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Prabhu, S., Anita E.A., Mary.  2020.  Trust based secure routing mechanisms for wireless sensor networks: A survey. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :1003—1009.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)is a predominant technology that is widely used in many applications such as industrial sectors, defense, environment, habitat monitoring, medical fields etc., These applications are habitually delegated for observing sensitive and confidential raw data such as adversary position, movement in the battle field, location of personnel in a building, changes in environmental condition, regular medical updates from patient side to doctors or hospital control rooms etc., Security becomes inevitable in WSN and providing security is being truly intricate because of in-built nature of WSN which is assailable to attacks easily. Node involved in WSN need to route the data to the neighboring nodes wherein any attack in the node could lead to fiasco. Of late trust mechanisms have been considered to be an ideal solution that can mitigate security problems in WSN. This paper aims to investigate various existing trust-based Secure Routing (SR) protocols and mechanisms available for the wireless sensing connection. The concept of the present trust mechanism is also analyzed with respect to methodology, trust metric, pros, cons, and complexity involved. Finally, the security resiliency of various trust models against the attacks is also analyzed.
Hoarau, Kevin, Tournoux, Pierre Ugo, Razafindralambo, Tahiry.  2021.  Suitability of Graph Representation for BGP Anomaly Detection. 2021 IEEE 46th Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN). :305–310.
The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is in charge of the route exchange at the Internet scale. Anomalies in BGP can have several causes (mis-configuration, outage and attacks). These anomalies are classified into large or small scale anomalies. Machine learning models are used to analyze and detect anomalies from the complex data extracted from BGP behavior. Two types of data representation can be used inside the machine learning models: a graph representation of the network (graph features) or a statistical computation on the data (statistical features). In this paper, we evaluate and compare the accuracy of machine learning models using graph features and statistical features on both large and small scale BGP anomalies. We show that statistical features have better accuracy for large scale anomalies, and graph features increase the detection accuracy by 15% for small scale anomalies and are well suited for BGP small scale anomaly detection.
Aman, Muhammad Naveed, Sikdar, Biplab.  2021.  AI Based Algorithm-Hardware Separation for IoV Security. 2021 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps). :1–6.
The Internet of vehicles is emerging as an exciting application to improve safety and providing better services in the form of active road signs, pay-as-you-go insurance, electronic toll, and fleet management. Internet connected vehicles are exposed to new attack vectors in the form of cyber threats and with the increasing trend of cyber attacks, the success of autonomous vehicles depends on their security. Existing techniques for IoV security are based on the un-realistic assumption that all the vehicles are equipped with the same hardware (at least in terms of computational capabilities). However, the hardware platforms used by various vehicle manufacturers are highly heterogeneous. Therefore, a security protocol designed for IoVs should be able to detect the computational capabilities of the underlying platform and adjust the security primitives accordingly. To solve this issue, this paper presents a technique for algorithm-hardware separation for IoV security. The proposed technique uses an iterative routine and the corresponding execution time to detect the computational capabilities of a hardware platform using an artificial intelligence based inference engine. The results on three different commonly used micro-controllers show that the proposed technique can effectively detect the type of hardware platform with up to 100% accuracy.
Safitri, Cutifa, Nguyen, Quang Ngoc, Deo Lumoindong, Christoforus Williem, Ayu, Media Anugerah, Mantoro, Teddy.  2021.  Advanced Forwarding Strategy Towards Delay Tolerant Information-Centric Networking. 2021 IEEE 7th International Conference on Computing, Engineering and Design (ICCED). :1–5.
Information-Centric Networking (ICN) is among the promising architecture that can drive the need and versatility towards the future generation (xG) needs. In the future, support for network communication relies on the area of telemedicine, autonomous vehicles, and disaster recovery. In the disaster recovery case, there is a high possibility where the communication path is severed. Multicast communication and DTN-friendly route algorithm are becoming suitable options to send a packet message to get a faster response and to see any of the nodes available for service, this approach could give burden to the core network. Also, during disaster cases, many people would like to communicate, receive help, and find family members. Flooding the already disturbed/severed network will further reduce communication performance efficiency even further. Thus, this study takes into consideration prioritization factors to allow networks to process and delivering priority content. For this purpose, the proposed technique introduces the Routable Prefix Identifier (RP-ID) that takes into account the prioritization factor to enable optimization in Delay Tolerant ICN communication.
