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Khalid, Haqi, Hashim, Shaiful Jahari, Mumtazah Syed Ahamed, Sharifah, Hashim, Fazirulhisyam, Chaudhary, Muhammad Akmal.  2021.  Secure Real-time Data Access Using Two-Factor Authentication Scheme for the Internet of Drones. 2021 IEEE 19th Student Conference on Research and Development (SCOReD). :168—173.
The Internet of Drones (IoD) is a distributed network control system that mainly manages unmanned aerial vehicle access to controlled airspace and provides navigation between so-called nodes. Securing the transmission of real-time information from the nodes in these applications is essential. The limited drone nodes, data storage, computing and communication capabilities necessitate the need to design an effective and secure authentication scheme. Recently, research has proposed remote user authentication and the key agreement on IoD and claimed that their schemes satisfied all security issues in these networks. However, we found that their schemes may lead to losing access to the drone system due to the corruption of using a key management system and make the system completely unusable. To solve this drawback, we propose a lightweight and anonymous two-factor authentication scheme for drones. The proposed scheme is based on an asymmetric cryptographic method to provide a secure system and is more suitable than the other existing schemes by securing real-time information. Moreover, the comparison shows that the proposed scheme minimized the complexity of communication and computation costs.
Gallus, Petr, Frantis, Petr.  2021.  Security analysis of the Raspbian Linux operating system and its settings to increase resilience against attacks via network interface. 2021 International Conference on Military Technologies (ICMT). :1—5.
The Internet, originally an academic network for the rapid exchange of information, has moved over time into the commercial media, business and later industrial communications environment. Recently, it has been included as a part of cyberspace as a combat domain. Any device connected to the unprotected Internet is thus exposed to possible attacks by various groups and individuals pursuing various criminal, security and political objectives. Therefore, each such device must be set up to be as resistant as possible to these attacks. For the implementation of small home, academic or industrial systems, people very often use small computing system Raspberry PI, which is usually equipped with the operating system Raspbian Linux. Such a device is often connected to an unprotected Internet environment and if successfully attacked, can act as a gateway for an attacker to enter the internal network of an organization or home. This paper deals with security configuration of Raspbian Linux operating system for operation on public IP addresses in an unprotected Internet environment. The content of this paper is the conduction and analysis of an experiment in which five Raspbian Linux/Raspberry PI accounts were created with varying security levels; the easiest to attack is a simulation of the device of a user who has left the system without additional security. The accounts that follow gradually add further protection and security. These accounts are used to simulate a variety of experienced users, and in a practical experiment the effects of these security measures are evaluated; such as the number of successful / unsuccessful attacks; where the attacks are from; the type and intensity of the attacks; and the target of the attack. The results of this experiment lead to formulated conclusions containing an analysis of the attack and subsequent design recommendations and settings to secure such a device. The subsequent section of the paper discusses the implementation of a simple TCP server that is configured to listen to incoming traffic on preset ports; it simulates the behaviour of selected services on these ports. This server's task is to intercept unauthorized connection attempts to these ports and intercepting attempts to communicate or attack these services. These recorded attack attempts are analyzed in detail and formulated in the conclusion, including implications for the security settings of such a device. The overall result of this paper is the recommended set up of operating system Raspbian Linux to work on public IP addresses in an unfiltered Internet environment.
Kientega, Raoul, Sidibé, Moustapha Hadji, Traore, Tiemogo.  2021.  Toward an Enhanced Tool for Internet Exchange Point Detection. 2021 3rd International Multidisciplinary Information Technology and Engineering Conference (IMITEC). :1–3.
Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) are critical components of the Internet infrastructure that affect its performance, evolution, security and economy. In this work, we introduce a technique to improve the well-known TraIXroute tool with its ability to identify IXPs. TraIXroute is a tool written in python3. It always encounters problems during its installation by network administrators and researchers. This problem remains unchanged in the field of internet ixp measurement tools. Our paper aims to make a critical analysis of TraIXroute tool which has some malfunctions. Furthermore, our main objective is to implement an improved tool for detecting ixps on the traceroute path with ipv4 and ipv6. The tool will have options for Geolocation of ixps as well as ASs. Our tool is written in C\# (C sharp) and python which are object oriented programming languages.
