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Taranum, Fahmina, Sarvat, Ayesha, Ali, Nooria, Siddiqui, Shamekh.  2020.  Detection and Prevention of Blackhole Node. 2020 4th International Conference on Electronics, Materials Engineering Nano-Technology (IEMENTech). :1–7.
Mobile Adhoc networks (MANETs) comprises of mobile devices or nodes that are connected wirelessly and have no infrastructure. Detecting malicious activities in MANETs is a challenging task as they are vulnerable to attacks where the performance of the entire network degrades. Hence it is necessary to provide security to the network so that the nodes are prone to attack. Selecting a good routing protocol in MANET is also important as frequent change of topology causes the route reply to not arrive at the source node. In this paper, R-AODV (Reverse Adhoc On-Demand Distance Vector) protocol along with ECC (Elliptic Key Cryptography) algorithm is designed and implemented to detect and to prevent the malicious node and to secure data transmission against blackhole attack. The main objective is to keep the data packets secure. ECC provides a smaller key size compared to other public-key encryption and eliminates the requirement of pre-distributed keys also makes the path more secure against blackhole attacks in a MANET. The performance of this proposed system is simulated by using the NS-2.35 network simulator. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol provides good experimental results on various metrics like throughput, end-to-end delay, and PDR. Analysis of the results points to an improvement in the overall network performance.
Kulkarni, Pallavi, Khanai, Rajashri, Bindagi, Gururaj.  2020.  A Hybrid Encryption Scheme for Securing Images in the Cloud. 2020 International Conference on Inventive Computation Technologies (ICICT). :795–800.
With the introduction of Cloud computing, a new era of computing has begun. Cloud has the ability to provide flexible, cost effective pay-as-you-go service. In the modern day computing, outsourcing of data/multimedia into the cloud has become an effective trend as cloud provides storage as a service, platform/software as a service, infrastructure as a service etc. Seamless exchange of data /multimedia is made possible ensuring the data available anytime, anywhere. Even though cloud based services offer many advantages, data owners are still hesitant to keep their data with the third party. Confidentiality, Integrity, Privacy and Non-repudiation are the major concerns of the outsourced data. To secure the data exchange between users and the cloud, many traditional security approaches are proposed. In this paper, a hybrid encryption technique to secure the images is proposed. The scheme uses Elliptic Curve Cryptography to generate the secret key, which in turn used for DES and AES algorithms.
He, Guorong, Dong, Chen, Liu, Yulin, Fan, Xinwen.  2020.  IPlock: An Effective Hybrid Encryption for Neuromorphic Systems IP Core Protection. 2020 IEEE 4th Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). 1:612—616.
Recent advances in resistive synaptic devices have enabled the emergence of brain-inspired smart chips. These chips can execute complex cognitive tasks in digital signal processing precisely and efficiently using an efficient neuromorphic system. The neuromorphic synapses used in such chips, however, are different from the traditional integrated circuit architectures, thereby weakening their resistance to malicious transformation and intellectual property (IP) counterfeiting. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose an effective hybrid encryption methodology for IP core protection in neuromorphic computing systems, in-corporating elliptic curve cryptography and SM4 simultaneously. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method can implement real-time encryption of any number of crossbar arrays in neuromorphic systems accurately, while reducing the time overhead by 14.40%-26.08%.
Klann, D., Aftowicz, M., Kabin, I., Dyka, Z., Langendoerfer, P..  2020.  Integration and Implementation of four different Elliptic Curves in a single high-speed Design considering SCA. 2020 15th Design Technology of Integrated Systems in Nanoscale Era (DTIS). :1–2.
Modern communication systems rely heavily on cryptography to ensure authenticity, confidentiality and integrity of exchanged messages. Elliptic Curve Cryptography 1 (ECC) is one of the common used standard methods for encrypting and signing messages. In this paper we present our implementation of a design supporting four different NIST Elliptic Curves. The design supports two B-curves (B-233, B-283) and two P-curves (P-224, P-256). The implemented designs are sharing the following hardware components bus, multiplier, alu and registers. By implementing the 4 curves in a single design and reusing some resources we reduced the area 20 by 14% compared to a design without resource sharing. Compared to a pure software solution running on an Arm Cortex A9 operating at 1GHz, our design ported to a FPGA is 1.2 to 6 times faster.
ManJiang, D., Kai, C., ZengXi, W., LiPeng, Z..  2020.  Design of a Cloud Storage Security Encryption Algorithm for Power Bidding System. 2020 IEEE 4th Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). 1:1875–1879.
To solve the problem of poor security and performance caused by traditional encryption algorithm in the cloud data storage of power bidding system, we proposes a hybrid encryption method based on symmetric encryption and asymmetric encryption. In this method, firstly, the plaintext upload file is divided into several blocks according to the proportion, then the large file block is encrypted by symmetrical encryption algorithm AES to ensure the encryption performance, and then the small file block and AES key are encrypted by asymmetric encryption algorithm ECC to ensure the file encryption strength and the security of key transmission. Finally, the ciphertext file is generated and stored in the cloud storage environment to prevent sensitive files Pieces from being stolen and destroyed. The experimental results show that the hybrid encryption method can improve the anti-attack ability of cloud storage files, ensure the security of file storage, and have high efficiency of file upload and download.