Diamant, Roee, Casari, Paolo, Tomasin, Stefano.  2021.  Topology-based Secret Key Generation for Underwater Acoustic Networks. 2021 Fifth Underwater Communications and Networking Conference (UComms). :1—5.
We propose a method to let a source and a destination agree on a key that remains secret to a potential eavesdropper in an underwater acoustic network (UWAN). We generate the key from the propagation delay measured over a set of multihop routes: this harvests the randomness in the UWAN topology and turns the slow sound propagation in the water into an advantage for the key agreement protocol. Our scheme relies on a route discovery handshake. During this process, all intermediate relays accumulate message processing delays, so that both the source and the destination can compute the actual propagation delays along each route, and map this information to a string of bits. Finally, via a secret key agreement from the information-theoretic security framework, we obtain an equal set of bits at the source and destination, which is provably secret to a potential eavesdropper located away from both nodes. Our simulation results show that, even for small UWANs of 4 nodes, we obtain 11 secret bits per explored topology, and that the protocol is insensitive to an average node speed of up to 0.5 m/s.
Pacífico, Racyus D. G., Castanho, Matheus S., Vieira, Luiz F. M., Vieira, Marcos A. M., Duarte, Lucas F. S., Nacif, José A. M..  2021.  Application Layer Packet Classifier in Hardware. 2021 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM). :515–522.
Traffic classification is fundamental to network operators to manage the network better. L7 classification and Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) using regular expressions are vital components to provide application-aware traffic classification. Nevertheless, there are open challenges yet, such as programmability and performance combined with security. In this paper, we introduce eBPFlow, a fast application layer packet classifier in hardware. eBPFlow allows packet classification with DPI on packet headers and payloads in runtime. It enables programming of regular expressions (RegEx) and security protocols using eBPF (extended Berkeley Packet Filter). We built eBPFlow on NetFPGA SUME 40 Gbps and created several application classifiers. The tests were performed in a physical testbed. Our results show that eBPFlow supports packet classification on the application layer with line rate. It only consumes 22 W.
Kumar, Vipin, Malik, Navneet.  2021.  Dynamic Key Management Scheme for Clustered Sensor Networks with Node Addition Support. 2021 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Engineering and Management (ICIEM). :102–107.
A sensor network is wireless with tiny nodes and widely used in various applications. To track the event and collect the data from a remote area or a hostile area sensor network is used. A WSN collects wirelessly connected tiny sensors with minimal resources like the battery, computation power, and memory. When a sensor collects data, it must be transferred to the control center through the gateway (Sink), and it must be transferred safely. For secure transfer of data in the network, the routing protocol must be safe and can use the cryptography method for authentication and confidentiality. An essential issue in WSN structure is the key management. WSN relies on the strength of the communicating devices, battery power, and sensor nodes to communicate in the wireless environment over a limited region. Due to energy and memory limitations, the construction of a fully functional network needs to be well arranged. Several techniques are available in the current literature for such key management techniques. Among the distribution of key over the network, sharing private and public keys is the most important. Network security is not an easy problem because of its limited resources, and these networks are deployed in unattended areas where they work without any human intervention. These networks are used to monitor buildings and airports, so security is always a major issue for these networks. In this paper, we proposed a dynamic key management scheme for the clustered sensor network that also supports the addition of a new node in the network later. Keys are dynamically generated and securely distributed to communication parties with the help of a cluster head. We verify the immunity of the scheme against various attacks like replay attack and node captured attacker. A simulation study was also done on energy consumption for key setup and refreshed the keys. Security analysis of scheme shows batter resiliency against node capture attack.
Muzammal, Syeda Mariam, Murugesan, Raja Kumar, Jhanjhi, NZ.  2021.  Introducing Mobility Metrics in Trust-based Security of Routing Protocol for Internet of Things. 2021 National Computing Colleges Conference (NCCC). :1—5.