Papaspirou, Vassilis, Maglaras, Leandros, Ferrag, Mohamed Amine, Kantzavelou, Ioanna, Janicke, Helge, Douligeris, Christos.  2021.  A novel Two-Factor HoneyToken Authentication Mechanism. 2021 International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN). :1–7.
The majority of systems rely on user authentication on passwords, but passwords have so many weaknesses and widespread use that easily raise significant security concerns, regardless of their encrypted form. Users hold the same password for different accounts, administrators never check password files for flaws that might lead to a successful cracking, and the lack of a tight security policy regarding regular password replacement are a few problems that need to be addressed. The proposed research work aims at enhancing this security mechanism, prevent penetrations, password theft, and attempted break-ins towards securing computing systems. The selected solution approach is two-folded; it implements a two-factor authentication scheme to prevent unauthorized access, accompanied by Honeyword principles to detect corrupted or stolen tokens. Both can be integrated into any platform or web application with the use of QR codes and a mobile phone.
Farion-Melnyk, Antonina, Rozheliuk, Viktoria, Slipchenko, Tetiana, Banakh, Serhiy, Farion, Mykhailyna, Bilan, Oksana.  2021.  Ransomware Attacks: Risks, Protection and Prevention Measures. 2021 11th International Conference on Advanced Computer Information Technologies (ACIT). :473—478.
This article is about the current situation of cybercrime activity in the world. Research was planned to seek the possible protection measures taking into account the last events which might create an appropriate background for increasing of ransomware damages and cybercrime attacks. Nowadays, the most spread types of cybercrimes are fishing, theft of personal or payment data, cryptojacking, cyberespionage and ransomware. The last one is the most dangerous. It has ability to spread quickly and causes damages and sufficient financial loses. The major problem of this ransomware type is unpredictability of its behavior. It could be overcome only after the defined ransom was paid. This conditions created an appropriate background for the activation of cyber criminals’ activity even the organization of cyber gangs – professional, well-organized and well-prepared (tactical) group. So, researches conducted in this field have theoretical and practical value in the scientific sphere of research.
Cao, Wanqin, Huang, Yunhui, Li, Dezheng, Yang, Feng, Jiang, Xiaofeng, Yang, Jian.  2021.  A Blockchain Based Link-Flooding Attack Detection Scheme. 2021 IEEE 4th Advanced Information Management, Communicates, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IMCEC). 4:1665–1669.
Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack is a long-lived attack that is hugely harmful to the Internet. In particular, the emergence of a new type of DDoS called Link Flooding Attack (LFA) makes the detection and defense more difficult. In LFA, the attacker cuts off a specific area by controlling large numbers of bots to send low-rate traffic to congest selected links. Since the attack flows are similar to the legitimate ones, traditional schemes like anomaly detection and intrusion detection are no longer applicable. Blockchain provides a new solution to address this issue. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-based LFA detection scheme, which is deployed on routers and servers in and around the area that we want to protect. Blockchain technology is used to record and share the traceroute information, which enables the hosts in the protected region to easily trace the flow paths. We implement our scheme in Ethereum and conduct simulation experiments to evaluate its performance. The results show that our scheme can achieve timely detection of LFA with a high detection rate and a low false positive rate, as well as a low overhead.
Dou, Zhongchen.  2021.  The Text Captcha Solver: A Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network-Based Approach. 2021 International Conference on Big Data Analysis and Computer Science (BDACS). :273—283.
Although several different attacks or modern security mechanisms have been proposed, the captchas created by the numbers and the letters are still used by some websites or applications to protect their information security. The reason is that the labels of the captcha data are difficult to collect for the attacker, and protector can easily control the various parameters of the captchas: like the noise, the font type, the font size, and the background color, then make this security mechanism update with the increased attack methods. It can against attacks in different situations very effectively. This paper presents a method to recognize the different text-based captchas based on a system constituted by the denoising autoencoder and the Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network (CRNN) model with the Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) structure. We show that our approach has a better performance for recognizing, and it solves the identification problem of indefinite character length captchas efficiently.