Sebbah, A., Kadri, B..  2020.  A Privacy and Authentication Scheme for IoT Environments Using ECC and Fuzzy Extractor. 2020 International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Computer Vision (ISCV). :1–5.
The internet of things (IoT) is consisting of many complementary elements which have their own specificities and capacities. These elements are gaining new application and use cases in our lives. Nevertheless, they open a negative horizon of security and privacy issues which must be treated delicately before the deployment of any IoT. Recently, different works emerged dealing with the same branch of issues, like the work of Yuwen Chen et al. that is called LightPriAuth. LightPriAuth has several drawbacks and weakness against various popular attacks such as Insider attack and stolen smart card. Our objective in this paper is to propose a novel solution which is “authentication scheme with three factor using ECC and fuzzy extractor” to ensure security and privacy. The obtained results had proven the superiority of our scheme's performances compared to that of LightPriAuth which, additionally, had defeated the weaknesses left by LightPriAuth.
Sajyth, RB, Sujatha, G.  2018.  Design of Data Confidential and Reliable Bee Clustering Routing Protocol in MANET. 2018 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1—7.
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) requires extraneous energy effectualness and legion intelligence for which a best clustered based approach is pertained called the “Bee-Ad Hoc-C”. In MANET the mechanism of multi-hop routing is imperative but may leads to a challenging issue like lack of data privacy during communication. ECC (Elliptical Curve Cryptography) is integrated with the Bee clustering approach to provide an energy efficient and secure data delivery system. Even though it ensures data confidentiality, data reliability is still disputable such as data dropping attack, Black hole attack (Attacker router drops the data without forwarding to destination). In such cases the technique of overhearing is utilized by the neighbor routers and the packet forwarding statistics are measured based on the ratio between the received and forwarded packets. The presence of attack is detected if the packet forwarding ratio is poor in the network which paves a way to the alternate path identification for a reliable data transmission. The proposed work is an integration of SC-AODV along with ECC in Bee clustering approach with an extra added overhearing technique which n on the whole ensures data confidentiality, data reliability and energy efficiency.
Almajed, Hisham N., Almogren, Ahmad S..  2019.  SE-Enc: A Secure and Efficient Encoding Scheme Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography. IEEE Access. 7:175865–175878.
Many applications use asymmetric cryptography to secure communications between two parties. One of the main issues with asymmetric cryptography is the need for vast amounts of computation and storage. While this may be true, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is an approach to asymmetric cryptography used widely in low computation devices due to its effectiveness in generating small keys with a strong encryption mechanism. The ECC decreases power consumption and increases device performance, thereby making it suitable for a wide range of devices, ranging from sensors to the Internet of things (IoT) devices. It is necessary for the ECC to have a strong implementation to ensure secure communications, especially when encoding a message to an elliptic curve. It is equally important for the ECC to secure the mapping of the message to the curve used in the encryption. This work objective is to propose a trusted and proofed scheme that offers authenticated encryption (AE) for both encoding and mapping a message to the curve. In addition, this paper provides analytical results related to the security requirements of the proposed scheme against several encryption techniques. Additionally, a comparison is undertaken between the SE-Enc and other state-of-the-art encryption schemes to evaluate the performance of each scheme.
Yue, Tongxu, Wang, Chuang, Zhu, Zhi-xiang.  2019.  Hybrid Encryption Algorithm Based on Wireless Sensor Networks. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA). :690–694.
Based on the analysis of existing wireless sensor networks(WSNs) security vulnerability, combining the characteristics of high encryption efficiency of the symmetric encryption algorithm and high encryption intensity of asymmetric encryption algorithm, a hybrid encryption algorithm based on wireless sensor networks is proposed. Firstly, by grouping plaintext messages, this algorithm uses advanced encryption standard (AES) of symmetric encryption algorithm and elliptic curve encryption (ECC) of asymmetric encryption algorithm to encrypt plaintext blocks, then uses data compression technology to get cipher blocks, and finally connects MAC address and AES key encrypted by ECC to form a complete ciphertext message. Through the description and implementation of the algorithm, the results show that the algorithm can reduce the encryption time, decryption time and total running time complexity without losing security.
Gauniyal, Rishav, Jain, Sarika.  2019.  IoT Security in Wireless Devices. 2019 3rd International conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). :98—102.

