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2021-10-04
Moustafa, Nour, Keshky, Marwa, Debiez, Essam, Janicke, Helge.  2020.  Federated TONİoT Windows Datasets for Evaluating AI-Based Security Applications. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :848–855.
Existing cyber security solutions have been basically developed using knowledge-based models that often cannot trigger new cyber-attack families. With the boom of Artificial Intelligence (AI), especially Deep Learning (DL) algorithms, those security solutions have been plugged-in with AI models to discover, trace, mitigate or respond to incidents of new security events. The algorithms demand a large number of heterogeneous data sources to train and validate new security systems. This paper presents the description of new datasets, the so-called ToNİoT, which involve federated data sources collected from Telemetry datasets of IoT services, Operating system datasets of Windows and Linux, and datasets of Network traffic. The paper introduces the testbed and description of TONİoT datasets for Windows operating systems. The testbed was implemented in three layers: edge, fog and cloud. The edge layer involves IoT and network devices, the fog layer contains virtual machines and gateways, and the cloud layer involves cloud services, such as data analytics, linked to the other two layers. These layers were dynamically managed using the platforms of software-Defined Network (SDN) and Network-Function Virtualization (NFV) using the VMware NSX and vCloud NFV platform. The Windows datasets were collected from audit traces of memories, processors, networks, processes and hard disks. The datasets would be used to evaluate various AI-based cyber security solutions, including intrusion detection, threat intelligence and hunting, privacy preservation and digital forensics. This is because the datasets have a wide range of recent normal and attack features and observations, as well as authentic ground truth events. The datasets can be publicly accessed from this link [1].
2021-09-21
Barr, Joseph R., Shaw, Peter, Abu-Khzam, Faisal N., Yu, Sheng, Yin, Heng, Thatcher, Tyler.  2020.  Combinatorial Code Classification Amp; Vulnerability Rating. 2020 Second International Conference on Transdisciplinary AI (TransAI). :80–83.
Empirical analysis of source code of Android Fluoride Bluetooth stack demonstrates a novel approach of classification of source code and rating for vulnerability. A workflow that combines deep learning and combinatorial techniques with a straightforward random forest regression is presented. Two kinds of embedding are used: code2vec and LSTM, resulting in a distance matrix that is interpreted as a (combinatorial) graph whose vertices represent code components, functions and methods. Cluster Editing is then applied to partition the vertex set of the graph into subsets representing nearly complete subgraphs. Finally, the vectors representing the components are used as features to model the components for vulnerability risk.
Ilavendhan, A., Saruladha, K..  2020.  Comparative Analysis of Various Approaches for DoS Attack Detection in VANETs. 2020 International Conference on Electronics and Sustainable Communication Systems (ICESC). :821–825.
VANET plays a vital role to optimize the journey between source and destination in the growth of smart cities worldwide. The crucial information shared between vehicles is concerned primarily with safety. VANET is a MANET sub-class network that provides a free movement and communication between the RSU and vehicles. The self organized with high mobility in VANET makes any vehicle can transmit malicious messages to some other vehicle in the network. In the defense horizon of VANETs this is a matter of concern. It is the duty of RSU to ensure the safe transmission of sensitive information across the Network to each node. For this, network access exists as the key safety prerequisite, and several risks or attacks can be experienced. The VANETs is vulnerable to a range of security attacks including masquerading, selfish node attack, Sybil attack etc. One of the main threats to network access is this Denial of Service attack. The most important research in the literature on the prevention of Denial of Service Attack in VANETs was explored in this paper. The limitations of each reviewed paper are also presented and Game theory based security model is defined in this paper.
2021-09-16
Singh, Vivek Kumar, Govindarasu, Manimaran.  2020.  A Novel Architecture for Attack-Resilient Wide-Area Protection and Control System in Smart Grid. 2020 Resilience Week (RWS). :41–47.
