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2019-09-11
Wang, D., Ma, Y., Du, J., Ji, Y., Song, Y..  2018.  Security-Enhanced Signaling Scheme in Software Defined Optical Network. 2018 10th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN). :286–289.

The communication security issue is of great importance and should not be ignored in backbone optical networks which is undergoing the evolution toward software defined networks (SDN). With the aim to solve this problem, this paper conducts deep analysis into the security challenge of software defined optical networks (SDON) and proposes a so-called security-enhanced signaling scheme of SDON. The proposed scheme makes full advantage of current OpenFIow protocol with some necessary extensions and security improvement, by combining digital signatures and message feedback with efficient PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) in signaling procedure of OpenFIow interaction. Thus, this security-enhanced signaling procedure is also designed in details to make sure the end-to-end trusted service connection. Simulation results show that this proposed approach can greatly improve the security level of large-scale optical network for Energy Internet services with better performance in term of connection success rate performance.

2019-09-09
Zhou, X., Lu, Y., Wang, Y., Yan, X..  2018.  Overview on Moving Target Network Defense. 2018 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Image, Vision and Computing (ICIVC). :821–827.
Moving Target Defense (MTD) is a research hotspot in the field of network security. Moving Target Network Defense (MTND) is the implementation of MTD at network level. Numerous related works have been proposed in the field of MTND. In this paper, we focus on the scope and area of MTND, systematically present the recent representative progress from four aspects, including IP address and port mutation, route mutation, fingerprint mutation and multiple mutation, and put forward the future development directions. Several new perspectives and elucidations on MTND are rendered.
2019-09-05
Nasseralfoghara, M., Hamidi, H..  2019.  Web Covert Timing Channels Detection Based on Entropy. 2019 5th International Conference on Web Research (ICWR). :12-15.
Todays analyzing web weaknesses and vulnerabilities in order to find security attacks has become more urgent. In case there is a communication contrary to the system security policies, a covert channel has been created. The attacker can easily disclosure information from the victim's system with just one public access permission. Covert timing channels, unlike covert storage channels, do not have memory storage and they draw less attention. Different methods have been proposed for their identification, which generally benefit from the shape of traffic and the channel's regularity. In this article, an entropy-based detection method is designed and implemented. The attacker can adjust the amount of channel entropy by controlling measures such as changing the channel's level or creating noise on the channel to protect from the analyst's detection. As a result, the entropy threshold is not always constant for detection. By comparing the entropy from different levels of the channel and the analyst, we conclude that the analyst must investigate traffic at all possible levels.
2019-09-04
Vanjari, M. S. P., Balsaraf, M. K. P..  2018.  Efficient Exploration of Algorithm in Scholarly Big Data Document. 2018 International Conference on Information , Communication, Engineering and Technology (ICICET). :1–5.
Algorithms are used to develop, analyzing, and applying in the computer field and used for developing new application. It is used for finding solutions to any problems in different condition. It transforms the problems into algorithmic ones on which standard algorithms are applied. Day by day Scholarly Digital documents are increasing. AlgorithmSeer is a search engine used for searching algorithms. The main aim of it provides a large algorithm database. It is used to automatically encountering and take these algorithms in this big collection of documents that enable algorithm indexing, searching, discovery, and analysis. An original set to identify and pull out algorithm representations in a big collection of scholarly documents is proposed, of scale able techniques used by AlgorithmSeer. Along with this, particularly important and relevant textual content can be accessed the platform and highlight portions by anyone with different levels of knowledge. In support of lectures and self-learning, the highlighted documents can be shared with others. But different levels of learners cannot use the highlighted part of text at same understanding level. The problem of guessing new highlights of partially highlighted documents can be solved by us.
Xiong, M., Li, A., Xie, Z., Jia, Y..  2018.  A Practical Approach to Answer Extraction for Constructing QA Solution. 2018 IEEE Third International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace (DSC). :398–404.
Question Answering system(QA) plays an increasingly important role in the Internet age. The proportion of using the QA is getting higher and higher for the Internet users to obtain knowledge and solve problems, especially in the modern agricultural filed. However, the answer quality in QA varies widely due to the agricultural expert's level. Answer quality assessment is important. Due to the lexical gap between questions and answers, the existing approaches are not quite satisfactory. A practical approach RCAS is proposed to rank the candidate answers, which utilizes the support sets to reduce the impact of lexical gap between questions and answers. Firstly, Similar questions are retrieved and support sets are produced with their high-quality answers. Based on the assumption that high quality answers would also have intrinsic similarity, the quality of candidate answers are then evaluated through their distance from the support sets. Secondly, Different from the existing approaches, previous knowledge from similar question-answer pairs are used to bridge the straight lexical and semantic gaps between questions and answers. Experiments are implemented on approximately 0.15 million question-answer pairs about agriculture, dietetics and food from Yahoo! Answers. The results show that our approach can rank the candidate answers more precisely.
2019-08-26
Mohammad, Z., Qattam, T. A., Saleh, K..  2019.  Security Weaknesses and Attacks on the Internet of Things Applications. 2019 IEEE Jordan International Joint Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (JEEIT). :431–436.