Internet of Things (IoT) is flourishing in several application areas, such as smart cities, smart factories, smart homes, smart healthcare, etc. With the adoption of IoT in critical scenarios, it is crucial to investigate its security aspects. All the layers of IoT are vulnerable to severely disruptive attacks. However, the attacks in IoT Network layer have a high impact on communication between the connected objects. Routing in most of the IoT networks is carried out by IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL). RPL-based IoT offers limited protection against routing attacks. A trust-based approach for routing security is suitable to be integrated with IoT systems due to the resource-constrained nature of devices. This research proposes a trust-based secure routing protocol to provide security against packet dropping attacks in RPL-based IoT networks. IoT networks are dynamic and consist of both static and mobile nodes. Hence the chosen trust metrics in the proposed method also include the mobility-based metrics for trust evaluation. The proposed solution is integrated into RPL as a modified objective function, and the results are compared with the default RPL objective function, MRHOF. The analysis and evaluation of the proposed protocol indicate its efficacy and adaptability in a mobile IoT environment.
Shah, Priyanka, Kasbe, Tanmay.  2021.  Detecting Sybil Attack, Black Hole Attack and DoS Attack in VANET Using RSA Algorithm. 2021 Emerging Trends in Industry 4.0 (ETI 4.0). :1—7.
In present scenario features like low-cost, power-efficientand easy-to-implement Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN’s) has become one of growing prospects.though, its security issues have become a popular topic of research nowadays. Specific attacks often experience the security issues as they easily combined with other attacks to destroy the network. In this paper, we discuss about detecting the particular attacks like Sybil, Black-holeand Denial of Service (DoS) attacks on WSNs. These networks are more vulnerable to them. We attempt to investigate the security measures and the applicability of the AODV protocol to detect and manage specific types of network attacks in VANET.The RSA algorithm is proposed here, as it is capable of detecting sensor nodes ormessages transmitted from sensor nodes to the base station and prevents network from being attacked by the source node. It also improves the security mechanism of the AODV protocol. This simulation set up is performed using MATLAB simulation tool
Adarsh, S, Jain, Kurunandan.  2021.  Capturing Attacker Identity with Biteback Honeypot. 2021 International Conference on System, Computation, Automation and Networking (ICSCAN). :1–7.
Cyber attacks are increasing at a rapid pace targeting financial institutions and the corporate sector, especially during pandemics such as COVID-19. Honeypots are implemented in data centers and servers, to capture these types of attacks and malicious activities. In this work, an experimental prototype is created simulating the attacker and victim environments and the results are consolidated. Attacker information is extracted using the Meterpreter framework and uses reverse TCP for capturing the data. Normal honeypots does not capture an attacker and his identity. Information such as user ID, Internet Protocol(IP) address, proxy servers, incoming and outgoing traffic, webcam snapshot, Media Access Control(MAC) address, operating system architecture, and router information of the attacker such as ARP cache can be extracted by this honeypot with "biteback" feature.
Li, Xiang, Liu, Baojun, Zheng, Xiaofeng, Duan, Haixin, Li, Qi, Huang, Youjun.  2021.  Fast IPv6 Network Periphery Discovery and Security Implications. 2021 51st Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :88–100.
Numerous measurement researches have been performed to discover the IPv4 network security issues by leveraging the fast Internet-wide scanning techniques. However, IPv6 brings the 128-bit address space and renders brute-force network scanning impractical. Although significant efforts have been dedicated to enumerating active IPv6 hosts, limited by technique efficiency and probing accuracy, large-scale empirical measurement studies under the increasing IPv6 networks are infeasible now. To fill this research gap, by leveraging the extensively adopted IPv6 address allocation strategy, we propose a novel IPv6 network periphery discovery approach. Specifically, XMap, a fast network scanner, is developed to find the periphery, such as a home router. We evaluate it on twelve prominent Internet service providers and harvest 52M active peripheries. Grounded on these found devices, we explore IPv6 network risks of the unintended exposed security services and the flawed traffic routing strategies. First, we demonstrate the unintended exposed security services in IPv6 networks, such as DNS, and HTTP, have become emerging security risks by analyzing 4.7M peripheries. Second, by inspecting the periphery's packet routing strategies, we present the flawed implementations of IPv6 routing protocol affecting 5.8M router devices. Attackers can exploit this common vulnerability to conduct effective routing loop attacks, inducing DoS to the ISP's and home routers with an amplification factor of \textbackslashtextbackslashgt 200. We responsibly disclose those issues to all involved vendors and ASes and discuss mitigation solutions. Our research results indicate that the security community should revisit IPv6 network strategies immediately.