Wide-area protection and control (WAPAC) systems are widely applied in the energy management system (EMS) that rely on a wide-area communication network to maintain system stability, security, and reliability. As technology and grid infrastructure evolve to develop more advanced WAPAC applications, however, so do the attack surfaces in the grid infrastructure. This paper presents an attack-resilient system (ARS) for the WAPAC cybersecurity by seamlessly integrating the network intrusion detection system (NIDS) with intrusion mitigation and prevention system (IMPS). In particular, the proposed NIDS utilizes signature and behavior-based rules to detect attack reconnaissance, communication failure, and data integrity attacks. Further, the proposed IMPS applies state transition-based mitigation and prevention strategies to quickly restore the normal grid operation after cyberattacks. As a proof of concept, we validate the proposed generic architecture of ARS by performing experimental case study for wide-area protection scheme (WAPS), one of the critical WAPAC applications, and evaluate the proposed NIDS and IMPS components of ARS in a cyber-physical testbed environment. Our experimental results reveal a promising performance in detecting and mitigating different classes of cyberattacks while supporting an alert visualization dashboard to provide an accurate situational awareness in real-time.
Alshawi, Amany, Satam, Pratik, Almoualem, Firas, Hariri, Salim.  2020.  Effective Wireless Communication Architecture for Resisting Jamming Attacks. IEEE Access. 8:176691–176703.
Over time, the use of wireless technologies has significantly increased due to bandwidth improvements, cost-effectiveness, and ease of deployment. Owing to the ease of access to the communication medium, wireless communications and technologies are inherently vulnerable to attacks. These attacks include brute force attacks such as jamming attacks and those that target the communication protocol (Wi-Fi and Bluetooth protocols). Thus, there is a need to make wireless communication resilient and secure against attacks. Existing wireless protocols and applications have attempted to address the need to improve systems security as well as privacy. They have been highly effective in addressing privacy issues, but ineffective in addressing security threats like jamming and session hijacking attacks and other types of Denial of Service Attacks. In this article, we present an ``architecture for resilient wireless communications'' based on the concept of Moving Target Defense. To increase the difficulty of launching successful attacks and achieve resilient operation, we changed the runtime characteristics of wireless links, such as the modulation type, network address, packet size, and channel operating frequency. The architecture reduces the overhead resulting from changing channel configurations using two communication channels, in which one is used for communication, while the other acts as a standby channel. A prototype was built using Software Defined Radio to test the performance of the architecture. Experimental evaluations showed that the approach was resilient against jamming attacks. We also present a mathematical analysis to demonstrate the difficulty of performing a successful attack against our proposed architecture.
Conference Name: IEEE Access
Ruggeri, Armando, Celesti, Antonio, Fazio, Maria, Galletta, Antonino, Villari, Massimo.  2020.  BCB-X3DH: A Blockchain Based Improved Version of the Extended Triple Diffie-Hellman Protocol. 2020 Second IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :73–78.
The Extended Triple Diffie-Hellman (X3DH) protocol has been used for years as the basis of secure communication establishment among parties (i.e, humans and devices) over the Internet. However, such a protocol has several limits. It is typically based on a single trust third-party server that represents a single point of failure (SPoF) being consequently exposed to well- known Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) attacks. In order to address such a limit, several solutions have been proposed so far that are often cost expensive and difficult to be maintained. The objective of this paper is to propose a BlockChain-Based X3DH (BCB-X3DH) protocol that allows eliminating such a SPoF, also simplifying its maintenance. Specifically, it combines the well- known X3DH security mechanisms with the intrinsic features of data non-repudiation and immutability that are typical of Smart Contracts. Furthermore, different implementation approaches are discussed to suits both human-to-human and device-to-device scenarios. Experiments compared the performance of both X3DH and BCB-X3DH.
2021-09-08
Bhati, Akhilesh, Bouras, Abdelaziz, Ahmed Qidwai, Uvais, Belhi, Abdelhak.  2020.  Deep Learning Based Identification of DDoS Attacks in Industrial Application. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :190–196.
Denial of Service (DoS) attacks are very common type of computer attack in the world of internet today. Automatically detecting such type of DDoS attack packets & dropping them before passing through is the best prevention method. Conventional solution only monitors and provide the feedforward solution instead of the feedback machine-based learning. A Design of Deep neural network has been suggested in this paper. In this approach, high level features are extracted for representation and inference of the dataset. Experiment has been conducted based on the ISCX dataset for year 2017, 2018 and CICDDoS2019 and program has been developed in Matlab R17b using Wireshark.