Jadhav, Mohit, Kulkarni, Nupur, Walhekar, Omkar.  2021.  Doodling Based CAPTCHA Authentication System. 2021 Asian Conference on Innovation in Technology (ASIANCON). :1—5.
CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) is a widely used challenge-measures to distinguish humans and computer automated programs apart. Several existing CAPTCHAs are reliable for normal users, whereas visually impaired users face a lot of problems with the CAPTCHA authentication process. CAPTCHAs such as Google reCAPTCHA alternatively provides audio CAPTCHA, but many users find it difficult to decipher due to noise, language barrier, and accent of the audio of the CAPTCHA. Existing CAPTCHA systems lack user satisfaction on smartphones thus limiting its use. Our proposed system potentially solves the problem faced by visually impaired users during the process of CAPTCHA authentication. Also, our system makes the authentication process generic across users as well as platforms.
Singh, A K, Goyal, Navneet.  2021.  Detection of Malicious Webpages Using Deep Learning. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :3370–3379.
Malicious Webpages have been a serious threat on Internet for the past few years. As per the latest Google Transparency reports, they continue to be top ranked amongst online threats. Various techniques have been used till date to identify malicious sites, to include, Static Heuristics, Honey Clients, Machine Learning, etc. Recently, with the rapid rise of Deep Learning, an interest has aroused to explore Deep Learning techniques for detecting Malicious Webpages. In this paper Deep Learning has been utilized for such classification. The model proposed in this research has used a Deep Neural Network (DNN) with two hidden layers to distinguish between Malicious and Benign Webpages. This DNN model gave high accuracy of 99.81% with very low False Positives (FP) and False Negatives (FN), and with near real-time response on test sample. The model outperformed earlier machine learning solutions in accuracy, precision, recall and time performance metrics.
Priyanka, V S, Satheesh Kumar, S, Jinu Kumar, S V.  2021.  A Forensic Methodology for the Analysis of Cloud-Based Android Apps. 2021 International Conference on Forensics, Analytics, Big Data, Security (FABS). 1:1–5.
The widespread use of smartphones has made the gadget a prime source of evidence for crime investigators. The cloud-based applications on mobile devices store a rich set of evidence in the cloud servers. The physical acquisition of Android devices reveals only minimal data of cloud-based apps. However, the artifacts collected from mobile devices can be used for data acquisition from cloud servers. This paper focuses on the forensic acquisition and analysis of cloud data of Google apps on Android devices. The proposed methodology uses the tokens extracted from the Android devices to get authenticated to the Google server bypassing the two-factor authentication scheme and access the cloud data for further analysis. Based on the investigation, we have also developed a tool to acquire, preserve and analyze cloud data in a forensically sound manner.
Thom, Jay, Shah, Yash, Sengupta, Shamik.  2021.  Correlation of Cyber Threat Intelligence Data Across Global Honeypots. 2021 IEEE 11th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0766–0772.
Today's global network is filled with attackers both live and automated seeking to identify and compromise vulnerable devices, with initial scanning and attack activity occurring within minutes or even seconds of being connected to the Internet. To better understand these events, honeypots can be deployed to monitor and log activity by simulating actual Internet facing services such as SSH, Telnet, HTTP, or FTP, and malicious activity can be logged as attempts are made to compromise them. In this study six multi-service honeypots are deployed in locations around the globe to collect and catalog traffic over a period of several months between March and December, 2020. Analysis is performed on various characteristics including source and destination IP addresses and port numbers, usernames and passwords utilized, commands executed, and types of files downloaded. In addition, Cowrie log data is restructured to observe individual attacker sessions, study command sequences, and monitor tunneling activity. This data is then correlated across honeypots to compare attack and traffic patterns with the goal of learning more about the tactics being employed. By gathering data gathered from geographically separate zones over a long period of time a greater understanding can be developed regarding attacker intent and methodology, can aid in the development of effective approaches to identifying malicious behavior and attack sources, and can serve as a cyber-threat intelligence feed.
Anwar, Ahmed H., Leslie, Nandi O., Kamhoua, Charles A..  2021.  Honeypot Allocation for Cyber Deception in Internet of Battlefield Things Systems. MILCOM 2021 - 2021 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :1005–1010.