Internet of Things (IoT) is a contemporary concept for connecting the existing things in our environment with the Internet for a sake of making the objects information are accessible from anywhere and anytime to support a modern life style based on the Internet. With the rapid development of the IoT technologies and widely spreading in most of the fields such as buildings, health, education, transportation and agriculture. Thus, the IoT applications require increasing data collection from the IoT devices to send these data to the applications or servers which collect or analyze the data, so it is a very important to secure the data and ensure that do not reach a malicious adversary. This paper reviews some attacks in the IoT applications and the security weaknesses in the IoT environment. In addition, this study presents the challenges of IoT in terms of hardware, network and software. Moreover, this paper summarizes and points to some attacks on the smart car, smart home, smart campus, smart farm and healthcare.

Gonzalez, D., Alhenaki, F., Mirakhorli, M..  2019.  Architectural Security Weaknesses in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) an Empirical Study Based on Disclosed Software Vulnerabilities. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA). :31–40.

Industrial control systems (ICS) are systems used in critical infrastructures for supervisory control, data acquisition, and industrial automation. ICS systems have complex, component-based architectures with many different hardware, software, and human factors interacting in real time. Despite the importance of security concerns in industrial control systems, there has not been a comprehensive study that examined common security architectural weaknesses in this domain. Therefore, this paper presents the first in-depth analysis of 988 vulnerability advisory reports for Industrial Control Systems developed by 277 vendors. We performed a detailed analysis of the vulnerability reports to measure which components of ICS have been affected the most by known vulnerabilities, which security tactics were affected most often in ICS and what are the common architectural security weaknesses in these systems. Our key findings were: (1) Human-Machine Interfaces, SCADA configurations, and PLCs were the most affected components, (2) 62.86% of vulnerability disclosures in ICS had an architectural root cause, (3) the most common architectural weaknesses were “Improper Input Validation”, followed by “Im-proper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation” and “Improper Authentication”, and (4) most tactic-related vulnerabilities were related to the tactics “Validate Inputs”, “Authenticate Actors” and “Authorize Actors”.

2019-08-05
Mai, H. L., Nguyen, T., Doyen, G., Cogranne, R., Mallouli, W., Oca, E. M. de, Festor, O..  2018.  Towards a security monitoring plane for named data networking and its application against content poisoning attack. NOMS 2018 - 2018 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. :1–9.

Named Data Networking (NDN) is the most mature proposal of the Information Centric Networking paradigm, a clean-slate approach for the Future Internet. Although NDN was designed to tackle security issues inherent to IP networks natively, newly introduced security attacks in its transitional phase threaten NDN's practical deployment. Therefore, a security monitoring plane for NDN is indispensable before any potential deployment of this novel architecture in an operating context by any provider. We propose an approach for the monitoring and anomaly detection in NDN nodes leveraging Bayesian Network techniques. A list of monitored metrics is introduced as a quantitative measure to feature the behavior of an NDN node. By leveraging the hypothesis testing theory, a micro detector is developed to detect whenever the metric significantly changes from its normal behavior. A Bayesian network structure that correlates alarms from micro detectors is designed based on the expert knowledge of the NDN specification and the NFD implementation. The relevance and performance of our security monitoring approach are demonstrated by considering the Content Poisoning Attack (CPA), one of the most critical attacks in NDN, through numerous experiment data collected from a real NDN deployment.

Xia, S., Li, N., Xiaofeng, T., Fang, C..  2018.  Multiple Attributes Based Spoofing Detection Using an Improved Clustering Algorithm in Mobile Edge Network. 2018 1st IEEE International Conference on Hot Information-Centric Networking (HotICN). :242–243.