Potluri, Sirisha, Mangla, Monika, Satpathy, Suneeta, Mohanty, Sachi Nandan.  2020.  Detection and Prevention Mechanisms for DDoS Attack in Cloud Computing Environment. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–6.
For optimal use of cloud resources and to reduce the latency of cloud users, the cloud computing model extends the services such as networking facilities, computational capabilities and storage facilities based on demand. Due to the dynamic behavior, distributed paradigm and heterogeneity present among the processing elements, devices and service oriented pay per use policies; the cloud computing environment is having its availability, security and privacy issues. Among these various issues one of the important issues in cloud computing paradigm is DDoS attack. This paper put in plain words the DDoS attack, its detection as well as prevention mechanisms in cloud computing environment. The inclusive study also explains about the effects of DDoS attack on cloud platform and the related defense mechanisms required to be considered.
Raghuprasad, Aswin, Padmanabhan, Suraj, Arjun Babu, M, Binu, P.K.  2020.  Security Analysis and Prevention of Attacks on IoT Devices. 2020 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP). :0876–0880.
As the demand for smart devices in homes increases, more and more manufacturers have been launching these devices on a mass scale. But what they are missing out on is taking care of the security part of these IoT devices which results in a more vulnerable system. This paper presents an idea through a small-scale working model and the studies that made the same possible. IoT devices face numerous threats these days with the ease of access to powerful hacking tools such as aircrack-ng which provides services like monitoring, attacking and cracking Wifi networks. The essential thought of the proposed system is to give an idea of how some common attacks are carried out, how these attacks work and to device some form of prevention as an additional security layer for IoT devices in general. The system proposed here prevents most forms of attacks that target the victim IoT device using their MAC addresses. These include DoS and DDoS attacks, both of which are the main focus of this paper. This paper also points out some of the future research work that can be followed up.
2021-09-07
Sanjeetha, R, Shastry, K.N Ajay, Chetan, H.R, Kanavalli, Anita.  2020.  Mitigating HTTP GET FLOOD DDoS Attack Using an SDN Controller. 2020 International Conference on Recent Trends on Electronics, Information, Communication Technology (RTEICT). :6–10.
DDoS attacks are pre-dominant in traditional networks, they are used to bring down the services of important servers in the network, thereby affecting its performance. One such kind of attack is HTTP GET Flood DDoS attack in which a lot of HTTP GET request messages are sent to the victim web server, overwhelming its resources and bringing down its services to the legitimate clients. The solution to such attacks in traditional networks is usually implemented at the servers, but this consumes its resources which could otherwise be used to process genuine client requests. Software Defined Network (SDN) is a new network architecture that helps to deal with these attacks in a different way. In SDN the mitigation can be done using the controller without burdening the server. In this paper, we first show how an HTTP GET Flood DDoS attack can be performed on the webserver in an SDN environment and then propose a solution to mitigate the same with the help of the SDN controller. At the server, the attack is detected by checking the number of requests arriving to the web server for a certain period of time, if the number of request is greater than a particular threshold then the hosts generating such attacks will be blocked for the attack duration.
Bülbül, Nuref\c san Sertba\c s, Fischer, Mathias.  2020.  SDN/NFV-Based DDoS Mitigation via Pushback. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks aim at bringing down or decreasing the availability of services for their legitimate users, by exhausting network or server resources. It is difficult to differentiate attack traffic from legitimate traffic as the attack can come from distributed nodes that additionally might spoof their IP addresses. Traditional DoS mitigation solutions fail to defend all kinds of DoS attacks and huge DoS attacks might exceed the processing capacity of routers and firewalls easily. The advent of Software-defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) has brought a new perspective for network defense. Key features of such technologies like global network view and flexibly positionable security functionality can be used for mitigating DDoS attacks. In this paper, we propose a collaborative DDoS attack mitigation scheme that uses SDN and NFV. We adopt a machine learning algorithm from related work to derive accurate patterns describing DDoS attacks. Our experimental results indicate that our framework is able to differentiate attack and legitimate traffic with high accuracy and in near-realtime. Furthermore, the derived patterns can be used to create OpenFlow (OF) or Firewall rules that can be pushed back into the direction of the attack origin for more efficient and distributed filtering.