Cyber deception plays an important role in both proactive and reactive defense systems. Internet of Battlefield things connecting smart devices of any military tactical network is of great importance. The goal of cyber deception is to provide false information regarding the network state, and topology to protect the IoBT's network devices. In this paper, we propose a novel deceptive approach based on game theory that takes into account the topological aspects of the network and the criticality of each device. To find the optimal deceptive strategy, we formulate a two-player game to study the interactions between the network defender and the adversary. The Nash equilibrium of the game model is characterized. Moreover, we propose a scalable game-solving algorithm to overcome the curse of dimensionality. This approach is based on solving a smaller in-size subgame per node. Our numerical results show that the proposed deception approach effectively reduced the impact and the reward of the attacker
Dhoot, Anshita, Zong, Boyang, Saeed, Muhammad Salman, Singh, Karan.  2021.  Security Analysis of Private Intellectual Property. 2021 International Conference on Engineering Management of Communication and Technology (EMCTECH). :1–7.
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) results from years of research and wisdom by property owners, and it plays an increasingly important role in promoting economic development, technological progress, and cultural prosperity. Thus, we need to strengthen the degree of protection of IPR. However, as internet technology continues to open up the market for IPR, the ease of network operation has led to infringement of IPR in some cases. Intellectual property infringement has occurred in some cases. Also, Internet development's concealed and rapid nature has led to the fact that IPR infringers cannot be easily detected. This paper addresses how to protect the rights and interests of IPR holders in the context of the rapid development of the internet. This paper explains the IPR and proposes an algorithm to enhance security for a better security model to protect IPR. This proposes optimization techniques to detect intruder attacks for securing IPR, by using support vector machines (SVM), it provides better results to secure public and private intellectual data by optimizing technologies.
Uchida, Hikaru, Matsubara, Masaki, Wakabayashi, Kei, Morishima, Atsuyuki.  2020.  Human-in-the-loop Approach towards Dual Process AI Decisions. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :3096–3098.
How to develop AI systems that can explain how they made decisions is one of the important and hot topics today. Inspired by the dual-process theory in psychology, this paper proposes a human-in-the-loop approach to develop System-2 AI that makes an inference logically and outputs interpretable explanation. Our proposed method first asks crowd workers to raise understandable features of objects of multiple classes and collect training data from the Internet to generate classifiers for the features. Logical decision rules with the set of generated classifiers can explain why each object is of a particular class. In our preliminary experiment, we applied our method to an image classification of Asian national flags and examined the effectiveness and issues of our method. In our future studies, we plan to combine the System-2 AI with System-1 AI (e.g., neural networks) to efficiently output decisions.
Mirza, Mohammad Meraj, Karabiyik, Umit.  2021.  Enhancing IP Address Geocoding, Geolocating and Visualization for Digital Forensics. 2021 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1–7.
Internet Protocol (IP) address holds a probative value to the identification process in digital forensics. The decimal digit is a unique identifier that is beneficial in many investigations (i.e., network, email, memory). IP addresses can reveal important information regarding the device that the user uses during Internet activity. One of the things that IP addresses can essentially help digital forensics investigators in is the identification of the user machine and tracing evidence based on network artifacts. Unfortunately, it appears that some of the well-known digital forensic tools only provide functions to recover IP addresses from a given forensic image. Thus, there is still a gap in answering if IP addresses found in a smartphone can help reveal the user’s location and be used to aid investigators in identifying IP addresses that complement the user’s physical location. Furthermore, the lack of utilizing IP mapping and visualizing techniques has resulted in the omission of such digital evidence. This research aims to emphasize the importance of geolocation data in digital forensic investigations, propose an IP visualization technique considering several sources of evidence, and enhance the investigation process’s speed when its pertained to IP addresses using spatial analysis. Moreover, this research proposes a proof-of-concept (POC) standalone tool that can match critical IP addresses with approximate geolocations to fill the gap in this area.
Fazea, Yousef, Mohammed, Fathey.  2021.  Software Defined Networking based Information Centric Networking: An Overview of Approaches and Challenges. 2021 International Congress of Advanced Technology and Engineering (ICOTEN). :1–8.
