Visible to the public Biblio

Found 165 results

Filters: Keyword is Routing protocols  [Clear All Filters]
2020-06-01
Aziz, Nooralhuda waheed, Alsaad, Saad Najim, Hmood, Haider kadhum.  2019.  Implementation of Lightweight Stream Cipher in AODV Routing Protocol for MANET. 2019 First International Conference of Computer and Applied Sciences (CAS). :210—215.

The growing use of MANETs and its vulnerability to attacks due to its fundamental characteristics make secure routing one of the most considerable challenges. In this paper, a new security scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is presented. The proposed scheme used Trivium lightweight stream cipher algorithm in combination with HMAC to secure the routing control packets. This paper compares the performance of the AODV after implementing the security scheme in terms of throughput, delay sum (end-to-end), jitter sum (end-to-end) and packet loss ratio. The proposed scheme shows better performance than original AODV under blackhole attack.

Nandhini, P.S., Mehtre, B.M..  2019.  Intrusion Detection System Based RPL Attack Detection Techniques and Countermeasures in IoT: A Comparison. 2019 International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :666—672.

Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Network (RPL) is a light weight routing protocol designed for LLN (Low Power Lossy Networks). It is a source routing protocol. Due to constrained nature of resources in LLN, RPL is exposed to various attacks such as blackhole attack, wormhole attack, rank attack, version attack, etc. IDS (Intrusion Detection System) is one of the countermeasures for detection and prevention of attacks for RPL based loT. Traditional IDS techniques are not suitable for LLN due to certain characteristics like different protocol stack, standards and constrained resources. In this paper, we have presented various IDS research contribution for RPL based routing attacks. We have also classified the proposed IDS in the literature, according to the detection techniques. Therefore, this comparison will be an eye-opening stuff for future research in mitigating routing attacks for RPL based IoT.

Patel, Himanshu B., Jinwala, Devesh C..  2019.  Blackhole Detection in 6LoWPAN Based Internet of Things: An Anomaly Based Approach. TENCON 2019 - 2019 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :947—954.

The Internet of things networks is vulnerable to many DOS attacks. Among them, Blackhole attack is one of the severe attacks as it hampers communication among network devices. In general, the solutions presented in the literature for Blackhole detection are not efficient. In addition, the existing approaches do not factor-in, the consumption in resources viz. energy, bandwidth and network lifetime. Further, these approaches are also insensitive to the mechanism used for selecting a parent in on Blackhole formation. Needless to say, a blackhole node if selected as parent would lead to orchestration of this attack trivially and hence it is an important factor in selection of a parent. In this paper, we propose SIEWE (Strainer based Intrusion Detection of Blackhole in 6LoWPAN for the Internet of Things) - an Intrusion detection mechanism to identify Blackhole attack on Routing protocol RPL in IoT. In contrast to the Watchdog based approaches where every node in network runs in promiscuous mode, SIEWE filters out suspicious nodes first and then verifies the behavior of those nodes only. The results that we obtain, show that SIEWE improves the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) of the system by blacklisting malicious Blackhole nodes.

Sivanesh, S., Sarma Dhulipala, V.R..  2019.  Comparitive Analysis of Blackhole and Rushing Attack in MANET. 2019 TEQIP III Sponsored International Conference on Microwave Integrated Circuits, Photonics and Wireless Networks (IMICPW). :495—499.

For the past few decades, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have been a global trend in wireless networking technology. These kind of ad-hoc networks are infrastructure less, dynamic in topology and further doesn't have a centralized network administration which makes it easier for the intruders to launch several attacks on MANETs. In this paper, we have made a comparative analysis of the network layer attack by simulating rushing and black hole attack using NS-2 network simulator. For determining the most vulnerable attack we have considered packet delivery ratio, end to end delay and throughput as a evaluation metrices. Here, AODV routing protocol has been configured for data forwarding operations. From our Simulation result, it is evident that the black hole attack is more vulnerable when compared to the rushing attack.

Zhang, Tianchen, Zhang, Taimin, Ji, Xiaoyu, Xu, Wenyuan.  2019.  Cuckoo-RPL: Cuckoo Filter based RPL for Defending AMI Network from Blackhole Attacks. 2019 Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :8920—8925.

Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is a key component in the smart grid. Transmitting data robustly and reliably between the tremendous smart meters in the AMI is one of the most crucial tasks for providing various services in smart grid. Among the many efforts for designing practical routing protocols for the AMI, the Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) proposed by the IETF ROLL working group is considered the most consolidated candidate. Resent research has shown cyber attacks such as blackhole attack and version number attack can seriously damage the performance of the network implementing RPL. The main reason that RPL is vulnerable to these kinds of attacks is the lack an authentication mechanism. In this paper, we study the impact of blackhole attacks on the performance of the AMI network and proposed a new blackhole attack that can bypass the existing defense mechanism. Then, we propose a cuckoo filter based RPL to defend the AMI network from blackhole attacks. We also give the security analysis of the proposed method.

2020-05-26
Tiennoy, Sasirom, Saivichit, Chaiyachet.  2018.  Using a Distributed Roadside Unit for the Data Dissemination Protocol in VANET With the Named Data Architecture. IEEE Access. 6:32612–32623.
Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) has recently become one of the highly active research areas for wireless networking. Since VANET is a multi-hop wireless network with very high mobility and intermittent connection lifetime, it is important to effectively handle the data dissemination issue in this rapidly changing environment. However, the existing TCP/IP implementation may not fit into such a highly dynamic environment because the nodes in the network must often perform rerouting due to their inconsistency of connectivity. In addition, the drivers in the vehicles may want to acquire some data, but they do not know the address/location of such data storage. Hence, the named data networking (NDN) approach may be more desirable here. The NDN architecture is proposed for the future Internet, which focuses on the delivering mechanism based on the message contents instead of relying on the host addresses of the data. In this paper, a new protocol named roadside unit (RSU) assisted of named data network (RA-NDN) is presented. The RSU can operate as a standalone node [standalone RSU (SA-RSU)]. One benefit of deploying SA-RSUs is the improved network connectivity. This study uses the NS3 and SUMO software packages for the network simulator and traffic simulator software, respectively, to verify the performance of the RA-NDN protocol. To reduce the latency under various vehicular densities, vehicular transmission ranges, and number of requesters, the proposed approach is compared with vehicular NDN via a real-world data set in the urban area of Sathorn road in Bangkok, Thailand. The simulation results show that the RA-NDN protocol improves the performance of ad hoc communications with the increase in data received ratio and throughput and the decrease in total dissemination time and traffic load.
Chatterjee, Tanusree, Ruj, Sushmita, DasBit, Sipra.  2018.  Data forwarding and update propagation in grid network for NDN: A low-overhead approach. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems (ANTS). :1–6.
Now-a-days Internet has become mostly content centric. Named Data Network (NDN) has emerged as a promising candidate to cope with the use of today's Internet. Several NDN features such as in-network caching, easier data forwarding, etc. in the routing method bring potential advantages over conventional networks. Despite the advantages, there are many challenges in NDN which are yet to be addressed. In this paper, we address two of such challenges in NDN routing: (1) Huge storage overhead in NDN router (2) High communication over-heads in the network during propagation of routing information updates. We propose changes in existing NDN routing with the aim to provide a low-overhead solution to these problems. Here instead of storing the Link State Data Base (LSDB) in all the routers, it is kept in selected special nodes only. The use of special nodes lowers down the overall storage and update overheads. We also provide supporting algorithms for data forwarding and update for grid network. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated in terms of storage and communication overheads. The results show the overheads are reduced by almost one third as compared to the existing routing method in NDN.
Chatterjee, Tanusree, Ruj, Sushmita, Bit, Sipra Das.  2018.  Security Issues in Named Data Networks. Computer. 51:66–75.
Today's IP and content distribution networks are unable to fulfill all data distribution and security requirements. The named data network (NDN) has emerged as a promising candidate to cope with the Internet usage of the 21st century. Although the NDN has many built-in security features, this survey reviews several pressing security issues and open research areas.
Hamamreh, Rushdi A., Ayyad, Mohammad, Jamoos, Mohammad.  2019.  RAD: Reinforcement Authentication DYMO Protocol for MANET. 2019 International Conference on Promising Electronic Technologies (ICPET). :136–141.
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) does not have fixed infrastructure centralized server which manage the connections between the nodes. Rather, the nodes in MANET move randomly. Thus, it is risky to exchange data between nodes because there is a high possibility of having malicious node in the path. In this paper, we will describe a new authentication technique using message digest 5 (MD5), hashing for dynamic MANET on demand protocol (DYMO) based on reinforcement learning. In addition, we will describe an encryption technique that can be used without the need for a third party to distribute a secret key. After implementing the suggested model, results showed a remarkable enhancement in securing the path by increasing the packet delivery ratio and average throughput. On the other hand, there was an increase in end to end delay due to time spent in cryptographic operations.
Soualfi, Abderrahim Hajji, Agoujil, Said, Qaraai, Youssef.  2019.  Performance Analysis of OLSR Protocol under MPR Attack in Progressive Size Grid MANET. 2019 International Conference on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications (WINCOM). :1–5.
Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET) is a collection of mobile devices which interchange information without the use of predefined infrastructures or central administration. It is employed in many domains such as military and commercial sectors, data and sensors networks, low level applications, etc. The important constraints in this network are the limitation of bandwidth, processing capabilities and battery life. The choice of an effective routing protocol is primordial. From many routing protocols developed for MANET, OLSR protocol is a widely-used proactive routing protocol which diffuses topological information periodically. Thus, every node has a global vision of the entire network. The protocol assumes, like the other protocols, that the nodes cooperate in a trusted environment. So, all control messages are transmitted (HELLO messages) to all 1-hop neighbor nodes or broadcasted (TC and MID messages) to the entire network in clear. However, a node, which listens to OLSR control messages, can exploit this property to lead an attack. In this paper, we investigate on MultiPoint Relay (MPR) attack considered like one of the efficient OLSR attacks by using a simulation in progressive size gridMANET.