Information centric network (ICN) based Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) network has drawn growing attentions in recent years. The distributed network architecture brings new security problems, especially the identity security problem. Because of the cloud platform deployed on the edge of the MEC network, multiple channel attributes can be easily obtained and processed. Thus this paper proposes a multiple channel attributes based spoofing detection mechanism. To further reduce the complexity, we also propose an improved clustering algorithm. The simulation results indicate that the proposed spoofing detection method can provide near-optimal performance with extremely low complexity.

Headrick, W. J., Dlugosz, A., Rajcok, P..  2018.  Information Assurance in modern ATE. 2018 IEEE AUTOTESTCON. :1–4.

For modern Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) one of the most daunting tasks is now Information Assurance (IA). What was once at most a secondary item consisting mainly of installing an Anti-Virus suite is now becoming one of the most important aspects of ATE. Given the current climate of IA it has become important to ensure ATE is kept safe from any breaches of security or loss of information. Even though most ATE are not on the Internet (or even on a network for many) they are still vulnerable to some of the same attack vectors plaguing common computers and other electronic devices. This paper will discuss some of the processes and procedures which must be used to ensure that modern ATE can continue to be used to test and detect faults in the systems they are designed to test. The common items that must be considered for ATE are as follows: The ATE system must have some form of Anti-Virus (as should all computers). The ATE system should have a minimum software footprint only providing the software needed to perform the task. The ATE system should be verified to have all the Operating System (OS) settings configured pursuant to the task it is intended to perform. The ATE OS settings should include password and password expiration settings to prevent access by anyone not expected to be on the system. The ATE system software should be written and constructed such that it in itself is not readily open to attack. The ATE system should be designed in a manner such that none of the instruments in the system can easily be attacked. The ATE system should insure any paths to the outside world (such as Ethernet or USB devices) are limited to only those required to perform the task it was designed for. These and many other common configuration concerns will be discussed in the paper.

Thapliyal, H., Ratajczak, N., Wendroth, O., Labrado, C..  2018.  Amazon Echo Enabled IoT Home Security System for Smart Home Environment. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :31–36.

Ever-driven by technological innovation, the Internet of Things (IoT) is continuing its exceptional evolution and growth into the common consumer space. In the wake of these developments, this paper proposes a framework for an IoT home security system that is secure, expandable, and accessible. Congruent with the ideals of the IoT, we are proposing a system utilizing an ultra-low-power wireless sensor network which would interface with a central hub via Bluetooth 4, commonly referred to as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), to monitor the home. Additionally, the system would interface with an Amazon Echo to accept user voice commands. The aforementioned central hub would also act as a web server and host an internet accessible configuration page from which users could monitor and customize their system. An internet-connected system would carry the capability to notify the users of system alarms via SMS or email. Finally, this proof of concept is intended to demonstrate expandability into other areas of home automation or building monitoring functions in general.

2019-07-01
Ha\c silo\u glu, A., Bali, A..  2018.  Central Audit Logging Mechanism in Personal Data Web Services. 2018 6th International Symposium on Digital Forensic and Security (ISDFS). :1-3.

Personal data have been compiled and harnessed by a great number of establishments to execute their legal activities. Establishments are legally bound to maintain the confidentiality and security of personal data. Hence it is a requirement to provide access logs for the personal information. Depending on the needs and capacity, personal data can be opened to the users via platforms such as file system, database and web service. Web service platform is a popular alternative since it is autonomous and can isolate the data source from the user. In this paper, the way to log personal data accessed via web service method has been discussed. As an alternative to classical method in which logs were recorded and saved by client applications, a different mechanism of forming a central audit log with API manager has been investigated. By forging a model policy to exemplify central logging method, its advantages and disadvantages have been explored. It has been concluded in the end that this model could be employed in centrally recording audit logs.

2019-06-24
Qbeitah, M. A., Aldwairi, M..  2018.  Dynamic malware analysis of phishing emails. 2018 9th International Conference on Information and Communication Systems (ICICS). :18–24.