Al'aziz, Bram Andika Ahmad, Sukarno, Parman, Wardana, Aulia Arif.  2020.  Blacklisted IP Distribution System to Handle DDoS Attacks on IPS Snort Based on Blockchain. 2020 6th Information Technology International Seminar (ITIS). :41–45.
The mechanism for distributing information on the source of the attack by combining blockchain technology with the Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) can be done so that DDoS attack mitigation becomes more flexible, saves resources and costs. Also, by informing the blacklisted Internet Protocol(IP), each IPS can share attack source information so that attack traffic blocking can be carried out on IPS that are closer to the source of the attack. Therefore, the attack traffic passing through the network can be drastically reduced because the attack traffic has been blocked on the IPS that is closer to the attack source. The blocking of existing DDoS attack traffic is generally carried out on each IPS without a mechanism to share information on the source of the attack so that each IPS cannot cooperate. Also, even though the DDoS attack traffic did not reach the server because it had been blocked by IPS, the attack traffic still flooded the network so that network performance was reduced. Through smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, it is possible to inform the source of the attack or blacklisted IP addresses without requiring additional infrastructure. The blacklisted IP address is used by IPS to detect and handle DDoS attacks. Through the blacklisted IP distribution scheme, testing and analysis are carried out to see information on the source of the attack on each IPS and the attack traffic that passes on the network. The result is that each IPS can have the same blacklisted IP so that each IPS can have the same attack source information. The results also showed that the attack traffic through the network infrastructure can be drastically reduced. Initially, the total number of attack packets had an average of 115,578 reduced to 27,165.
Manikumar, D.V.V.S., Maheswari, B Uma.  2020.  Blockchain Based DDoS Mitigation Using Machine Learning Techniques. 2020 Second International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). :794–800.
DDoS attacks are the most commonly performed cyber-attacks with a motive to suspend the target services and making them unavailable to users. A recent attack on Github, explains that the traffic was traced back to ``over a thousand different autonomous systems across millions of unique endpoints''. Generally, there are various types of DDoS attacks and each attack uses a different protocol and attacker uses a botnet to execute such attacks. Hence, it will be very difficult for organizations to deal with these attacks and going for third parties to secure themselves from DDoS attacks. In order to eliminate the third parties. Our proposed system uses machine learning algorithms to identify the incoming packet is malicious or not and use Blockchain technology to store the Blacklist. The key benefit of Blockchain is that blacklisted IP addresses are effectively stored, and usage of such infrastructure provides an advantage of extra security mechanism over existing DDoS mitigation systems. This paper has evaluated three different algorithms, such as the KNN Classifier, the Decision Tree Classifier, Random Forest algorithm to find out the better classifying algorithm. Tree Based Classifier technique used for Feature Selection to boost the computational time. Out of the three algorithms, Random Forest provides an accuracy about 95 % in real-time traffic analysis.
Abisoye, Opeyemi Aderiike, Shadrach Akanji, Oluwatobi, Abisoye, Blessing Olatunde, Awotunde, Joseph.  2020.  Slow Hypertext Transfer Protocol Mitigation Model in Software Defined Networks. 2020 International Conference on Data Analytics for Business and Industry: Way Towards a Sustainable Economy (ICDABI). :1–5.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks have been one of the persistent forms of attacks on information technology infrastructure connected to a public network due to the ease of access to DDoS attack tools. Researchers have been able to develop several techniques to curb volumetric DDoS attacks which overwhelms the target with large number of request packets. However, compared to volumetric DDoS, low amount of research has been executed on mitigating slow DDoS. Data mining approaches and various Artificial Intelligence techniques have been proved by researchers to be effective for reduce DDoS attacks. This paper provides the scholarly community with slow DDoS attack detection techniques using Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine aimed at mitigating slow DDoS attack in a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) environment simulated in GNS3. Genetic algorithm was employed to select the features which indicates the presence of an attack and also determine the appropriate regularization parameter, C, and gamma parameter for the Support Vector Machine classifier. Results obtained shows that the classifier had detection accuracy, Area Under Receiver Operating Curve (AUC), true positive rate, false positive rate and false negative rate of 99.89%, 99.89%, 99.95%, 0.18%, and 0.05% respectively. Also, the algorithm for subsequent implementation of the selective adaptive bubble burst mitigation mechanism was presented.
