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Frey, Michael, Gündoğan, Cenk, Kietzmann, Peter, Lenders, Martine, Petersen, Hauke, Schmidt, Thomas C., Juraschek, Felix, Wählisch, Matthias.  2019.  Security for the Industrial IoT: The Case for Information-Centric Networking. 2019 IEEE 5th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). :424–429.
Industrial production plants traditionally include sensors for monitoring or documenting processes, and actuators for enabling corrective actions in cases of misconfigurations, failures, or dangerous events. With the advent of the IoT, embedded controllers link these `things' to local networks that often are of low power wireless kind, and are interconnected via gateways to some cloud from the global Internet. Inter-networked sensors and actuators in the industrial IoT form a critical subsystem while frequently operating under harsh conditions. It is currently under debate how to approach inter-networking of critical industrial components in a safe and secure manner.In this paper, we analyze the potentials of ICN for providing a secure and robust networking solution for constrained controllers in industrial safety systems. We showcase hazardous gas sensing in widespread industrial environments, such as refineries, and compare with IP-based approaches such as CoAP and MQTT. Our findings indicate that the content-centric security model, as well as enhanced DoS resistance are important arguments for deploying Information Centric Networking in a safety-critical industrial IoT. Evaluation of the crypto efforts on the RIOT operating system for content security reveal its feasibility for common deployment scenarios.
Ivkic, Igor, Mauthe, Andreas, Tauber, Markus.  2019.  Towards a Security Cost Model for Cyber-Physical Systems. 2019 16th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–7.
In times of Industry 4.0 and cyber-physical systems (CPS) providing security is one of the biggest challenges. A cyber attack launched at a CPS poses a huge threat, since a security incident may affect both the cyber and the physical world. Since CPS are very flexible systems, which are capable of adapting to environmental changes, it is important to keep an overview of the resulting costs of providing security. However, research regarding CPS currently focuses more on engineering secure systems and does not satisfactorily provide approaches for evaluating the resulting costs. This paper presents an interaction-based model for evaluating security costs in a CPS. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates in a use case driven study, how this approach could be used to model the resulting costs for guaranteeing security.
Rao, Deepthi, Kumar, D.V.N. Siva, Thilagam, P. Santhi.  2018.  An Efficient Multi-User Searchable Encryption Scheme without Query Transformation over Outsourced Encrypted Data. 2018 9th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS). :1-4.

Searchable Encryption (SE) schemes provide security and privacy to the cloud data. The existing SE approaches enable multiple users to perform search operation by using various schemes like Broadcast Encryption (BE), Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE), etc. However, these schemes do not allow multiple users to perform the search operation over the encrypted data of multiple owners. Some SE schemes involve a Proxy Server (PS) that allow multiple users to perform the search operation. However, these approaches incur huge computational burden on PS due to the repeated encryption of the user queries for transformation purpose so as to ensure that users' query is searchable over the encrypted data of multiple owners. Hence, to eliminate this computational burden on PS, this paper proposes a secure proxy server approach that performs the search operation without transforming the user queries. This approach also returns the top-k relevant documents to the user queries by using Euclidean distance similarity approach. Based on the experimental study, this approach is efficient with respect to search time and accuracy.

Sakr, Ahmed S., El–kafrawy, P M., Abdullkader, Hatem M., Ibrahem, Hani M..  2018.  An Efficient Framework for Big Data Security Based on Selection Encryption on Amazonec2. 2018 1st International Conference on Computer Applications Information Security (ICCAIS). :1-5.