Malicious software or malware is one of the most significant dangers facing the Internet today. In the fight against malware, users depend on anti-malware and anti-virus products to proactively detect threats before damage is done. Those products rely on static signatures obtained through malware analysis. Unfortunately, malware authors are always one step ahead in avoiding detection. This research deals with dynamic malware analysis, which emphasizes on: how the malware will behave after execution, what changes to the operating system, registry and network communication take place. Dynamic analysis opens up the doors for automatic generation of anomaly and active signatures based on the new malware's behavior. The research includes a design of honeypot to capture new malware and a complete dynamic analysis laboratory setting. We propose a standard analysis methodology by preparing the analysis tools, then running the malicious samples in a controlled environment to investigate their behavior. We analyze 173 recent Phishing emails and 45 SPIM messages in search for potentially new malwares, we present two malware samples and their comprehensive dynamic analysis.

2019-06-10
Udayakumar, N., Saglani, V. J., Cupta, A. V., Subbulakshmi, T..  2018.  Malware Classification Using Machine Learning Algorithms. 2018 2nd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :1-9.

Lately, we are facing the Malware crisis due to various types of malware or malicious programs or scripts available in the huge virtual world - the Internet. But, what is malware? Malware can be a malicious software or a program or a script which can be harmful to the user's computer. These malicious programs can perform a variety of functions, including stealing, encrypting or deleting sensitive data, altering or hijacking core computing functions and monitoring users' computer activity without their permission. There are various entry points for these programs and scripts in the user environment, but only one way to remove them is to find them and kick them out of the system which isn't an easy job as these small piece of script or code can be anywhere in the user system. This paper involves the understanding of different types of malware and how we will use Machine Learning to detect these malwares.

Eziama, E., Jaimes, L. M. S., James, A., Nwizege, K. S., Balador, A., Tepe, K..  2018.  Machine Learning-Based Recommendation Trust Model for Machine-to-Machine Communication. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology (ISSPIT). :1-6.

The Machine Type Communication Devices (MTCDs) are usually based on Internet Protocol (IP), which can cause billions of connected objects to be part of the Internet. The enormous amount of data coming from these devices are quite heterogeneous in nature, which can lead to security issues, such as injection attacks, ballot stuffing, and bad mouthing. Consequently, this work considers machine learning trust evaluation as an effective and accurate option for solving the issues associate with security threats. In this paper, a comparative analysis is carried out with five different machine learning approaches: Naive Bayes (NB), Decision Tree (DT), Linear and Radial Support Vector Machine (SVM), KNearest Neighbor (KNN), and Random Forest (RF). As a critical element of the research, the recommendations consider different Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication nodes with regard to their ability to identify malicious and honest information. To validate the performances of these models, two trust computation measures were used: Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROCs), Precision and Recall. The malicious data was formulated in Matlab. A scenario was created where 50% of the information were modified to be malicious. The malicious nodes were varied in the ranges of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and the results were carefully analyzed.

Ponmaniraj, S., Rashmi, R., Anand, M. V..  2018.  IDS Based Network Security Architecture with TCP/IP Parameters Using Machine Learning. 2018 International Conference on Computing, Power and Communication Technologies (GUCON). :111-114.

This computer era leads human to interact with computers and networks but there is no such solution to get rid of security problems. Securities threats misleads internet, we are sometimes losing our hope and reliability with many server based access. Even though many more crypto algorithms are coming for integrity and authentic data in computer access still there is a non reliable threat penetrates inconsistent vulnerabilities in networks. These vulnerable sites are taking control over the user's computer and doing harmful actions without user's privileges. Though Firewalls and protocols may support our browsers via setting certain rules, still our system couldn't support for data reliability and confidentiality. Since these problems are based on network access, lets we consider TCP/IP parameters as a dataset for analysis. By doing preprocess of TCP/IP packets we can build sovereign model on data set and clump cluster. Further the data set gets classified into regular traffic pattern and anonymous pattern using KNN classification algorithm. Based on obtained pattern for normal and threats data sets, security devices and system will set rules and guidelines to learn by it to take needed stroke. This paper analysis the computer to learn security actions from the given data sets which already exist in the previous happens.

Arsalan, A., Rehman, R. A..  2018.  Prevention of Timing Attack in Software Defined Named Data Network with VANETs. 2018 International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology (FIT). :247–252.