Sanjeetha, R., Srivastava, Shikhar, Kanavalli, Anita, Pattanaik, Ashutosh, Gupta, Anshul.  2020.  Mitigation of Combined DDoS Attack on SDN Controller and Primary Server in Software Defined Networks Using a Priority on Traffic Variation. 2020 International Conference for Emerging Technology (INCET). :1–5.
A Distributed Denial of Service ( DDoS ) attack is usually instigated on a primary server that provides important services in a network. However such DDoS attacks can be identified and mitigated by the controller in a Software Defined Network (SDN). If the intruder further performs an attack on the controller along with the server, the attack becomes successful.In this paper, we show how such a combined DDoS attack can be instigated on a controller as well as a primary server. The DDoS attack on the primary server is instigated by compromising few hosts to send packets with spoofed IP addresses and the attack on the controller is instigated by compromising few switches to send flow table requests repeatedly to the controller. With the help of an emulator called mininet, we show the severity of this attack on the performance of the network. We further propose a common technique that can be used to mitigate this kind of attack by observing the variation of destination IP addresses and setting different priorities to switches and handling the flow table requests accordingly by the controller.
Huang, Weiqing, Peng, Xiao, Shi, Zhixin, Ma, Yuru.  2020.  Adversarial Attack against LSTM-Based DDoS Intrusion Detection System. 2020 IEEE 32nd International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI). :686–693.
Nowadays, machine learning is a popular method for DDoS detection. However, machine learning algorithms are very vulnerable under the attacks of adversarial samples. Up to now, multiple methods of generating adversarial samples have been proposed. However, they cannot be applied to LSTM-based DDoS detection directly because of the discrete property and the utility requirement of its input samples. In this paper, we propose two methods to generate DDoS adversarial samples, named Genetic Attack (GA) and Probability Weighted Packet Saliency Attack (PWPSA) respectively. Both methods modify original input sample by inserting or replacing partial packets. In GA, we evolve a set of modified samples with genetic algorithm and find the evasive variant from it. In PWPSA, we modify original sample iteratively and use the position saliency as well as the packet score to determine insertion or replacement order at each step. Experimental results on CICIDS2017 dataset show that both methods can bypass DDoS detectors with high success rate.
Sudugala, A.U, Chanuka, W.H, Eshan, A.M.N, Bandara, U.C.S, Abeywardena, K.Y.  2020.  WANHEDA: A Machine Learning Based DDoS Detection System. 2020 2nd International Conference on Advancements in Computing (ICAC). 1:380–385.
In today's world computer communication is used almost everywhere and majority of them are connected to the world's largest network, the Internet. There is danger in using internet due to numerous cyber-attacks which are designed to attack Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability of systems connected to the internet. One of the most prominent threats to computer networking is Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack. They are designed to attack availability of the systems. Many users and ISPs are targeted and affected regularly by these attacks. Even though new protection technologies are continuously proposed, this immense threat continues to grow rapidly. Most of the DDoS attacks are undetectable because they act as legitimate traffic. This situation can be partially overcome by using Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs). There are advanced attacks where there is no proper documented way to detect. In this paper authors present a Machine Learning (ML) based DDoS detection mechanism with improved accuracy and low false positive rates. The proposed approach gives inductions based on signatures previously extracted from samples of network traffic. Authors perform the experiments using four distinct benchmark datasets, four machine learning algorithms to address four of the most harmful DDoS attack vectors. Authors achieved maximum accuracy and compared the results with other applicable machine learning algorithms.
Atasever, Süreyya, Öz\c celık, İlker, Sa\u giro\u glu, \c Seref.  2020.  An Overview of Machine Learning Based Approaches in DDoS Detection. 2020 28th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU). :1–4.
Many detection approaches have been proposed to address growing threat of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks on the Internet. The attack detection is the initial step in most of the mitigation systems. This study examined the methods used to detect DDoS attacks with the focus on learning based approaches. These approaches were compared based on their efficiency, operating load and scalability. Finally, it is discussed in details.