With the wide use of smart device made huge amount of information arise. This information needed new methods to deal with it from that perspective big data concept arise. Most of the concerns on big data are given to handle data without concentrating on its security. Encryption is the best use to keep data safe from malicious users. However, ordinary encryption methods are not suitable for big data. Selective encryption is an encryption method that encrypts only the important part of the message. However, we deal with uncertainty to evaluate the important part of the message. The problem arises when the important part is not encrypted. This is the motivation of the paper. In this paper we propose security framework to secure important and unimportant portion of the message to overcome the uncertainty. However, each will take a different encryption technique for better performance without losing security. The framework selects the important parts of the message to be encrypted with a strong algorithm and the weak part with a medium algorithm. The important of the word is defined according to how its origin frequently appears. This framework is applied on amazon EC2 (elastic compute cloud). A comparison between the proposed framework, the full encryption method and Toss-A-Coin method are performed according to encryption time and throughput. The results showed that the proposed method gives better performance according to encryption time, throughput than full encryption.

Chen, Wei-Hao, Fan, Chun-I, Tseng, Yi-Fan.  2018.  Efficient Key-Aggregate Proxy Re-Encryption for Secure Data Sharing in Clouds. 2018 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing (DSC). :1-4.

Cloud computing undoubtedly is the most unparalleled technique in rapidly developing industries. Protecting sensitive files stored in the clouds from being accessed by malicious attackers is essential to the success of the clouds. In proxy re-encryption schemes, users delegate their encrypted files to other users by using re-encryption keys, which elegantly transfers the users' burden to the cloud servers. Moreover, one can adopt conditional proxy re-encryption schemes to employ their access control policy on the files to be shared. However, we recognize that the size of re-encryption keys will grow linearly with the number of the condition values, which may be impractical in low computational devices. In this paper, we combine a key-aggregate approach and a proxy re-encryption scheme into a key-aggregate proxy re-encryption scheme. It is worth mentioning that the proposed scheme is the first key-aggregate proxy re-encryption scheme. As a side note, the size of re-encryption keys is constant.

Hammami, Hamza, Brahmi, Hanen, Ben Yahia, Sadok.  2018.  Secured Outsourcing towards a Cloud Computing Environment Based on DNA Cryptography. 2018 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :31-36.

Cloud computing denotes an IT infrastructure where data and software are stored and processed remotely in a data center of a cloud provider, which are accessible via an Internet service. This new paradigm is increasingly reaching the ears of companies and has revolutionized the marketplace of today owing to several factors, in particular its cost-effective architectures covering transmission, storage and intensive data computing. However, like any new technology, the cloud computing technology brings new problems of security, which represents the main restrain on turning to this paradigm. For this reason, users are reluctant to resort to the cloud because of security and protection of private data as well as lack of trust in cloud service providers. The work in this paper allows the readers to familiarize themselves with the field of security in the cloud computing paradigm while suggesting our contribution in this context. The security schema we propose allowing a distant user to ensure a completely secure migration of all their data anywhere in the cloud through DNA cryptography. Carried out experiments showed that our security solution outperforms its competitors in terms of integrity and confidentiality of data.

Harris, Albert, Snader, Robin, Kravets, Robin.  2018.  Aggio: A Coupon Safe for Privacy-Preserving Smart Retail Environments. 2018 IEEE/ACM Symposium on Edge Computing (SEC). :174–186.

Researchers and industry experts are looking at how to improve a shopper's experience and a store's revenue by leveraging and integrating technologies at the edges of the network, such as Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices, cloud-based systems, and mobile applications. The integration of IoT technology can now be used to improve purchasing incentives through the use of electronic coupons. Research has shown that targeted electronic coupons are the most effective and coupons presented to the shopper when they are near the products capture the most shoppers' dollars. Although it is easy to imagine coupons being broadcast to a shopper's mobile device over a low-power wireless channel, such a solution must be able to advertise many products, target many individual shoppers, and at the same time, provide shoppers with their desired level of privacy. To support this type of IoT-enabled shopping experience, we have designed Aggio, an electronic coupon distribution system that enables the distribution of localized, targeted coupons while supporting user privacy and security. Aggio uses cryptographic mechanisms to not only provide security but also to manage shopper groups e.g., bronze, silver, and gold reward programs) and minimize resource usage, including bandwidth and energy. The novel use of cryptographic management of coupons and groups allows Aggio to reduce bandwidth use, as well as reduce the computing and energy resources needed to process incoming coupons. Through the use of local coupon storage on the shopper's mobile device, the shopper does not need to query the cloud and so does not need to expose all of the details of their shopping decisions. Finally, the use of privacy preserving communication between the shopper's mobile device and the CouponHubs that are distributed throughout the retail environment allows the shopper to expose their location to the store without divulging their location to all other shoppers present in the store.