Jim, Lincy Elizebeth, Chacko, Jim.  2019.  Decision Tree based AIS strategy for Intrusion Detection in MANET. TENCON 2019 - 2019 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :1191–1195.
Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are wireless networks that are void of fixed infrastructure as the communication between nodes are dependent on the liaison of each node in the network. The efficacy of MANET in critical scenarios like battlefield communications, natural disaster require new security strategies and policies to guarantee the integrity of nodes in the network. Due to the inherent frailty of MANETs, new security measures need to be developed to defend them. Intrusion Detection strategy used in wired networks are unbefitting for wireless networks due to reasons not limited to resource constraints of participating nodes and nature of communication. Nodes in MANET utilize multi hop communication to forward packets and this result in consumption of resources like battery and memory. The intruder or cheat nodes decide to cooperate or non-cooperate with other nodes. The cheat nodes reduce the overall effectiveness of network communications such as reduced packet delivery ratio and sometimes increase the congestion of the network by forwarding the packet to wrong destination and causing packets to take more times to reach the appropriate final destination. In this paper a decision tree based artificial immune system (AIS) strategy is utilized to detect such cheat nodes thereby improving the efficiency of packet delivery.
Tripathi, Shripriya.  2019.  Performance Analysis of AODV and DSR Routing Protocols of MANET under Wormhole Attack and a Suggested Trust Based Routing Algorithm for DSR. 2019 IEEE International WIE Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (WIECON-ECE). :1–5.
The nodes in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) can self-assemble themselves, locomote unreservedly and can interact with one another without taking any help from a centralized authority or fixed infrastructure. Due to its continuously changing and self-organizing nature, MANET is vulnerable to a variety of attacks like spoofing attack, wormhole attack, black hole attack, etc. This paper compares and analyzes the repercussion of the wormhole attack on MANET's two common routing protocols of reactive category, specifically, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) by increasing the number of wormhole tunnels in MANET. The results received by simulation will reveal that DSR is greatly affected by this attack. So, as a solution, a routing algorithm for DSR which is based on trust is proposed to prevent the routes from caching malicious nodes.
Nithyapriya, J., Anandha Jothi, R., Palanisamy, V..  2019.  Protecting Messages Using Selective Encryption Based ESI Scheme for MANET. 2019 TEQIP III Sponsored International Conference on Microwave Integrated Circuits, Photonics and Wireless Networks (IMICPW). :50–54.
Mobile ad hoc network is a group of mobile nodes which have no centralized administrator. MANETs have dynamic topology since the nodes are moving. For this reason it is more prone to attacks that any node may be a misbehaving node. Every node acts as a router thereby it may lead the network with wrong routing. For these reasons MANETs have to be more protected than the wired networks. The mobile nodes will lavishly consume energy and so a security scheme that consumes less energy still provides ample protection to the messages have to be introduced. Here we propose an encryption scheme for the messages passing through MANET. The security scheme is based on selective encryption that is very robust, simple and with less computational capability.
Fu, Yulong, Li, Guoquan, Mohammed, Atiquzzaman, Yan, Zheng, Cao, Jin, Li, Hui.  2019.  A Study and Enhancement to the Security of MANET AODV Protocol Against Black Hole Attacks. 2019 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing Communications, Cloud Big Data Computing, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/CBDCom/IOP/SCI). :1431–1436.
Mobile AdHoc Networks (MANET) can be fast implemented, and it is very popular in many specific network requirements, such as UAV (Unmanned Aerial Unit), Disaster Recovery and IoT (Internet of Things) etc. However, MANET is also vulnerable. AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing) protocol is one type of MANET routing protocol and many attacks can be implemented to break the connections on AODV based AdHoc networks. In this article, aim of protecting the MANET security, we modeled the AODV protocol with one type of Automata and analyzed the security vulnerabilities of it; then based on the analyzing results, we proposed an enhancement to AODV protocol to against the Black Hole Attacks. We also implemented the proposed enhancement in NS3 simulator and verified the correctness, usability and efficiency.
Satav, Pravin R, Jawandhiya, Pradeep M., Thakare, Vilas M..  2018.  Secure Route Selection Mechanism in the Presence of Black Hole Attack with AOMDV Routing Algorithm. 2018 Fourth International Conference on Computing Communication Control and Automation (ICCUBEA). :1–6.
The research in MANET has been carried out for the development of various techniques which will increase the competency of the network only. A plenty number of proposed routing protocols are magnificent in terms of efficiency. However, proposed protocols were generally fulfilling the set of trusted network and not considered for adversarial network setting, hence there is no security mechanism has been considered. MANET is widely used in sensitive fields like battlefield, police rescue operation and many more in such type of sensitive field an attacker may try to gather information about the conversation starting from the origin node to the terminal node. Secure route selection approach for route selection in adverse environment is discussed in this article. The results shows that proposed algorithm, will resolve the single & collaborative attack by increasing the computational & storage overhead and by improving the significant PDR, achieves a noticeable enhancement in the end to end delay.
V S, Deepthi, S, Vagdevi.  2018.  Behaviour Analysis and Detection of Blackhole Attacker Node under Reactive Routing Protocol in MANETs. 2018 International Conference on Networking, Embedded and Wireless Systems (ICNEWS). :1–5.
Mobile Adhoc networks are wireless adhoc networks that have property of self organizing, less infrastructure, multi hoping, which are designed to work under low power vulnerable environment. Due to its very unique characteristics, there is much chances of threat of malicious nodes within the network. Blackhole attack is a menace in MANETs which redirects all traffic to itself and drops it. This paper’s objective is to analyze the effects of blackhole attack under reactive routing protocol such as Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV). The performance of this protocol is assessed to find the vulnerability of attack and also compared the impact of attack on both AODV, AODV with blackhole and proposed AODV protocols. The analysis is done by simulated using NS- 2.35 and QoS parameters such as Throughput, PDR, and Average Energy Consumed are measured further.