Priya, S.Shanmuga, Sivaram, M., Yuvaraj, D., Jayanthiladevi, A..  2020.  Machine Learning Based DDOS Detection. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Smart Computing and Informatics (ESCI). :234–237.
One of a high relentless attack is the crucial distributed DoS attacks. The types and tools for this attacks increases day-to-day as per the technology increases. So the methodology for detection of DDoS should be advanced. For this purpose we created an automated DDoS detector using ML which can run on any commodity hardware. The results are 98.5 % accurate. We use three classification algorithms KNN, RF and NB to classify DDoS packets from normal packets using two features, delta time and packet size. This detector mostly can detect all types of DDoS such as ICMP flood, TCP flood, UDP flood etc. In the older systems they detect only some types of DDoS attacks and some systems may require a large number of features to detect DDoS. Some systems may work only with certain protocols only. But our proposed model overcome these drawbacks by detecting the DDoS of any type without a need of specific protocol that uses less amount of features.
Franco, Muriel Figueredo, Rodrigues, Bruno, Scheid, Eder John, Jacobs, Arthur, Killer, Christian, Granville, Lisandro Zambenedetti, Stiller, Burkhard.  2020.  SecBot: a Business-Driven Conversational Agent for Cybersecurity Planning and Management. 2020 16th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM). :1–7.
Businesses were moving during the past decades to-ward full digital models, which made companies face new threats and cyberattacks affecting their services and, consequently, their profits. To avoid negative impacts, companies' investments in cybersecurity are increasing considerably. However, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) operate on small budgets, minimal technical expertise, and few personnel to address cybersecurity threats. In order to address such challenges, it is essential to promote novel approaches that can intuitively present cybersecurity-related technical information.This paper introduces SecBot, a cybersecurity-driven conversational agent (i.e., chatbot) for the support of cybersecurity planning and management. SecBot applies concepts of neural networks and Natural Language Processing (NLP), to interact and extract information from a conversation. SecBot can (a) identify cyberattacks based on related symptoms, (b) indicate solutions and configurations according to business demands, and (c) provide insightful information for the decision on cybersecurity investments and risks. A formal description had been developed to describe states, transitions, a language, and a Proof-of-Concept (PoC) implementation. A case study and a performance evaluation were conducted to provide evidence of the proposed solution's feasibility and accuracy.
2021-08-12
Karie, Nickson M., Sahri, Nor Masri, Haskell-Dowland, Paul.  2020.  IoT Threat Detection Advances, Challenges and Future Directions. 2020 Workshop on Emerging Technologies for Security in IoT (ETSecIoT). :22—29.
It is predicted that, the number of connected Internet of Things (IoT) devices will rise to 38.6 billion by 2025 and an estimated 50 billion by 2030. The increased deployment of IoT devices into diverse areas of our life has provided us with significant benefits such as improved quality of life and task automation. However, each time a new IoT device is deployed, new and unique security threats emerge or are introduced into the environment under which the device must operate. Instantaneous detection and mitigation of every security threat introduced by different IoT devices deployed can be very challenging. This is because many of the IoT devices are manufactured with no consideration of their security implications. In this paper therefore, we review existing literature and present IoT threat detection research advances with a focus on the various IoT security challenges as well as the current developments towards combating cyber security threats in IoT networks. However, this paper also highlights several future research directions in the IoT domain.
2021-08-11
Xi, Bowei, Kamhoua, Charles A..  2020.  A Hypergame‐Based Defense Strategy Toward Cyber Deception in Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT). Modeling and Design of Secure Internet of Things. :59–77.
In this chapter, we develop a defense strategy to secure Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) based on a hypergame employing deceptive techniques. The hypergame is played multiple rounds. At each round, the adversary updates its perception of the attack graph and chooses the next node to compromise. The defender updates its perceived list of compromised nodes and actively feeds false signals to the adversary to create deception. The hypergame developed in this chapter provides an important theoretical framework for us to model how a cyberattack spreads on a network and the interaction between the adversary and the defender. It also provides quantitative metrics such as the time it takes the adversary to explore the network and compromise the target nodes. Based on these metrics, the defender can reboot the network devices and reset the network topology in time to clean up all potentially compromised devices and to protect the critical nodes. The hypergame provides useful guidance on how to create cyber deceptions so that the adversary cannot obtain information about the correct network topology and can be deterred from reaching the target critical nodes on a military network while it is in service.