Kee, Ruitao, Sie, Jovan, Wong, Rhys, Yap, Chern Nam.  2019.  Arithmetic Circuit Homomorphic Encryption and Multiprocessing Enhancements. 2019 International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Security). :1–5.
This is a feasibility study on homomorphic encryption using the TFHE library [1] in daily computing using cloud services. A basic set of arithmetic operations namely - addition, subtraction, multiplication and division were created from the logic gates provide. This research peeks into the impact of logic gates on these operations such as latency of the gates and the operation itself. Multiprocessing enhancement were done for multiplication operation using MPI and OpenMP to reduce latency.
Sharma, Mukesh Kumar, Somwanshi, Devendra.  2018.  Improvement in Homomorphic Encryption Algorithm with Elliptic Curve Cryptography and OTP Technique. 2018 3rd International Conference and Workshops on Recent Advances and Innovations in Engineering (ICRAIE). :1–6.
Cloud computing is a technology is where client require not to stress over the expense of equipment establishment and their support cost. Distributed computing is presently turned out to be most prominent innovation on account of its accessibility, ease and some different elements. Yet, there is a few issues in distributed computing, the principle one is security in light of the fact that each client store their valuable information on the system so they need their information ought to be shielded from any unapproved get to, any progressions that isn't done for client's benefit. To take care of the issue of Key administration, Key Sharing different plans have been proposed. The outsider examiner is the plan for key administration and key sharing. The primary preferred standpoint of this is the cloud supplier can encourage the administration which was accessible by the customary outsider evaluator and make it trustful. The outsider examining plan will be fizzled, if the outsider's security is endangered or of the outsider will be malignant. To take care of the issue, there is another modular for key sharing and key administration in completely Homomorphic Encryption conspire is outlined. In this paper we utilized the symmetric key understanding calculation named Diffie Hellman to make session key between two gatherings who need to impart and elliptic curve cryptography to create encryption keys rather than RSA and have utilized One Time Password (OTP) for confirming the clients.
Dong, Yao, Milanova, Ana, Dolby, Julian.  2018.  SecureMR: Secure Mapreduce Computation Using Homomorphic Encryption and Program Partitioning. Proceedings of the 5th Annual Symposium and Bootcamp on Hot Topics in the Science of Security. :4:1–4:13.
In cloud computing customers upload data and computation to cloud providers. As they upload their data to the cloud provider, they typically give up data confidentiality. We develop SecureMR, a system that analyzes and transforms MapReduce programs to operate over encrypted data. SecureMR makes use of partially homomorphic encryption and a trusted client. We evaluate SecureMR on a set of complex computation-intensive MapReduce benchmarks.
Kahvazadeh, Sarang, Masip-Bruin, Xavi, Díaz, Rodrigo, Marín-Tordera, Eva, Jurnet, Alejandro, Garcia, Jordi, Juan, Ana, Simó, Ester.  2019.  Balancing Security Guarantees vs QoS Provisioning in Combined Fog-to-Cloud Systems. 2019 10th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS). :1–6.
Several efforts are currently active in dealing with scenarios combining fog, cloud computing, out of which a significant proportion is devoted to control, and manage the resulting scenario. Certainly, although many challenging aspects must be considered towards the design of an efficient management solution, it is with no doubt that whatever the solution is, the quality delivered to the users when executing services and the security guarantees provided to the users are two key aspects to be considered in the whole design. Unfortunately, both requirements are often non-convergent, thus making a solution suitably addressing both aspects is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a decoupled transversal security strategy, referred to as DCF, as a novel architectural oriented policy handling the QoS-Security trade-off, particularly designed to be applied to combined fog-to-cloud systems, and specifically highlighting its impact on the delivered QoS.
Heydari, Mohammad, Mylonas, Alexios, Katos, Vasilios, Balaguer-Ballester, Emili, Tafreshi, Vahid Heydari Fami, Benkhelifa, Elhadj.  2019.  Uncertainty-Aware Authentication Model for Fog Computing in IoT. 2019 Fourth International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC). :52–59.
Since the term “Fog Computing” has been coined by Cisco Systems in 2012, security and privacy issues of this promising paradigm are still open challenges. Among various security challenges, Access Control is a crucial concern for all cloud computing-like systems (e.g. Fog computing, Mobile edge computing) in the IoT era. Therefore, assigning the precise level of access in such an inherently scalable, heterogeneous and dynamic environment is not easy to perform. This work defines the uncertainty challenge for authentication phase of the access control in fog computing because on one hand fog has a number of characteristics that amplify uncertainty in authentication and on the other hand applying traditional access control models does not result in a flexible and resilient solution. Therefore, we have proposed a novel prediction model based on the extension of Attribute Based Access Control (ABAC) model. Our data-driven model is able to handle uncertainty in authentication. It is also able to consider the mobility of mobile edge devices in order to handle authentication. In doing so, we have built our model using and comparing four supervised classification algorithms namely as Decision Tree, Naïve Bayes, Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machine. Our model can achieve authentication performance with 88.14% accuracy using Logistic Regression.