ICN (Information-Centric Networking) is a traditional networking approach which focuses on Internet design, while SDN (Software Defined Networking) is known as a speedy and flexible networking approach. Integrating these two approaches can solve different kinds of traditional networking problems. On the other hand, it may expose new challenges. In this paper, we study how these two networking approaches are been combined to form SDN-based ICN architecture to improve network administration. Recent research is explored to identify the SDN-based ICN challenges, provide a critical analysis of the current integration approaches, and determine open issues for further research.
Sharma, Anurag, Mohanty, Suman, Islam, Md. Ruhul.  2021.  An Experimental Analysis on Malware Detection in Executable Files using Machine Learning. 2021 8th International Conference on Smart Computing and Communications (ICSCC). :178–182.
In the recent time due to advancement of technology, Malware and its clan have continued to advance and become more diverse. Malware otherwise Malicious Software consists of Virus, Trojan horse, Adware, Spyware etc. This said software leads to extrusion of data (Spyware), continuously flow of Ads (Adware), modifying or damaging the system files (Virus), or access of personal information (Trojan horse). Some of the major factors driving the growth of these attacks are due to poorly secured devices and the ease of availability of tools in the Internet with which anyone can attack any system. The attackers or the developers of Malware usually lean towards blending of malware into the executable file, which makes it hard to detect the presence of malware in executable files. In this paper we have done experimental study on various algorithms of Machine Learning for detecting the presence of Malware in executable files. After testing Naïve Bayes, KNN and SVM, we found out that SVM was the most suited algorithm and had the accuracy of 94%. We then created a web application where the user could upload executable file and test the authenticity of the said executable file if it is a Malware file or a benign file.
Li, Xiaojian, Chen, Jinsong.  2021.  Research on the Influence Mechanism of Artificial Intelligence on Lateral Channel Spillover Effect. 2021 International Conference on Internet, Education and Information Technology (IEIT). :90–93.

With big data and artificial intelligence, we conduct the research of the buyers' identification and involvement, and their investments such as time, experience and consultation in various channels are analyzed and iterated. We establish a set of AI channel governance system with the functions of members' behavior monitoring, transaction clearing and deterrence; Through the system, the horizontal spillover effect of their behavior is controlled. Thus, their unfair perception can be effectively reduced and the channel performance can be improved as well.

Yue, Ren, Miao, Chen, Bo, Li, Xueyuan, Wang, Xingzhi, Li, Zijun, Liao.  2021.  Research and Implementation of Efficient DPI Engine Base on DPDK. 2021 China Automation Congress (CAC). :3868–3873.
With the rapid development of the Internet, network traffic is becoming more complex and diverse. At the same time, malicious traffic is growing. This seriously threatens the security of networks and information. However, the current DPI (Deep Packet Inspect) engine based on x86 architecture is slow in monitoring speed, which cannot meet the needs. Generally, two factors affect the detection rate: CPU and memory; The efficiency of data packet acquisition, and multi regular expression matching. Under these circumstances, this paper presents an efficient implementation of the DPI engine based on a generic x86 platform. DPDK is used as the platform of network data packets acquisition and processing. Using the multi-queue of the NIC (network interface controller) and the customized symmetric RSS key, the network traffic is divided and reorganized in the form of conversation. The core of traffic identification is hyperscan, which uses a flow pattern to match the packets load of a single conversation efficiently. It greatly reduces memory requirements. The method makes full use of the system resources and takes into account the advantages of high efficiency of hardware implementation. And it has a remarkable improvement in the efficiency of recognition.
Wang, Jinbao, Cai, Zhipeng, Yu, Jiguo.  2020.  Achieving Personalized \$k\$-Anonymity-Based Content Privacy for Autonomous Vehicles in CPS. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. 16:4242–4251.