Sahay, Rashmi, Geethakumari, G., Mitra, Barsha, Thejas, V..  2018.  Exponential Smoothing based Approach for Detection of Blackhole Attacks in IoT. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems (ANTS). :1–6.
Low power and lossy network (LLN) comprising of constrained devices like sensors and RFIDs, is a major component in the Internet of Things (IoT) environment as these devices provide global connectivity to physical devices or “Things”. LLNs are tied to the Internet or any High Performance Computing environment via an adaptation layer called 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low power Personal Area Network). The routing protocol used by 6LoWPAN is RPL (IPv6 Routing Protocol over LLN). Like many other routing protocols, RPL is susceptible to blackhole attacks which cause topological isolation for a subset of nodes in the LLN. A malicious node instigating the blackhole attack drops received packets from nodes in its subtree which it is supposed to forward. Thus, the malicious node successfully isolates nodes in its subtree from the rest of the network. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on the concept of exponential smoothing to detect the topological isolation of nodes due to blackhole attack. Exponential smoothing is a technique for smoothing time series data using the exponential window function and is used for short, medium and long term forecasting. In our proposed algorithm, exponential smoothing is used to estimate the next arrival time of packets at the sink node from every other node in the LLN. Using this estimation, the algorithm is designed to identify the malicious nodes instigating blackhole attack in real time.
Junnarkar, Aparna A., Singh, Y. P., Deshpande, Vivek S..  2018.  SQMAA: Security, QoS and Mobility Aware ACO Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol for MANET. 2018 4th International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT). :1–6.
The QoS performance of MANET routing protocols is significantly affected by the mobility conditions in network. Secondly, as MANET open nature network, there is strong possibility of different types of vulnerabilities such as blackhole attack, malicious attack, DoS attacks etc. In this research work, we are designing the novel opportunistic routing protocol in order to address the challenges of network security as well as QoS improvement. There two algorithms designed in this paper. First we proposed and designed novel QoS improvement algorithm based on optimization scheme called Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) with swarm intelligence approach. This proposed method used the RSSI measurements to determine the distance between two mobile nodes in order to select efficient path for communication. This new routing protocol is named as QoS Mobility Aware ACO (QMAA) Routing Protocol. Second, we designed security algorithm for secure communication and user's authentication in MANET under the presence attackers in network. With security algorithm the QoS aware protocol is proposed named as Secure-QMAA (SQMAA). The SQMAA achieved secure communications while guaranteed QoS performance against existing routing protocols. The simulation results shows that under the presence of malicious attackers, the performance of SQMAA are efficient as compared to QMAA and state-of-art routing protocol.
Kumari, Alpana, Krishnan, Shoba.  2018.  Simulation Based Study of Blackhole Attack Under AODV Protocol. 2018 Fourth International Conference on Computing Communication Control and Automation (ICCUBEA). :1–6.
Mobile adhoc network are fully autonomous where the nodes act both as node as well as router. Centralization is absent in MANETs. In MANETs nodes are continuously moving and have an open access which put it at a risk of large number of attacks. Security in such networks is therefore a critical matter. In order to find solution to this issue various attacks need to be studied and analyzed. In Blackhole attack, the unauthorized node in the path of source and target nodes takes away the packets sent by the source and drops them by not heading them towards the target node. The malicious behavior launched by Blackhole attack deteriorates the network performance.
Li, Guoquan, Yan, Zheng, Fu, Yulong.  2018.  A Study and Simulation Research of Blackhole Attack on Mobile AdHoc Network. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–6.
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a kind of mobile multi-hop network which can transmit data through intermediate nodes, it has been widely used and become important since the growing of the market of Internet of Things (IoT). However, the transmissions on MANET are vulnerable, it usually suffered with many internal or external attacks, and the research on security topics of MANET are becoming more and more hot recently. Blackhole Attack is one of the most famous attacks to MANET. In this paper, we focus on the Blackhole Attack in AODV protocol, and use NS-3 network simulator to study the impact of Blackhole Attack on network performance parameters, such as the Throughput, End-to-End Delay and Packet Loss Rate. We further analyze the changes in network performance by adjusting the number of blackhole nodes and total nodes, and the movement speed of mobile nodes. The experimental results not only reflect the behaviors of the Blackhole Attack and its damage to the network, but also provide the characteristics of Blackhole Attacks clearly. This is helpful to the research of Blackhole Attack feature extraction and MANET security measurement.
Sbai, Oussama, Elboukhari, Mohamed.  2018.  Simulation of MANET's Single and Multiple Blackhole Attack with NS-3. 2018 IEEE 5th International Congress on Information Science and Technology (CiSt). :612–617.
Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) have gained popularity both in research and in industrial fields. This is due to their ad hoc nature, easy deployment thanks to the lack of fixed infrastructure, self-organization of its components, dynamic topologies and the absence of any central authority for routing. However, MANETs suffer from several vulnerabilities such as battery power, limited memory space, and physical protection of network nodes. In addition, MANETs are sensitive to various attacks that threaten network security like Blackhole attack in its different implementation (single and multiple). In this article, we present the simulation results of single and multiple Blackhole attack in AODV and OLSR protocols on using NS-3.27 simulator. In this simulation, we took into consideration the density of the network described by the number of nodes included in the network, the speed of the nodes, the mobility model and even we chose the IEEE 802.11ac protocol for the pbysicallayer, in order to have a simulation, which deals with more general and more real scenarios. To be able to evaluate the impact of the attack on the network, the Packet delivery rate, Routing overhead, Throughput and Average End to End delay have been chosen as metrics for performance evaluation.
2020-04-03
Saridou, Betty, Shiaeles, Stavros, Papadopoulos, Basil.  2019.  DDoS Attack Mitigation through Root-DNS Server: A Case Study. 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services (SERVICES). 2642-939X:60—65.