Yang, Yang, Chang, Xiaolin, Han, Zhen, Li, Lin.  2018.  Delay-Aware Secure Computation Offloading Mechanism in a Fog-Cloud Framework. 2018 IEEE Intl Conf on Parallel Distributed Processing with Applications, Ubiquitous Computing Communications, Big Data Cloud Computing, Social Computing Networking, Sustainable Computing Communications (ISPA/IUCC/BDCloud/SocialCom/SustainCom). :346–353.
Fog-Cloud framework is being regarded as a more promising technology to provide performance guarantee for IoT applications, which not only have higher requirements on computation resources, but also are delay and/or security sensitive. In this framework, a delay and security-sensitive computation task is usually divided into several sub-tasks, which could be offloaded to either fog or cloud computing servers, referred to as offloading destinations. Sub-tasks may exchange information during their processing and then have requirement on transmission bandwidth. Different destinations produce different completion delays of a sub-task, affecting the corresponding task delay. The existing offloading approaches either considered only a single type of offloading destinations or ignored delay and/or security constraint. This paper studies a computation offloading problem in the fog-cloud scenario where not only computation and security capabilities of offloading destinations may be different, but also bandwidth and delay of links may be different. We first propose a joint offloading approach by formulating the problem as a form of Mixed Integer Programming Multi-Commodity Flow to maximize the fog-cloud provider's revenue without sacrificing performance and security requirements of users. We also propose a greedy algorithm for the problem. Extensive simulation results under various network scales show that the proposed computation offloading mechanism achieves higher revenue than the conventional single-type computation offloading under delay and security constraints.
Bazm, Mohammad-Mahdi, Lacoste, Marc, Südholt, Mario, Menaud, Jean-Marc.  2018.  Secure Distributed Computing on Untrusted Fog Infrastructures Using Trusted Linux Containers. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom). :239–242.
Fog and Edge computing provide a large pool of resources at the edge of the network that may be used for distributed computing. Fog infrastructure heterogeneity also results in complex configuration of distributed applications on computing nodes. Linux containers are a mainstream technique allowing to run packaged applications and micro services. However, running applications on remote hosts owned by third parties is challenging because of untrusted operating systems and hardware maintained by third parties. To meet such challenges, we may leverage trusted execution mechanisms. In this work, we propose a model for distributed computing on Fog infrastructures using Linux containers secured by Intel's Software Guard Extensions (SGX) technology. We implement our model on a Docker and OpenSGX platform. The result is a secure and flexible approach for distributed computing on Fog infrastructures.
Bousselham, Mhidi, Benamar, Nabil, Addaim, Adnane.  2019.  A new Security Mechanism for Vehicular Cloud Computing Using Fog Computing System. 2019 International Conference on Wireless Technologies, Embedded and Intelligent Systems (WITS). :1–4.
Recently Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC) has become an attractive solution that support vehicle's computing and storing service requests. This computing paradigm insures a reduced energy consumption and low traffic congestion. Additionally, VCC has emerged as a promising technology that provides a virtual platform for processing data using vehicles as infrastructures or centralized data servers. However, vehicles are deployed in open environments where they are vulnerable to various types of attacks. Furthermore, traditional cryptographic algorithms failed in insuring security once their keys compromised. In order to insure a secure vehicular platform, we introduce in this paper a new decoy technology DT and user behavior profiling (UBP) as an alternative solution to overcome data security, privacy and trust in vehicular cloud servers using a fog computing architecture. In the case of a malicious behavior, our mechanism shows a high efficiency by delivering decoy files in such a way making the intruder unable to differentiate between the original and decoy file.
Guleria, Akshit, Kalra, Evneet, Gupta, Kunal.  2019.  Detection and Prevention of DoS Attacks on Network Systems. 2019 International Conference on Machine Learning, Big Data, Cloud and Parallel Computing (COMITCon). :544-548.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) strike is a malevolent undertaking to irritate regular action of a concentrated on server, organization or framework by overwhelming the goal or its incorporating establishment with a flood of Internet development. DDoS ambushes achieve feasibility by utilizing different exchanged off PC structures as wellsprings of strike action. Mishandled machines can join PCs and other masterminded resources, for instance, IoT contraptions. From an anomalous express, a DDoS attack looks like a vehicle convergence ceasing up with the road, shielding standard action from meeting up at its pined for objective.