Enabled by the industrial Internet, intelligent transportation has made remarkable achievements such as autonomous vehicles by carnegie mellon university (CMU) Navlab, Google Cars, Tesla, etc. Autonomous vehicles benefit, in various aspects, from the cooperation of the industrial Internet and cyber-physical systems. In this process, users in autonomous vehicles submit query contents, such as service interests or user locations, to service providers. However, privacy concerns arise since the query contents are exposed when the users are enjoying the services queried. Existing works on privacy preservation of query contents rely on location perturbation or k-anonymity, and they suffer from insufficient protection of privacy or low query utility incurred by processing multiple queries for a single query content. To achieve sufficient privacy preservation and satisfactory query utility for autonomous vehicles querying services in cyber-physical systems, this article proposes a novel privacy notion of client-based personalized k-anonymity (CPkA). To measure the performance of CPkA, we present a privacy metric and a utility metric, based on which, we formulate two problems to achieve the optimal CPkA in term of privacy and utility. An approach, including two modules, to establish mechanisms which achieve the optimal CPkA is presented. The first module is to build in-group mechanisms for achieving the optimal privacy within each content group. The second module includes linear programming-based methods to compute the optimal grouping strategies. The in-group mechanisms and the grouping strategies are combined to establish optimal CPkA mechanisms, which achieve the optimal privacy or the optimal utility. We employ real-life datasets and synthetic prior distributions to evaluate the CPkA mechanisms established by our approach. The evaluation results illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the established mechanisms.
Conference Name: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Luo, Jing, Xu, Guoqing.  2021.  XSS Attack Detection Methods Based on XLNet and GRU. 2021 4th International Conference on Robotics, Control and Automation Engineering (RCAE). :171–175.
With the progress of science and technology and the development of Internet technology, Internet technology has penetrated into various industries in today’s society. But this explosive growth is also troubling information security. Among them, XSS (cross-site scripting vulnerability) is one of the most influential vulnerabilities in Internet applications in recent years. Traditional network security detection technology is becoming more and more weak in the new network environment, and deep learning methods such as CNN and RNN can only learn the spatial or timing characteristics of data samples in a single way. In this paper, a generalized self-regression pretraining model XLNet and GRU XSS attack detection method is proposed, the self-regression pretrained model XLNet is introduced and combined with GRU to learn the time series and spatial characteristics of the data, and the generalization capability of the model is improved by using dropout. Faced with the increasingly complex and ever-changing XSS payload, this paper refers to the character-level convolution to establish a dictionary to encode the data samples, thus preserving the characteristics of the original data and improving the overall efficiency, and then transforming it into a two-dimensional spatial matrix to meet XLNet’s input requirements. The experimental results on the Github data set show that the accuracy of this method is 99.92 percent, the false positive rate is 0.02 percent, the accuracy rate is 11.09 percent higher than that of the DNN method, the false positive rate is 3.95 percent lower, and other evaluation indicators are better than GRU, CNN and other comparative methods, which can improve the detection accuracy and system stability of the whole detection system. This multi-model fusion method can make full use of the advantages of each model to improve the accuracy of system detection, on the other hand, it can also enhance the stability of the system.
Kang, Ji, Sun, Yi, Xie, Hui, Zhu, Xixi, Ding, Zhaoyun.  2021.  Analysis System for Security Situation in Cyberspace Based on Knowledge Graph. 2021 7th International Conference on Big Data and Information Analytics (BigDIA). :385–392.
With the booming of Internet technology, the continuous emergence of new technologies and new algorithms greatly expands the application boundaries of cyberspace. While enjoying the convenience brought by informatization, the society is also facing increasingly severe threats to the security of cyberspace. In cyber security defense, cyberspace operators rely on the discovered vulnerabilities, attack patterns, TTPs, and other knowledge to observe, analyze and determine the current threats to the network and security situation in cyberspace, and then make corresponding decisions. However, most of such open-source knowledge is distributed in different data sources in the form of text or web pages, which is not conducive to the understanding, query and correlation analysis of cyberspace operators. In this paper, a knowledge graph for cyber security is constructed to solve this problem. At first, in the process of obtaining security data from multi-source heterogeneous cyberspaces, we adopt efficient crawler to crawl the required data, paving the way for knowledge graph building. In order to establish the ontology required by the knowledge graph, we abstract the overall framework of security data sources in cyberspace, and depict in detail the correlations among various data sources. Then, based on the \$$\backslash$mathbfOWL +$\backslash$mathbfSWRL\$ language, we construct the cyber security knowledge graph. On this basis, we design an analysis system for situation in cyberspace based on knowledge graph and the Snort intrusion detection system (IDS), and study the rules in Snort. The system integrates and links various public resources from the Internet, including key information such as general platforms, vulnerabilities, weaknesses, attack patterns, tactics, techniques, etc. in real cyberspace, enabling the provision of comprehensive, systematic and rich cyber security knowledge to security researchers and professionals, with the expectation to provide a useful reference for cyber security defense.