IoT is evolving as a combination of interconnected devices over a particular network. In the proposed paper, we discuss about the security of IoT system in the wireless devices. IoT security is the platform in which the connected devices over the network are safeguarded over internet of things framework. Wireless devices play an eminent role in this kind of networks since most of the time they are connected to the internet. Accompanied by major users cannot ensure their end to end security in the IoT environment. However, connecting these devices over the internet via using IoT increases the chance of being prone to the serious issues that may affect the system and its data if they are not protected efficiently. In the proposed paper, the security of IoT in wireless devices will be enhanced by using ECC. Since the issues related to security are becoming common these days, an attempt has been made in this proposed paper to enhance the security of IoT networks by using ECC for wireless devices.

Saffar, Zahra, Mohammadi, Siamak.  2019.  Fault tolerant non-linear techniques for scalar multiplication in ECC. 2019 16th International ISC (Iranian Society of Cryptology) Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :104–113.
Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) has shorter key length than other asymmetric cryptography algorithms such as RSA with the same security level. Existing faults in cryptographic computations can cause faulty results. If a fault occurs during encryption, false information will be sent to the destination, in which case channel error detection codes are unable to detect the fault. In this paper, we consider the error detection in elliptic curve scalar multiplication point, which is the most important operation in ECC. Our technique is based on non-linear error detection codes. We consider an algorithm for scalar multiplication point proposed by Microsoft research group. The proposed technique in our methods has less overhead for additions (36.36%) and multiplications (34.84%) in total, compared to previous works. Also, the proposed method can detect almost 100% of injected faults.
Salman, Ahmad, El-Tawab, Samy.  2019.  Efficient Hardware/Software Co-Design of Elliptic-Curve Cryptography for the Internet of Things. 2019 International Conference on Smart Applications, Communications and Networking (SmartNets). :1—6.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is connecting the world in a way humanity has never seen before. With applications in healthcare, agricultural, transportation, and more, IoT devices help in bridging the gap between the physical and the virtual worlds. These devices usually carry sensitive data which requires security and protection in transit and rest. However, the limited power and energy consumption make it harder and more challenging to implementing security protocols, especially Public-Key Cryptosystems (PKC). In this paper, we present a hardware/software co-design for Elliptic-Curve Cryptography (ECC) PKC suitable for lightweight devices. We present the implementation results for our design on an edge node to be used for indoor localization in a healthcare facilities.

Bedoui, Mouna, Bouallegue, Belgacem, Hamdi, Belgacem, Machhout, Mohsen.  2019.  An Efficient Fault Detection Method for Elliptic Curve Scalar Multiplication Montgomery Algorithm. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Design Test of Integrated Micro Nano-Systems (DTS). :1—5.

Elliptical curve cryptography (ECC) is being used more and more in public key cryptosystems. Its main advantage is that, at a given security level, key sizes are much smaller compared to classical asymmetric cryptosystems like RSA. Smaller keys imply less power consumption, less cryptographic computation and require less memory. Besides performance, security is another major problem in embedded devices. Cryptosystems, like ECC, that are considered mathematically secure, are not necessarily considered safe when implemented in practice. An attacker can monitor these interactions in order to mount attacks called fault attacks. A number of countermeasures have been developed to protect Montgomery Scalar Multiplication algorithm against fault attacks. In this work, we proposed an efficient countermeasure premised on duplication scheme and the scrambling technique for Montgomery Scalar Multiplication algorithm against fault attacks. Our approach is simple and easy to hardware implementation. In addition, we perform injection-based error simulations and demonstrate that the error coverage is about 99.996%.