Mohan, K Manju.  2018.  An Efficient system to stumble on and Mitigate DDoS attack in cloud Environment. 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (ICICCT). :1855–1857.
Cloud computing is an assured progression inside the future of facts generation. It's far a sub-domain of network security. These days, many huge or small organizations are switching to cloud which will shop and arrange their facts. As a result, protection of cloud networks is the want of the hour. DDoS is a killer software for cloud computing environments on net today. It is a distributed denial of carrier. we will beat the ddos attacks if we have the enough assets. ddos attacks can be countered by means of dynamic allocation of the assets. In this paper the attack is detected as early as possible and prevention methods is done and also mitigation method is also implemented thus attack can be avoided before it may occur.
Mikkilineni, Rao, Morana, Giovanni.  2019.  Post-Turing Computing, Hierarchical Named Networks and a New Class of Edge Computing. 2019 IEEE 28th International Conference on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE). :82-87.

Advances in our understanding of the nature of cognition in its myriad forms (Embodied, Embedded, Extended, and Enactive) displayed in all living beings (cellular organisms, animals, plants, and humans) and new theories of information, info-computation and knowledge are throwing light on how we should build software systems in the digital universe which mimic and interact with intelligent, sentient and resilient beings in the physical universe. Recent attempts to infuse cognition into computing systems to push the boundaries of Church-Turing thesis have led to new computing models that mimic biological systems in encoding knowledge structures using both algorithms executed in stored program control machines and neural networks. This paper presents a new model and implements an application as hierarchical named network composed of microservices to create a managed process workflow by enabling dynamic configuration and reconfiguration of the microservice network. We demonstrate the resiliency, efficiency and scaling of the named microservice network using a novel edge cloud platform by Platina Systems. The platform eliminates the need for Virtual Machine overlay and provides high performance and low-latency with L3 based 100 GbE network and SSD support with RDMA and NVMeoE. The hierarchical named microservice network using Kubernetes provisioning stack provides all the cloud features such as elasticity, autoscaling, self-repair and live-migration without reboot. The model is derived from a recent theoretical framework for unification of different models of computation using "Structural Machines.'' They are shown to simulate Turing machines, inductive Turing machines and also are proved to be more efficient than Turing machines. The structural machine framework with a hierarchy of controllers managing the named service connections provides dynamic reconfiguration of the service network from browsers to database to address rapid fluctuations in the demand for or the availability of resources without having to reconfigure IP address base networks.