Birrane, Edward J., Heiner, Sarah E..  2021.  Towards an Interoperable Security Policy for Space-Based Internetworks. 2021 IEEE Space Computing Conference (SCC). :84–94.

Renewed focus on spacecraft networking by government and private industry promises to establish interoperable communications infrastructures and enable distributed computing in multi-nodal systems. Planned near-Earth and cislunar missions by NASA and others evidence the start of building this networking vision. Working with space agencies, academia, and industry, NASA has developed a suite of communications protocols and algorithms collectively referred to as Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) to support an interoperable space network. Included in the DTN protocol suite is a security protocol - the Bundle Protocol Security Protocol - which provides the kind of delay-tolerant, transport-layer security needed for cislunar and deep-space trusted networking. We present an analysis of the lifecycle of security operations inherent in a space network with a focus on the DTN-enabled space networking paradigm. This analysis defines three security-related roles for spacecraft (Security Sources, verifiers, and acceptors) and associates a series of critical processing events with each of these roles. We then define the set of required and optional actions associated with these security events. Finally, we present a series of best practices associated with policy configurations that are unique to the space-network security problem. Framing space network security policy as a mapping of security actions to security events provides the details necessary for making trusted networks semantically interoperable. Finally, this method is flexible enough to allow for customization even while providing a unifying core set of mandatory security actions.

Lingga, Patrick, Kim, Jeonghyeon, Bartolome, Jorge David Iranzo, Jeong, Jaehoon.  2021.  Automatic Data Model Mapper for Security Policy Translation in Interface to Network Security Functions Framework. 2021 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :882–887.
The Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF) Working Group in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) provides data models of interfaces to easily configure Network Security Functions (NSF). The Working Group presents a high-level data model and a low-level data model for configuring the NSFs. The high-level data model is used for the users to manipulate the NSFs configuration easily without any security expertise. But the NSFs cannot be configured using the high-level data model as it needs a low-level data model to properly deploy their security operation. For that reason, the I2NSF Framework needs a security policy translator to translate the high-level data model into the corresponding low-level data model. This paper improves the previously proposed Security Policy Translator by adding an Automatic Data Model Mapper. The proposed mapper focuses on the mapping between the elements in the high-level data model and the elements in low-level data model to automate the translation without the need for a security administrator to create a mapping table.
Vieira, Alfredo Menezes, Junior, Rubens de Souza Matos, Ribeiro, Admilson de Ribamar Lima.  2021.  Systematic Mapping on Prevention of DDoS Attacks on Software Defined Networks. 2021 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon). :1—8.
Cyber attacks are a major concern for network administrators as the occurrences of such events are continuously increasing on the Internet. Software-defined networks (SDN) enable many management applications, but they may also become targets for attackers. Due to the separation of the data plane and the control plane, the controller appears as a new element in SDN networks, allowing centralized control of the network, becoming a strategic target in carrying out an attack. According to reports generated by security labs, the frequency of the distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks has seen an increase in recent years, characterizing a major threat to the SDN. However, few research papers address the prevention of DDoS attacks on SDN. Therefore, this work presents a Systematic Mapping of Literature, aiming at identifying, classifying, and thus disseminating current research studies that propose techniques and methods for preventing DDoS attacks in SDN. When answering these questions, it was determined that the SDN controller was vulnerable to possible DDoS attacks. No prevention methods were found in the literature for the first phase of the attack (when attackers try to deceive users and infect the host). Therefore, the security of software-defined networks still needs improvement over DDoS attacks, despite the evident risk of an attack targeting the SDN controller.