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Vasiliu, Yevhen, Limar, Igor, Gancarczyk, Tomasz, Karpinski, Mikolaj.  2019.  New Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol Using Entangled Qutrits. 2019 10th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications (IDAACS). 1:324–329.
A new quantum secret sharing protocol based on the ping-pong protocol of quantum secure direct communication is proposed. The pairs of entangled qutrits are used in protocol, which allows an increase in the information capacity compared with protocols based on entangled qubits. The detection of channel eavesdropping used in the protocol is being implemented in random moments of time, thereby it is possible do not use the significant amount of quantum memory. The security of the proposed protocol to attacks is considered. A method for additional amplification of the security to an eavesdropping attack in communication channels for the developed protocol is proposed.
Diamanti, Eleni.  2019.  Demonstrating Quantum Advantage in Security and Efficiency with Practical Photonic Systems. 2019 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON). :1–2.
We discuss the current landscape in quantum communication and cryptography, and focus in particular on recent photonic implementations, using encoding in discrete or continuous properties of light, of central quantum network protocols, enabling secret key distribution, verification of entangled resources and transactions of quantum money, with maximal security guarantees. We also describe current challenges in this field and our efforts towards the miniaturization of the developed photonic systems, their integration into telecommunication network infrastructures, including with satellite links, as well as the practical demonstration of novel protocols featuring a quantum advantage in communication efficiency for a wide range of useful tasks in a network environment. These advances enrich the resources and applications of the emerging quantum networks that will play a central role in the context of future quantum-safe communications.
Mao, Huajian, Chi, Chenyang, Yu, Jinghui, Yang, Peixiang, Qian, Cheng, Zhao, Dongsheng.  2019.  QRStream: A Secure and Convenient Method for Text Healthcare Data Transferring. 2019 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC). :3458–3462.
With the increasing of health awareness, the users become more and more interested in their daily health information and healthcare activities results from healthcare organizations. They always try to collect them together for better usage. Traditionally, the healthcare data is always delivered by paper format from the healthcare organizations, and it is not easy and convenient for data usage and management. They would have to translate these data on paper to digital version which would probably introduce mistakes into the data. It would be necessary if there is a secure and convenient method for electronic health data transferring between the users and the healthcare organizations. However, for the security and privacy problems, almost no healthcare organization provides a stable and full service for health data delivery. In this paper, we propose a secure and convenient method, QRStream, which splits original health data and loads them onto QR code frame streaming for the data transferring. The results shows that QRStream can transfer text health data smoothly with an acceptable performance, for example, transferring 10K data in 10 seconds.
Li, Jian, Zhang, Zelin, Li, Shengyu, Benton, Ryan, Huang, Yulong, Kasukurthi, Mohan Vamsi, Li, Dongqi, Lin, Jingwei, Borchert, Glen M., Tan, Shaobo et al..  2019.  Reversible Data Hiding Based Key Region Protection Method in Medical Images. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine (BIBM). :1526–1530.
The transmission of medical image data in an open network environment is subject to privacy issues including patient privacy and data leakage. In the past, image encryption and information-hiding technology have been used to solve such security problems. But these methodologies, in general, suffered from difficulties in retrieving original images. We present in this paper an algorithm to protect key regions in medical images. First, coefficient of variation is used to locate the key regions, a.k.a. the lesion areas, of an image; other areas are then processed in blocks and analyzed for texture complexity. Next, our reversible data-hiding algorithm is used to embed the contents from the lesion areas into a high-texture area, and the Arnold transformation is performed to protect the original lesion information. In addition to this, we use the ciphertext of the basic information about the image and the decryption parameter to generate the Quick Response (QR) Code to replace the original key regions. Consequently, only authorized customers can obtain the encryption key to extract information from encrypted images. Experimental results show that our algorithm can not only restore the original image without information loss, but also safely transfer the medical image copyright and patient-sensitive information.
Huang, Jinjing, Cheng, Shaoyin, Lou, Songhao, Jiang, Fan.  2019.  Image steganography using texture features and GANs. 2019 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1–8.