McDermott, Christopher D., Jeannelle, Bastien, Isaacs, John P..  2019.  Towards a Conversational Agent for Threat Detection in the Internet of Things. 2019 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA). :1–8.
A conversational agent to detect anomalous traffic in consumer IoT networks is presented. The agent accepts two inputs in the form of user speech received by Amazon Alexa enabled devices, and classified IDS logs stored in a DynamoDB Table. Aural analysis is used to query the database of network traffic, and respond accordingly. In doing so, this paper presents a solution to the problem of making consumers situationally aware when their IoT devices are infected, and anomalous traffic has been detected. The proposed conversational agent addresses the issue of how to present network information to non-technical users, for better comprehension, and improves awareness of threats derived from the mirai botnet malware.
Robert, Henzel, Georg, Herzwurm.  2018.  A preliminary approach towards the trust issue in cloud manufacturing using grounded theory: Defining the problem domain. 2018 4th International Conference on Universal Village (UV). :1–6.
In Cloud Manufacturing trust is an important, under investigated issue. This paper proceeds the noncommittal phase of the grounded theory method approach by investigating the trust topic in several research streams, defining the problem domain. This novel approach fills a research gap and can be treated as a snapshot and blueprint of research. Findings were accomplished by a structured literature review and are able to help future researchers in pursuing the integrative phase in Grounded Theory by building on the preliminary result of this paper.
Li, Wenjuan, Cao, Jian, Hu, Keyong, Xu, Jie, Buyya, Rajkumar.  2019.  A Trust-Based Agent Learning Model for Service Composition in Mobile Cloud Computing Environments. IEEE Access. 7:34207–34226.
Mobile cloud computing has the features of resource constraints, openness, and uncertainty which leads to the high uncertainty on its quality of service (QoS) provision and serious security risks. Therefore, when faced with complex service requirements, an efficient and reliable service composition approach is extremely important. In addition, preference learning is also a key factor to improve user experiences. In order to address them, this paper introduces a three-layered trust-enabled service composition model for the mobile cloud computing systems. Based on the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, we design a novel and integrated trust management model. Service brokers are equipped with a learning module enabling them to better analyze customers' service preferences, especially in cases when the details of a service request are not totally disclosed. Because traditional methods cannot totally reflect the autonomous collaboration between the mobile cloud entities, a prototype system based on the multi-agent platform JADE is implemented to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed strategies. The experimental results show that our approach improves the transaction success rate and user satisfaction.
Yuan, Jie, Li, Xiaoyong.  2018.  A Reliable and Lightweight Trust Computing Mechanism for IoT Edge Devices Based on Multi-Source Feedback Information Fusion. IEEE Access. 6:23626–23638.
The integration of Internet of Things (IoT) and edge computing is currently a new research hotspot. However, the lack of trust between IoT edge devices has hindered the universal acceptance of IoT edge computing as outsourced computing services. In order to increase the adoption of IoT edge computing applications, first, IoT edge computing architecture should establish efficient trust calculation mechanism to alleviate the concerns of numerous users. In this paper, a reliable and lightweight trust mechanism is originally proposed for IoT edge devices based on multi-source feedback information fusion. First, due to the multi-source feedback mechanism is used for global trust calculation, our trust calculation mechanism is more reliable against bad-mouthing attacks caused by malicious feedback providers. Then, we adopt lightweight trust evaluating mechanism for cooperations of IoT edge devices, which is suitable for largescale IoT edge computing because it facilitates low-overhead trust computing algorithms. At the same time, we adopt a feedback information fusion algorithm based on objective information entropy theory, which can overcome the limitations of traditional trust schemes, whereby the trust factors are weighted manually or subjectively. And the experimental results show that the proposed trust calculation scheme significantly outperforms existing approaches in both computational efficiency and reliability.
Akhtar, Nabeel, Matta, Ibrahim, Raza, Ali, Wang, Yuefeng.  2018.  EL-SEC: ELastic Management of Security Applications on Virtualized Infrastructure. IEEE INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :778-783.