Long, Yihong, Cheng, Minyang.  2019.  Secret Sharing Based SM2 Digital Signature Generation using Homomorphic Encryption. 2019 15th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :252–256.
SM2 is an elliptic curve public key cryptography algorithm released by the State Cryptography Administration of China. It includes digital signature, data encryption and key exchange schemes. To meet specific application requirements, such as to protect the user's private key in software only implementation, and to facilitate secure cloud cryptography computing, secret sharing based SM2 signature generation schemes have been proposed in the literature. In this paper a new such kind of scheme based upon additively homomorphic encryption is proposed. The proposed scheme overcomes the drawback that the existing schemes have and is more secure. It is useful in various application scenarios.
Gupta, Himanshu, Mondal, Subhash, Ray, Srayan, Giri, Biswajit, Majumdar, Rana, Mishra, Ved P.  2019.  Impact of SQL Injection in Database Security. 2019 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Knowledge Economy (ICCIKE). :296–299.
In today's world web applications have become an instant means for information broadcasting. At present, man has become so dependent on web applications that everything done through electronic means like e-banking, e-shopping, online payment of bills etc. Due to an unauthorized admittance might threat customer's or user's confidentiality, integrity and authority. SQL injection considered as most Spartan dangerous coercions to the databases of web applications. current scenario databases are highly susceptible to SQL Injection[4] . SQL Injection is one of the most popular and dangerous hacking or cracking technique . In this work authors projected a novel approach to mitigate SQL Injection Attacks in a database. We have illustrated a technique or method prevent SQLIA by incorporating a hybrid encryption in form of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and Elliptical Curve Cryptography (ECC) [5]. In this research paper integrated approach of encryption method is followed to prevent the databases of the web applications against SQL Injection Attack. Incidentally if an invader gains access to the database, then it can cause severe damage and ends up with retrieves data or information. So to prevent these type of attacks a combined approach is projected , Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) at login phase to prevent the unauthorized access to databases and on the other hand Elliptical Curve Cryptography (ECC) to encode the database so that without the key no one can access the database information [3]. This research paper illustrates the technique to prevent SQL Injection Attack.
Hu, Xiaoming, Jiang, Wenrong, Ma, Chuang, Yu, Chengcheng.  2018.  Cryptoanalyzing and Improving for Directed Signature Scheme and the Proxy Signature Scheme. 2018 11th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, BioMedical Engineering and Informatics (CISP-BMEI). :1–9.
Forward secure proxy signature (FoSPS) solves the security drawback of private key exposure problem of generating the private key of each time interval. Directed signature scheme solves the public signature verification problem in traditional digital signature by designating the constant one as the signature verifier. Due to excellent properties, the two signature schemes have attracted the research of many experts. Recently, based on the Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), a new FoSPS scheme and directed signature scheme were proposed. In this paper, we analyze the two schemes and present which the either of both schemes is insecure and do not satisfy the unforgeability. In other words, anyone is able to forge a valid signature but the one does not know the signer's secret key. In the same time, we give the main reasons why the enemy is able to forge the signature by analyzing the two schemes respectively. And we also present a simple improvement idea to overcome existing problems without adding extra computational cost which can make them applied in some environments such as e-medical information system.
Vegda, Hiral, Modi, Nimesh.  2018.  Secure and Efficient Approach to Prevent Ad Hoc Network Attacks Using Intrusion Detection System. 2018 Second International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS). :129-133.