Ibrahim, Hussein Abdumalik, Sundaram, B.Barani, Ahmed, Asedo Shektofik, Karthika, P..  2021.  Prevention of Rushing Attack in AOMDV using Random Route Selection Technique in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. 2021 5th International Conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). :626–633.
Ad Hoc Network is wireless networks that get more attention from past to present. Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is one of the types of ad hoc networks, it deployed rapidly because it infrastructure-less. A node in a mobile ad hoc network communicates through wireless links without wired channels. When source nodes want to communicate with the destination outside its transmission range it uses multi-hop mechanisms. The intermediate node forwards the data packet to the next node until the data packet reaches its destination. Due wireless links and lack of centralized administration device, mobile ad hoc network is more vulnerable for security attacks. The rushing attack is one of the most dangerous attacks in the on-demand routing protocol of mobile ad hoc networks. Rushing attack highly transmits route request with higher transmission power than the genuine nodes and become participate between source and destination nodes, after that, it delays or drop actual data pass through it. In this study, the researcher incorporates rushing attack in one of the most commonly used mobile ad hoc network routing protocols namely Ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector and provides a rushing attack prevention method based on the time threshold value and random route selection. Based on the time RREQ arrives a node takes a decision, if the RREQ packet arrives before threshold value, the RREQ packet consider as came from an attacker and discarded else RREQ packet received then randomly select RREQ to forward. In this study performance metrics like packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay and throughput have been evaluated using Network simulation (NS-2.35). As a result of simulation shows newly proposed prevention mechanism improves network performance in all cases than the network under attacker. For example, the average packet delivery ratio enhanced from 54.37% to 97.69%, throughput increased from 20.84bps to 33.06bpsand the average delay decreased from 1147.22ms to 908.04ms. It is concluded that the new proposed techniques show improvement in all evaluated performance metrics.
Buccafurri, Francesco, De Angelis, Vincenzo, Idone, Maria Francesca, Labrini, Cecilia.  2021.  Extending Routes in Tor to Achieve Recipient Anonymity against the Global Adversary. 2021 International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW). :238–245.
Tor is a famous routing overlay network based on the Onion multi-layered encryption to support communication anonymity in a threat model in which some network nodes are malicious. However, Tor does not provide any protection against the global passive adversary. In this threat model, an idea to obtain recipient anonymity, which is enough to have relationship anonymity, is to hide the recipient among a sufficiently large anonymity set. However, this would lead to high latency both in the set-up phase (which has a quadratic cost in the number of involved nodes) and in the successive communication. In this paper, we propose a way to arrange a Tor circuit with a tree-like topology, in which the anonymity set consists of all its nodes, whereas set-up and communication latency depends on the number of the sole branch nodes (which is a small fraction of all the nodes). Basically, the cost goes down from quadratic to linear. Anonymity is obtained by applying a broadcast-based technique for the forward message, and cover traffic (generated by the terminal-chain nodes) plus mixing over branch nodes, for the response.
Buccafurri, Francesco, Angelis, Vincenzo De, Francesca Idone, Maria, Labrini, Cecilia.  2021.  WIP: An Onion-Based Routing Protocol Strengthening Anonymity. 2021 IEEE 22nd International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM). :231–235.
Anonymous Communication Networks (ACNs) are networks in which, beyond data confidentiality, also traffic flow confidentiality is provided. The most popular routing approach for ACNs also used in practice is Onion. Onion is based on multiple encryption wrapping combined with the proxy mechanism (relay nodes). However, it offers neither sender anonymity nor recipient anonymity in a global passive adversary model, simply because the adversary can observe (at the first relay node) the traffic coming from the sender, and (at the last relay node) the traffic delivered to the recipient. This may also cause a loss of relationship anonymity if timing attacks are performed. This paper presents Onion-Ring, a routing protocol that improves anonymity of Onion in the global adversary model, by achieving sender anonymity and recipient anonymity, and thus relationship anonymity.
Gupta, Aruna, Sasikala, T..  2021.  Secure Routing Protocols for MANET-enabled IoT. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Mobile Networks and Wireless Communications (ICMNWC). :1–4.
Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET) is an autonomous network consisting of movable devices that can form a network using wireless media. MANET routing protocols can be used for selecting an efficient and shortest path for data transmission between nodes in a smart environment formed by the Internet of Things (IoT). Networking in such MANET-enabled IoT system is based on the routing protocols of MANET, data sensing from things, and data handling and processing using IoT. This paper studies proactive approach-based secure routing protocols for MANET-enabled IoT and analyses these protocols to identify security issues in it. Since this fusion network is resource-constrained in nature, each of the studied protocol is evaluated to check if it is lightweight or not. Also, the solution to defend against active attacks in this network is discussed.
Siddiqui, Muhammad Nasir, Malik, Kaleem Razzaq, Malik, Tauqeer Safdar.  2021.  Performance Analysis of Blackhole and Wormhole Attack in MANET Based IoT. 2021 International Conference on Digital Futures and Transformative Technologies (ICoDT2). :1–8.
In Mobile Ad-hoc Network based Internet of things (MANET-IoT), nodes are mobile, infrastructure less, managed and organized by themselves that have important role in many areas such as Mobile Computing, Military Sector, Sensor Networks Commercial Sector, medical etc. One major problem in MANET based IoT is security because nodes are mobile, having not any central administrator and are also not reliable. So, MANET-IoT is more defenseless to denial-of-service attacks for-example Blackhole, Wormhole, Gray-hole etc. To compare the performance of network under different attacks for checking which attack is more affecting the performance of network, we implemented Blackhole and Wormhole attack by modifying AODV routing protocol in NS-3. After preprocessing of data that is obtained by using Flow-monitor module, we calculated performance parameters such as Average Throughput, Average Packet Delivery Ratio, Average End to End Delay, Average Jitter-Sum and compared it with no. of nodes in MANET-IoT network. Throughput and goodput performance of each node in the network is also calculated by using Trace metric module and compared with each node in the network. This approach is also very helpful for further research in MANET-IoT Security.
Khalifa, Marwa Mohammed, Ucan, Osman Nuri, Ali Alheeti, Khattab M..  2021.  New Intrusion Detection System to Protect MANET Networks Employing Machine Learning Techniques. 2021 International Conference of Modern Trends in Information and Communication Technology Industry (MTICTI). :1–6.
The Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is one of the technologies available to protect mobile ad hoc networks. The system monitors the network and detects intrusion from malicious nodes, aiming at passive (eavesdropping) or positive attack to disrupt the network. This paper proposes a new Intrusion detection system using three Machine Learning (ML) techniques. The ML techniques were Random Forest (RF), support vector machines (SVM), and Naïve Bayes(NB) were used to classify nodes in MANET. The data set was generated by the simulator network simulator-2 (NS-2). The routing protocol was used is Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). The type of IDS used is a Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS). The dataset was pre-processed, then split into two subsets, 67% for training and 33% for testing employing Python Version 3.8.8. Obtaining good results for RF, SVM and NB when applied randomly selected features in the trial and error method from the dataset to improve the performance of the IDS and reduce time spent for training and testing. The system showed promising results, especially with RF, where the accuracy rate reached 100%.
Shah, Imran Ali, Kapoor, Nitika.  2021.  To Detect and Prevent Black Hole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Network. 2021 2nd Global Conference for Advancement in Technology (GCAT). :1–4.
Mobile Ad hoc Networks ‘MANETs’ are still defenseless against peripheral threats due to the fact that this network has vulnerable access and also the absence of significant fact of administration. The black hole attack is a kind of some routing attack, in this type of attack the attacker node answers to the Route Requests (RREQs) thru faking and playing itself as an adjacent node of the destination node in order to get through the data packets transported from the source node. To counter this situation, we propose to deploy some nodes (exhibiting some distinctive functionality) in the network called DPS (Detection and Prevention System) nodes that uninterruptedly monitor the RREQs advertised by all other nodes in the networks. DPS nodes target to satisfy the set objectives in which it has to sense the mischievous nodes by detecting the activities of their immediate neighbor. In the case, when a node demonstrates some peculiar manners, which estimates according to the experimental data, DPS node states that particular distrustful node as black hole node by propagation of a threat message to all the remaining nodes in the network. A protocol with a clustering approach in AODV routing protocol is used to sense and avert the black hole attack in the mentioned network. Consequently, empirical evaluation shows that the black hole node is secluded and prohibited from the whole system and is not allowed any data transfer from any node thereafter.