The concept of Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs) aims to move Network Functions (NFs) out of dedicated hardware devices into software that runs on commodity hardware. A single NF consists of multiple VNF instances, usually running on virtual machines in a cloud infrastructure. The elastic management of an NF refers to load management across the VNF instances and the autonomic scaling of the number of VNF instances as the load on the NF changes. In this paper, we present EL-SEC, an autonomic framework to elastically manage security NFs on a virtualized infrastructure. As a use case, we deploy the Snort Intrusion Detection System as the NF on the GENI testbed. Concepts from control theory are used to create an Elastic Manager, which implements various controllers - in this paper, Proportional Integral (PI) and Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) - to direct traffic across the VNF Snort instances by monitoring the current load. RINA (a clean-slate Recursive InterNetwork Architecture) is used to build a distributed application that monitors load and collects Snort alerts, which are processed by the Elastic Manager and an Attack Analyzer, respectively. Software Defined Networking (SDN) is used to steer traffic through the VNF instances, and to block attack traffic. Our results show that virtualized security NFs can be easily deployed using our EL-SEC framework. With the help of real-time graphs, we show that PI and PID controllers can be used to easily scale the system, which leads to quicker detection of attacks.

Cui, Hongyan, Chen, Zunming, Xi, Yu, Chen, Hao, Hao, Jiawang.  2019.  IoT Data Management and Lineage Traceability: A Blockchain-based Solution. 2019 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications Workshops in China (ICCC Workshops). :239–244.
The Internet of Things is stepping out of its infancy into full maturity, requiring massive data processing and storage. Unfortunately, because of the unique characteristics of resource constraints, short-range communication, and self-organization in IoT, it always resorts to the cloud or fog nodes for outsourced computation and storage, which has brought about a series of novel challenging security and privacy threats. For this reason, one of the critical challenges of having numerous IoT devices is the capacity to manage them and their data. A specific concern is from which devices or Edge clouds to accept join requests or interaction requests. This paper discusses a design concept for developing the IoT data management platform, along with a data management and lineage traceability implementation of the platform based on blockchain and smart contracts, which approaches the two major challenges: how to implement effective data management and enrich rational interoperability for trusted groups of linked Things; And how to settle conflicts between untrusted IoT devices and its requests taking into account security and privacy preserving. Experimental results show that the system scales well with the loss of computing and communication performance maintaining within the acceptable range, works well to effectively defend against unauthorized access and empower data provenance and transparency, which verifies the feasibility and efficiency of the design concept to provide privacy, fine-grained, and integrity data management over the IoT devices by introducing the blockchain-based data management platform.
Pei, Xin, Li, Xuefeng, Wu, Xiaochuan, Zheng, Kaiyan, Zhu, Boheng, Cao, Yixin.  2019.  Assured Delegation on Data Storage and Computation via Blockchain System. 2019 IEEE 9th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0055–0061.
With the widespread of cloud computing, the delegation of storage and computing is becoming a popular trend. Concerns on data integrity, security, user privacy as well as the correctness of execution are highlighted due to the untrusted remote data manipulation. Most of existing proposals solve the integrity checking and verifiable computation problems by challenge-response model, but are lack of scalability and reusability. Via blockchain, we achieve efficient and transparent public verifiable delegation for both storage and computing. Meanwhile, the smart contract provides API for request handling and secure data query. The security and privacy issues of data opening are settled by applying cryptographic algorithms all through the delegations. Additionally, any access to the outsourced data requires the owner's authentication, so that the dat transference and utilization are under control.