ontology vocabulary and semantic interoperability of cyberattack information, inadequate conceptualized ontology learning and hierarchical approach to representing the relationships in the CSC security domain has led to explicit knowledge representation. This paper explores cyberattack ontology learning to describe security concepts, properties and the relationships required to model security goal. Cyberattack ontology provides a semantic mapping between different organizational and vendor security goals has been inherently challenging. The contributions of this paper are threefold. First, we consider CSC security modelling such as goal, actor, attack, TTP, and requirements using semantic rules for logical representation. Secondly, we model a cyberattack ontology for semantic mapping and knowledge representation. Finally, we discuss concepts for threat intelligence and knowledge reuse. The results show that the cyberattack ontology concepts could be used to improve CSC security.
2022-05-20
Kodwani, Gaurav, Arora, Shashank, Atrey, Pradeep K..  2021.  On Security of Key Derivation Functions in Password-based Cryptography. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :109–114.
Most common user authentication methods use some form of password or a combination of passwords. However, encryption schemes are generally not directly compatible with user passwords and thus, Password-Based Key Derivation Functions (PBKDFs) are used to convert user passwords into cryptographic keys. In this paper, we analyze the theoretical security of PBKDF2 and present two vulnerabilities, γ-collision and δ-collision. Using AES-128 as our exemplar, we show that due to γ-collision, text encrypted with one user password can be decrypted with γ 1 different passwords. We also provide a proof that finding− a collision in the derived key for AES-128 requires δ lesser calls to PBKDF2 than the known Birthday attack. Due to this, it is possible to break password-based AES-128 in O(264) calls, which is equivalent to brute-forcing DES.