In Ad hoc networks the main purpose is communication without infrastructure and there are many implementations already done on that. There is little effort done for security to prevent threats in ad hoc networks (like MANETs). It is already proven that; there is no any centralized mechanism for defence against threats, such as a firewall, an intrusion detection system, or a proxy in ad hoc networks. Ad hoc networks are very convenient due to its features like self-maintenance, self-organizing and providing wireless communication. In Ad hoc networks there is no fixed infrastructure in which every node works like simply a router which stores and forwards packet to final destination. Due to these dynamic topology features, Ad hoc networks are anywhere, anytime. Therefore, it is necessary to make a secure mechanism for the ad hoc components so that with flexibility they have that security also. This paper shows the secure and flexible implementation about to protect any ad hoc networks. This proposed system design is perfect solution to provide security with flexibility by providing a hybrid system which combines ECC and MAES to detect and prevent Ad hoc network attacks using Intrusion detection system. The complete proposed system designed on NS 2.35 software using Ubuntu (Linux) OS.

Toradmalle, D., Singh, R., Shastri, H., Naik, N., Panchidi, V..  2018.  Prominence Of ECDSA Over RSA Digital Signature Algorithm. 2018 2nd International Conference on 2018 2nd International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC)I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :253–257.

Digital signatures are replacing paper-based work to make life easier for customers and employees in various industries. We rigorously use RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) for public key cryptographic algorithms. Nowadays ECDSA (Elliptical Curve Digital Signature Algorithm) gaining more popularity than the RSA algorithm because of the better performance of ECDSA over RSA. The main advantage of ECC over RSA is ECC provides the same level of security with less key size and overhead than RSA. This paper focuses on a brief review of the performance of ECDSA and RSA in various aspects like time, security and power. This review tells us about why ECC has become the latest trend in the present cryptographic scenario.

Sutradhar, M. R., Sultana, N., Dey, H., Arif, H..  2018.  A New Version of Kerberos Authentication Protocol Using ECC and Threshold Cryptography for Cloud Security. 2018 Joint 7th International Conference on Informatics, Electronics Vision (ICIEV) and 2018 2nd International Conference on Imaging, Vision Pattern Recognition (icIVPR). :239–244.

Dependency on cloud computing are increasing day by day due to its beneficial aspects. As day by day we are relying on cloud computing, the securities issues are coming up. There are lots of security protocols but now-a-days those protocol are not secured enough to provide a high security. One of those protocols which were once highly secured, is Kerberos authentication protocol. With the advancement of technology, Kerberos authentication protocol is no longer as secured as it was before. Many authors have thought about the improvement of Kerberos authentication protocol and consequently they have proposed different types of protocol models by using a renowned public key cryptography named RSA cryptography. Though RSA cryptography is good to some extent but this cryptography has some flaws that make this cryptography less secured as well as less efficient. In this paper, we are combining Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) as well as Threshold Cryptography to create a new version of Kerberos authentication protocol. Our proposed model will provide secure transaction of data which will not only be hard to break but also increase memory efficiency, cost efficiency, and reduce the burden of computation.

Dey, H., Islam, R., Arif, H..  2019.  An Integrated Model To Make Cloud Authentication And Multi-Tenancy More Secure. 2019 International Conference on Robotics,Electrical and Signal Processing Techniques (ICREST). :502–506.

Cloud Computing is an important term of modern technology. The usefulness of Cloud is increasing day by day and simultaneously more and more security problems are arising as well. Two of the major threats of Cloud are improper authentication and multi-tenancy. According to the specialists both pros and cons belong to multi-tenancy. There are security protocols available but it is difficult to claim these protocols are perfect and ensure complete protection. The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model to ensure better Cloud security for Authentication and multi-tenancy. Multi-tenancy means sharing of resources and virtualization among clients. Since multi-tenancy allows multiple users to access same resources simultaneously, there is high probability of accessing confidential data without proper privileges. Our model includes Kerberos authentication protocol to enhance authentication security. During our research on Kerberos we have found some flaws in terms of encryption method which have been mentioned in couple of IEEE conference papers. Pondering about this complication we have elected Elliptic Curve Cryptography. On the other hand, to attenuate arose risks due to multi-tenancy we are proposing a Resource Allocation Manager Unit, a Control Database and Resource Allocation Map. This part of the model will perpetuate resource allocation for the users.

Sen, N., Dantu, R., Vempati, J., Thompson, M..  2018.  Performance Analysis of Elliptic Curves for Real-Time Video Encryption. 2018 National Cyber Summit (NCS). :64-71.