Software Defined Network (SDN) is getting popularity both from academic and industry. Lot of researches have been made to combine SDN with future Internet paradigms to manage and control networks efficiently. SDN provides better management and control in a network through decoupling of data and control plane. Named Data Networking (NDN) is a future Internet technique with aim to replace IPv4 addressing problems. In NDN, communication between different nodes done on the basis of content names rather than IP addresses. Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is a subtype of MANET which is also considered as a hot area for future applications. Different vehicles communicate with each other to form a network known as VANET. Communication between VANET can be done in two ways (i) Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) (ii) Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I). Combination of SDN and NDN techniques in future Internet can solve lot of problems which were hard to answer by considering a single technique. Security in VANET is always challenging due to unstable topology of VANET. In this paper, we merge future Internet techniques and propose a new scheme to answer timing attack problem in VANETs named as Timing Attack Prevention (TAP) protocol. Proposed scheme is evaluated through simulations which shows the superiority of proposed protocol regarding detection and mitigation of attacker vehicles as compared to normal timing attack scenario in NDN based VANET.

2019-05-20
Kurera, C., Navoda, D..  2018.  Node-to-Node Secure Data Transmission Protocol for Low-power IoT Devices. 2018 18th International Conference on Advances in ICT for Emerging Regions (ICTer). :1–7.

Through the internet and local networks, IoT devices exchange data. Most of the IoT devices are low-power devices, meaning that they are designed to use less electric power. To secure data transmission, it is required to encrypt the messages. Encryption and decryption of messages are computationally expensive activities, thus require considerable amount of processing and memory power which is not affordable to low-power IoT devices. Therefore, not all secure transmission protocols are low-power IoT devices friendly. This study proposes a secure data transmission protocol for low-power IoT devices. The design inherits some features in Kerberos and onetime password concepts. The protocol is designed for devices which are connected to each other, as in a fully connected network topology. The protocol uses symmetric key cryptography under the assumption of that the device specific keys are never being transmitted over the network. It resists DoS, message replay and Man-of-the-middle attacks while facilitating the key security concepts such as Authenticity, Confidentiality and Integrity. The designed protocol uses less number of encryption/decryption cycles and maintain session based strong authentication to facilitate secure data transmission among nodes.

Frolov, A. B., Vinnikov, A. M..  2018.  Modeling Cryptographic Protocols Using the Algebraic Processor. 2018 IV International Conference on Information Technologies in Engineering Education (Inforino). :1–5.

We present the IT solution for remote modeling of cryptographic protocols and other cryptographic primitives and a number of education-oriented capabilities based on them. These capabilities are provided at the Department of Mathematical Modeling using the MPEI algebraic processor, and allow remote participants to create automata models of cryptographic protocols, use and manage them in the modeling process. Particular attention is paid to the IT solution for modeling of the private communication and key distribution using the processor combined with the Kerberos protocol. This allows simulation and studying of key distribution protocols functionality on remote computers via the Internet. The importance of studying cryptographic primitives for future IT specialists is emphasized.

Caminha, J., Perkusich, A., Perkusich, M..  2018.  A smart middleware to detect on-off trust attacks in the Internet of Things. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1–2.

Security is a key concern in Internet of Things (IoT) designs. In a heterogeneous and complex environment, service providers and service requesters must trust each other. On-off attack is a sophisticated trust threat in which a malicious device can perform good and bad services randomly to avoid being rated as a low trust node. Some countermeasures demands prior level of trust knowing and time to classify a node behavior. In this paper, we introduce a Smart Middleware that automatically assesses the IoT resources trust, evaluating service providers attributes to protect against On-off attacks.

Chu, G., Lisitsa, A..  2018.  Penetration Testing for Internet of Things and Its Automation. 2018 IEEE 20th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 16th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 4th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :1479–1484.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology, an extension of the traditional Internet which make everything is connected each other based on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Sensor, GPS or Machine to Machine technologies, etc. The security issues surrounding IoT have been of detrimental impact to its development and has consequently attracted research interest. However, there are very few approaches which assess the security of IoT from the perspective of an attacker. Penetration testing is widely used to evaluate traditional internet or systems security to date and it normally spends numerous cost and time. In this paper, we analyze the security problems of IoT and propose a penetration testing approach and its automation based on belief-desire-intention (BDI) model to evaluate the security of the IoT.

2019-05-08
Balogun, A. M., Zuva, T..  2018.  Criminal Profiling in Digital Forensics: Assumptions, Challenges and Probable Solution. 2018 International Conference on Intelligent and Innovative Computing Applications (ICONIC). :1–7.