Load balancing and IP anycast are traffic routing algorithms used to speed up delivery of the Domain Name System. In case of a DDoS attack or an overload condition, the value of these protocols is critical, as they can provide intrinsic DDoS mitigation with the failover alternatives. In this paper, we present a methodology for predicting the next DNS response in the light of a potential redirection to less busy servers, in order to mitigate the size of the attack. Our experiments were conducted using data from the Nov. 2015 attack of the Root DNS servers and Logistic Regression, k-Nearest Neighbors, Support Vector Machines and Random Forest as our primary classifiers. The models were able to successfully predict up to 83% of responses for Root Letters that operated on a small number of sites and consequently suffered the most during the attacks. On the other hand, regarding DNS requests coming from more distributed Root servers, the models demonstrated lower accuracy. Our analysis showed a correlation between the True Positive Rate metric and the number of sites, as well as a clear need for intelligent management of traffic in load balancing practices.

2020-03-27
Sgambelluri, A., Dugeon, O., Sevilla, K., Ubaldi, F., Monti, P., De Dios, O. G., Paolucci, F..  2019.  Multi-Operator Orchestration of Connectivity Services Exploiting Stateful BRPC and BGP-LS in the 5GEx Sandbox. 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC). :1–3.
QoS-based connectivity coordinated by the 5GEx Multi-domain Orchestrator exploiting novel stateful BRPC is demonstrated for the first time over a multi-operator multi-technology transport network within the European 5GEx Sandbox, including Segment Routing and optical domains.
2020-03-09
Singh, Moirangthem Marjit, Mandal, Jyotsna Kumar.  2019.  Gray Hole Attack Analysis in AODV Based Mobile Adhoc Network with Reliability Metric. 2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Computer and Communication Systems (ICCCS). :565–569.