The use of real-time video streaming is increasing day-by-day, and its security has become a serious issue now. Video encryption is a challenging task because of its large frame size. Video encryption can be done with symmetric key as well as asymmetric key encryption. Among different asymmetric key encryption technique, ECC performs better than other algorithms like RSA in terms of smaller key size and faster encryption and decryption operation. In this work, we have analyzed the performance of 18 different ECC curves and suggested some suitable curves for real-time video encryption.

Lei, Wang Bei, Al-shammari, Marwan Kadhim Mohammed, Xiao, HuiMing.  2018.  Secure Transition for Robotic Surgery With Elliptic Curve Diffie Hellman. Proceedings of the 2018 4th International Conference on Mechatronics and Robotics Engineering. :108-111.

This study examines the secure transition for robotic surgery session. Surgeon sends set of instructions as data. The data is encapsulated with surgeon secure signature to conform surgeon identity. At the same time, patient information sends to the surgeon as a secure row of frames to estimate patient situation dependent on the real medical reports. Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman is use as an asymmetric encryption method. Here the session between surgeon console and interactive robot arm was achieved and supported with four secret keys. Two private keys are chosen on each side and two public keys are calculated from these private keys. These results indicate that the level of the security was improved by use asymmetric encryption rather than symmetric encryption. And by contributed four secret keys the patient information must be safer.

Tewari, A., Gupta, B. B..  2018.  A Robust Anonymity Preserving Authentication Protocol for IoT Devices. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1–5.

In spite of being a promising technology which will make our lives a lot easier we cannot be oblivious to the fact IoT is not safe from online threat and attacks. Thus, along with the growth of IoT we also need to work on its aspects. Taking into account the limited resources that these devices have it is important that the security mechanisms should also be less complex and do not hinder the actual functionality of the device. In this paper, we propose an ECC based lightweight authentication for IoT devices which deploy RFID tags at the physical layer. ECC is a very efficient public key cryptography mechanism as it provides privacy and security with lesser computation overhead. We also present a security and performance analysis to verify the strength of our proposed approach.

Salman, A., Diehl, W., Kaps, J. P..  2017.  A light-weight hardware/software co-design for pairing-based cryptography with low power and energy consumption. 2017 International Conference on Field Programmable Technology (ICFPT). :235–238.

Embedded electronic devices and sensors such as smartphones, smart watches, medical implants, and Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSN) are making the “Internet of Things” (IoT) a reality. Such devices often require cryptographic services such as authentication, integrity and non-repudiation, which are provided by Public-Key Cryptography (PKC). As these devices are severely resource-constrained, choosing a suitable cryptographic system is challenging. Pairing Based Cryptography (PBC) is among the best candidates to implement PKC in lightweight devices. In this research, we present a fast and energy efficient implementation of PBC based on Barreto-Naehrig (BN) curves and optimal Ate pairing using hardware/software co-design. Our solution consists of a hardware-based Montgomery multiplier, and pairing software running on an ARM Cortex A9 processor in a Zynq-7020 System-on-Chip (SoC). The multiplier is protected against simple power analysis (SPA) and differential power analysis (DPA), and can be instantiated with a variable number of processing elements (PE). Our solution improves performance (in terms of latency) over an open-source software PBC implementation by factors of 2.34 and 2.02, for 256- and 160-bit field sizes, respectively, as measured in the Zynq-7020 SoC.

Pradhan, A., Marimuthu, K., Niranchana, R., Vijayakumar, P..  2017.  Secure Protocol for Subscriber Identity Module. 2017 Second International Conference on Recent Trends and Challenges in Computational Models (ICRTCCM). :358–362.

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) is the backbone of modern mobile communication. SIM can be used to store a number of user sensitive information such as user contacts, SMS, banking information (some banking applications store user credentials on the SIM) etc. Unfortunately, the current SIM model has a major weakness. When the mobile device is lost, an adversary can simply steal a user's SIM and use it. He/she can then extract the user's sensitive information stored on the SIM. Moreover, The adversary can then pose as the user and communicate with the contacts stored on the SIM. This opens up the avenue to a large number of social engineering techniques. Additionally, if the user has provided his/her number as a recovery option for some accounts, the adversary can get access to them. The current methodology to deal with a stolen SIM is to contact your particular service provider and report a theft. The service provider then blocks the services on your SIM, but the adversary still has access to the data which is stored on the SIM. Therefore, a secure scheme is required to ensure that only legal users are able to access and utilize their SIM.