Cybercrime has been regarded understandably as a consequent compromise that follows the advent and perceived success of the computer and internet technologies. Equally effecting the privacy, trust, finance and welfare of the wealthy and low-income individuals and organizations, this menace has shown no indication of slowing down. Reports across the world have consistently shown exponential increase in the numbers and costs of cyber-incidents, and more worriedly low conviction rates of cybercriminals, over the years. Stakeholders increasingly explore ways to keep up with containing cyber-incidents by devising tools and techniques to increase the overall efficiency of investigations, but the gap keeps getting wider. However, criminal profiling - an investigative technique that has been proven to provide accurate and valuable directions to traditional crime investigations - has not seen a widespread application, including a formal methodology, to cybercrime investigations due to difficulties in its seamless transference. This paper, in a bid to address this problem, seeks to preliminarily identify the exact benefits criminal profiling has brought to successful traditional crime investigations and the benefits it can translate to cybercrime investigations, identify the challenges posed by the cyber-scene to its implementation in cybercrime investigations, and proffer a practicable solution.

2019-05-01
Valenta, L., Sullivan, N., Sanso, A., Heninger, N..  2018.  In Search of CurveSwap: Measuring Elliptic Curve Implementations in the Wild. 2018 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :384–398.

We survey elliptic curve implementations from several vantage points. We perform internet-wide scans for TLS on a large number of ports, as well as SSH and IPsec to measure elliptic curve support and implementation behaviors, and collect passive measurements of client curve support for TLS. We also perform active measurements to estimate server vulnerability to known attacks against elliptic curve implementations, including support for weak curves, invalid curve attacks, and curve twist attacks. We estimate that 1.53% of HTTPS hosts, 0.04% of SSH hosts, and 4.04% of IKEv2 hosts that support elliptic curves do not perform curve validity checks as specified in elliptic curve standards. We describe how such vulnerabilities could be used to construct an elliptic curve parameter downgrade attack called CurveSwap for TLS, and observe that there do not appear to be combinations of weak behaviors we examined enabling a feasible CurveSwap attack in the wild. We also analyze source code for elliptic curve implementations, and find that a number of libraries fail to perform point validation for JSON Web Encryption, and find a flaw in the Java and NSS multiplication algorithms.

2019-04-05
Huang, M. Chiu, Wan, Y., Chiang, C., Wang, S..  2018.  Tor Browser Forensics in Exploring Invisible Evidence. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). :3909-3914.
Given the high frequency of information security incidents, feeling that we may soon become innocent victims of these events may be justified. Perpetrators of information security offenses take advantage of several methods to leave no evidence of their crimes, and this pattern of hiding tracks has caused difficulties for investigators searching for digital evidence. Use of the onion router (Tor) is a common way for criminals to conceal their identities and tracks. This paper aims to explain the composition and operation of onion routing; we conduct a forensic experiment to detect the use of the Tor browser and compare several browser modes, including incognito and normal. Through the experimental method described in this paper, investigators can learn to identify perpetrators of Internet crimes, which will be helpful in future endeavors in digital forensics.
Vastel, A., Rudametkin, W., Rouvoy, R..  2018.  FP -TESTER : Automated Testing of Browser Fingerprint Resilience. 2018 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :103-107.
Despite recent regulations and growing user awareness, undesired browser tracking is increasing. In addition to cookies, browser fingerprinting is a stateless technique that exploits a device's configuration for tracking purposes. In particular, browser fingerprinting builds on attributes made available from Javascript and HTTP headers to create a unique and stable fingerprint. For example, browser plugins have been heavily exploited by state-of-the-art browser fingerprinters as a rich source of entropy. However, as browser vendors abandon plugins in favor of extensions, fingerprinters will adapt. We present FP-TESTER, an approach to automatically test the effectiveness of browser fingerprinting countermeasure extensions. We implement a testing toolkit to be used by developers to reduce browser fingerprintability. While countermeasures aim to hinder tracking by changing or blocking attributes, they may easily introduce subtle side-effects that make browsers more identifiable, rendering the extensions counterproductive. FP-TESTER reports on the side-effects introduced by the countermeasure, as well as how they impact tracking duration from a fingerprinter's point-of-view. To the best of our knowledge, FP-TESTER is the first tool to assist developers in fighting browser fingerprinting and reducing the exposure of end-users to such privacy leaks.