Lau, Pikkin, Wei, Wei, Wang, Lingfeng, Liu, Zhaoxi, Ten, Chee-Wooi.  2020.  A Cybersecurity Insurance Model for Power System Reliability Considering Optimal Defense Resource Allocation. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid. 11:4403–4414.
With the increasing application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), cyberattacks have become more prevalent against Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) such as the modern power grids. Various methods have been proposed to model the cybersecurity threats, but so far limited studies have been focused on the defensive strategies subject to the limited security budget. In this paper, the power supply reliability is evaluated considering the strategic allocation of defense resources. Specifically, the optimal mixed strategies are formulated by the Stackelberg Security Game (SSG) to allocate the defense resources on multiple targets subject to cyberattacks. The cyberattacks against the intrusion-tolerant Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system are mathematically modeled by Semi-Markov Process (SMP) kernel. The intrusion tolerance capability of the SCADA system provides buffered residence time before the substation failure to enhance the network robustness against cyberattacks. Case studies of the cyberattack scenarios are carried out to demonstrate the intrusion tolerance capability. Depending on the defense resource allocation scheme, the intrusion-tolerant SCADA system possesses varying degrees of self-healing capability to restore to the good state and prevent the substations from failure. If more defense resources are invested on the substations, the intrusion tolerant capability can be further enhanced for protecting the substations. Finally, the actuarial insurance principle is designed to estimate transmission companies' individual premiums considering correlated cybersecurity risks. The proposed insurance premium principle is designed to provide incentive for investments on enhancing the intrusion tolerance capability, which is verified by the results of case studies.
2021-08-02
Zhou, Zan, Xu, Changqiao, Ma, Tengchao, Kuang, Xiaohui.  2020.  Multi-vNIC Intelligent Mutation: A Moving Target Defense to thwart Client-side DNS Cache Attack. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1—6.
As massive research efforts are poured into server-side DNS security enhancement in online cloud service platforms, sophisticated APTs tend to develop client-side DNS attacks, where defenders only have limited resources and abilities. The collaborative DNS attack is a representative newest client-side paradigm to stealthily undermine user cache by falsifying DNS responses. Different from existing static methods, in this paper, we propose a moving target defense solution named multi-vNIC intelligent mutation to free defenders from arduous work and thwart elusive client-side DNS attack in the meantime. Multiple virtual network interface cards are created and switched in a mutating manner. Thus attackers have to blindly guess the actual NIC with a high risk of exposure. Firstly, we construct a dynamic game-theoretic model to capture the main characteristics of both attacker and defender. Secondly, a reinforcement learning mechanism is developed to generate adaptive optimal defense strategy. Experiment results also highlight the security performance of our defense method compared to several state-of-the-art technologies.
2021-07-27
Shere, A. R. K., Nurse, J. R. C., Flechais, I..  2020.  "Security should be there by default": Investigating how journalists perceive and respond to risks from the Internet of Things. 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :240—249.
Journalists have long been the targets of both physical and cyber-attacks from well-resourced adversaries. Internet of Things (IoT) devices are arguably a new avenue of threat towards journalists through both targeted and generalised cyber-physical exploitation. This study comprises three parts: First, we interviewed 11 journalists and surveyed 5 further journalists, to determine the extent to which journalists perceive threats through the IoT, particularly via consumer IoT devices. Second, we surveyed 34 cyber security experts to establish if and how lay-people can combat IoT threats. Third, we compared these findings to assess journalists' knowledge of threats, and whether their protective mechanisms would be effective against experts' depictions and predictions of IoT threats. Our results indicate that journalists generally are unaware of IoT-related risks and are not adequately protecting themselves; this considers cases where they possess IoT devices, or where they enter IoT-enabled environments (e.g., at work or home). Expert recommendations spanned both immediate and longterm mitigation methods, including practical actions that are technical and socio-political in nature. However, all proposed individual mitigation methods are likely to be short-term solutions, with 26 of 34 (76.5%) of cyber security experts responding that within the next five years it will not be possible for the public to opt-out of interaction with the IoT.