Nurwarsito, Heru, Iskandar, Chairul.  2021.  Detection Jellyfish Attacks Against Dymo Routing Protocol on Manet Using Delay Per-Hop Indicator (Delphi) Method. 2021 3rd East Indonesia Conference on Computer and Information Technology (EIConCIT). :385–390.
Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is one of the types of Ad-hoc Network which is comprised of wireless in a network. The main problem in this research is the vulnerability of the protocol routing Dymo against jellyfish attack, so it needs detection from a jellyfish attack. This research implements the DELPHI method to detect jellyfish attacks on a DYMO protocol which has better performance because the Delay Per-Hop Indicator (DELPHI) gathers the amount of hop and information delay from the disjoint path and calculates the delays per-hop as an indicator of a jellyfish attack. The evaluation results indicate an increase in the end-to-end delay average, start from 112.59s in 10 nodes increased to 143.732s in 30 nodes but reduced to 84,2142s in 50 nodes. But when the DYMO routing did not experience any jellyfish attacks both the delivery ratio and throughput are decreased. The delivery ratio, where decreased from 10.09% to 8.19% in 10 nodes, decreased from 20.35% to 16.85%, and decreased from 93.5644% to 82.825% in 50 nodes. As for the throughput, for 10 nodes decreased from 76.7677kbps to 68.689kbps, for 30 nodes decreased from 100kbps to 83.5821kbps and for 50 nodes decreased from 18.94kbps to 15.94kbps.
Khan, Asif Uddin, Puree, Rajesh, Mohanta, Bhabendu Kumar, Chedup, Sangay.  2021.  Detection and Prevention of Blackhole Attack in AODV of MANET. 2021 IEEE International IOT, Electronics and Mechatronics Conference (IEMTRONICS). :1–7.
One of the most dynamic network is the Mobile Adhoc (MANET) network. It is a list of numerous mobile nodes. Dynamic topology and lack of centralization are the basic characteristics of MANET. MANETs are prone to many attacks due to these characteristics. One of the attacks carried out on the network layer is the blackhole attack. In a black-hole attack, by sending false routing information, malicious nodes interrupt data transmission. There are two kinds of attacks involving a black-hole, single and co-operative. There is one malicious node in a single black-hole attack that can act as the node with the highest sequence number. The node source would follow the direction of the malicious node by taking the right direction. There is more than one malicious node in the collaborative black-hole attack. One node receives a packet and sends it to another malicious node in this attack. It is very difficult to detect and avoid black-hole attacks. Many researchers have invented black-hole attack detection and prevention systems. In this paper, We find a problem in the existing solution, in which validity bit is used. This paper also provides a comparative study of many scholars. The source node is used to detect and prevent black hole attacks by using a binary partition clustering based algorithm. We compared the performance of the proposed solution with existing solution and shown that our solution outperforms the existing one.
Iqbal, Siddiq, Sujatha, B R.  2021.  Secure Key Management Scheme With Good Resiliency For Hierarchical Network Using Combinatorial Theory. 2021 2nd International Conference for Emerging Technology (INCET). :1–7.
Combinatorial designs are powerful structures for key management in wireless sensor networks to address good connectivity and also security against external attacks in large scale networks. Symmetric key foundation is the most appropriate model for secure exchanges in WSNs among the ideal models. The core objective is to enhance and evaluate certain issues like attack on the nodes, to provide better key strength, better connectivity, security in interaction among the nodes. The keys distributed by the base station to cluster head are generated using Symmetric Balanced Incomplete Block Design (SBIBD). The keys distributed by cluster head to its member nodes are generated using Symmetric Balanced Incomplete Block Design (SBIBD) and Keys are refreshed periodically to avoid stale entries. Compromised sensor nodes can be used to insert false reports (spurious reports) in wireless sensor networks. The idea of interaction between the sensor nodes utilizing keys and building up a protected association helps in making sure the network is secure. Compared with similar existing schemes, our approach can provide better security.
Khan, Ausaf Umar, Chawhan, Manish Devendra, Mushrif, Milind Madhukar, Neole, Bhumika.  2021.  Performance Analysis of Adhoc On-demand Distance Vector Protocol under the influence of Black-Hole, Gray-Hole and Worm-Hole Attacks in Mobile Adhoc Network. 2021 5th International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS). :238–243.
Adhoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) is the well-known reactive routing protocol of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET). Absence of security mechanism in AODV disturbs the routing because of misbehavior of attack and hence, degrades MANET's performance. Secure and efficient routing is a need of various commercial and non-commercial applications of MANET including military and war, disaster and earthquake, and riot control. This paper presents a design of important network layer attacks include black-hole (BH), gray-hole (GH) and worm-hole (WH) attacks. The performance analysis of AODV protocol is carried out under the influence of each designed attack by using the network simulator, NetSim. Simulation results show that, the network layer attacks affect packet delivery ability of AODV protocol with low energy consumption and in short time. Design of attacks helps to understand attack's behavior and hence, to develop security mechanism in AODV.
Akter, Sharmin, Rahman, Mohammad Shahriar, Bhuiyan, Md Zakirul Alam, Mansoor, Nafees.  2021.  Towards Secure Communication in CR-VANETs Through a Trust-Based Routing Protocol. IEEE INFOCOM 2021 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :1–6.
Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) promise efficient spectrum utilization by operating over the unused frequencies where Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) facilitate information exchanging among vehicles to avoid accidents, collisions, congestion, etc. Thus, CR enabled vehicular networks (CR-VANETs), a thriving area in wireless communication research, can be the enabler of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and autonomous driver-less vehicles. Similar to others, efficient and reliable communication in CR-VANETs is vital. Besides, security in such networks may exhibit unique characteristics for overall data transmission performance. For efficient and reliable communication, the proposed routing protocol considers the mobility patterns, spectrum availability, and trustworthiness to be the routing metrics. Hence, the protocol considers the vehicle's speed, mobility direction, inter-vehicles distance, and node's reliability to estimate the mobility patterns of a node. Besides, a trust-based reliability factor is also introduced to ensure secure communications by detecting malicious nodes or other external threats. Therefore, the proposed protocol detects malicious nodes by establishing trustworthiness among nodes and preserves security. Simulation is conducted for performance evaluation that shows the proposed routing selects the efficient routing path by discarding malicious nodes from the network and outperforms the existing routing protocols.
Bibhu, Vimal, Kumar, Akhilesh, Lohani, Bhanu Prakash, Kushwaha, Pradeep Kumar.  2021.  Black Hole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Network and its Avoidance. 2021 International Conference on Innovative Practices in Technology and Management (ICIPTM). :103–107.
Mobile Ad Hoc Network is a infrastructure less wireless network where the mobile nodes leaves and joins the mobile network very frequently. The routing of the packets from source node to destination node, the routing protocol is used. On Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol is very common and implemented with Mobile Ad Hoc Network nodes to handle the operations of packet routing from by any node as a source node to destination node. In this paper prevention of black hole attack by modifying the On Demand Distance Vector routing protocol. The sequence number of 32 bit is initiated with the Route Reply and route sequence packet broadcast to determine the request reply from black hole node under the Mobile Ad Hoc Network. The sequence number and On demand Distance Vector Routing protocol are integrated with a mechanism to find the Request Reply of message containing routing information from source to destination node in Mobile Ad Hoc Network.
Khammash, Mona, Tammam, Rawan, Masri, Abdallah, Awad, Ahmed.  2021.  Elliptic Curve Parameters Optimization for Lightweight Cryptography in Mobile-Ad-Hoc Networks. 2021 18th International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals Devices (SSD). :63–69.
Satisfying security requirements for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) is a key challenge due to the limited power budget for the nodes composing those networks. Therefore, it is essential to exploit lightweight cryptographic algorithms to preserve the confidentiality of the messages being transmitted between different nodes in MANETs. At the heart of such algorithms lies the Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). The importance of ECC lies in offering equivalent security with smaller key sizes, which results in faster computations, lower power consumption, as well as memory and bandwidth savings. However, when exploiting ECC in MANETs, it is essential to properly choose the parameters of ECC such that an acceptable level of confidentiality is achieved without entirely consuming the power budget of nodes. In addition, the delay of the communication should not abruptly increase. In this paper, we study the effect of changing the prime number use in ECC on power consumption, delay, and the security of the nodes in MANETs. Once a suitable prime number is chosen, a comparative analysis is conducted between two reactive routing protocols, namely, Ad-hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) in terms of power consummation and delay. Experimental results show that a prime number value of 197 for ECC alongside with DSR for routing preserve an acceptable level of security for MANETs with low average power consumption and low average delay in the communication.