The increasing demand and the use of mobile ad hoc network (MANET) in recent days have attracted the attention of researchers towards pursuing active research work largely related to security attacks in MANET. Gray hole attack is one of the most common security attacks observed in MANET. The paper focuses on gray hole attack analysis in Ad hoc on demand distance vector(AODV) routing protocol based MANET with reliability as a metric. Simulation is performed using ns-2.35 simulation software under varying number of network nodes and varying number of gray hole nodes. Results of simulation indicates that increasing the number of gray hole node in the MANET will decrease the reliability of MANET.

2020-02-26
Al-issa, Abdulaziz I., Al-Akhras, Mousa, ALsahli, Mohammed S., Alawairdhi, Mohammed.  2019.  Using Machine Learning to Detect DoS Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2019 IEEE Jordan International Joint Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (JEEIT). :107–112.

Widespread use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) introduced many security threats due to the nature of such networks, particularly limited hardware resources and infrastructure less nature. Denial of Service attack is one of the most common types of attacks that face such type of networks. Building an Intrusion Detection and Prevention System to mitigate the effect of Denial of Service attack is not an easy task. This paper proposes the use of two machine learning techniques, namely decision trees and Support Vector Machines, to detect attack signature on a specialized dataset. The used dataset contains regular profiles and several Denial of Service attack scenarios in WSNs. The experimental results show that decision trees technique achieved better (higher) true positive rate and better (lower) false positive rate than Support Vector Machines, 99.86% vs 99.62%, and 0.05% vs. 0.09%, respectively.