As steganography is the main practice of hidden writing, many deep neural networks are proposed to conceal secret information into images, whose invisibility and security are unsatisfactory. In this paper, we present an encoder-decoder framework with an adversarial discriminator to conceal messages or images into natural images. The message is embedded into QR code first which significantly improves the fault-tolerance. Considering the mean squared error (MSE) is not conducive to perfectly learn the invisible perturbations of cover images, we introduce a texture-based loss that is helpful to hide information into the complex texture regions of an image, improving the invisibility of hidden information. In addition, we design a truncated layer to cope with stego image distortions caused by data type conversion and a moment layer to train our model with varisized images. Finally, our experiments demonstrate that the proposed model improves the security and visual quality of stego images.
Mashaly, Maggie, El Saied, Ahmed, Alexan, Wassim, Khalifa, Abeer S..  2019.  A Multiple Layer Security Scheme Utilizing Information Matrices. 2019 Signal Processing: Algorithms, Architectures, Arrangements, and Applications (SPA). :284–289.
This paper proposes a double-layer message security scheme that is implemented in two stages. First, the secret data is encrypted using the AES algorithm with a 256-bit key. Second, least significant bit (LSB) embedding is carried out, by hiding the secret message into an image of an information matrix. A number of performance evaluation metrics are discussed and computed for the proposed scheme. The obtained results are compared to other schemes in literature and show the superiority of the proposed scheme.
Ximenes, Agostinho Marques, Sukaridhoto, Sritrusta, Sudarsono, Amang, Ulil Albaab, Mochammad Rifki, Basri, Hasan, Hidayat Yani, Muhammad Aksa, Chang Choon, Chew, Islam, Ezharul.  2019.  Implementation QR Code Biometric Authentication for Online Payment. 2019 International Electronics Symposium (IES). :676–682.
Based on the Indonesian of Statistics the level of society people in 2019 is grow up. Based on data, the bank conducted a community to simple transaction payment in the market. Bank just used a debit card or credit card for the transaction, but the banks need more investment for infrastructure and very expensive. Based on that cause the bank needs another solution for low-cost infrastructure. Obtained from solutions that, the bank implementation QR Code Biometric authentication Payment Online is one solution that fulfills. This application used for payment in online merchant. The transaction permits in this study lie in the biometric encryption, or decryption transaction permission and QR Code Scan to improve communication security and transaction data. The test results of implementation Biometric Cloud Authentication Platform show that AES 256 agents can be implemented for face biometric encryption and decryption. Code Scan QR to carry out transaction permits with Face verification transaction permits gets the accuracy rate of 95% for 10 sample people and transaction process gets time speed of 53.21 seconds per transaction with a transaction sample of 100 times.
Khan, Abdul Ghaffar, Zahid, Amjad Hussain, Hussain, Muzammil, Riaz, Usama.  2019.  Security Of Cryptocurrency Using Hardware Wallet And QR Code. 2019 International Conference on Innovative Computing (ICIC). :1–10.
Today, the privacy and the security of any organization are the key requirement, the digital online transaction of money or coins also needed a certain level of security not only during the broadcasting of the transaction but before the sending of the transaction. In this research paper we proposed and implemented a cryptocurrency (Bitcoin) wallet for the android operating system, by using the QR code-based android application and a secure private key storage (Cold Wallet). Two android applications have been implemented one of them is called cold wallet and the other one is hot wallet. Cold wallet (offline) is to store and generate the private key addresses for secure transaction confirmation and the hot wallet is used to send bitcoin to the network. Hot wallet application gives facility to the user view history of performed transactions, to send and compose a new bitcoin transaction, receive bitcoin, sign it and send it to the network. By using the process of cross QR code scanning of the hot and cold wallet to the identification, validation and authentication of the user made it secure.
Ahamed, Md. Salahuddin, Asiful Mustafa, Hossen.  2019.  A Secure QR Code System for Sharing Personal Confidential Information. 2019 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Chemical, Materials and Electronic Engineering (IC4ME2). :1–4.
Securing and hiding personal confidential information has become a challenge in these modern days. Due to the lack of security and confidentiality, forgery of confidential information can cause a big margin loss to a person. Personal confidential information needs to be securely shared and hidden with the expected recipient and he should be able to verify the information by checking its authenticity. QR codes are being used increasingly to share data for different purposes. In information communication, QR code is important because of its high data capacity. However, most existing QR code systems use insecure data format and encryption is rarely used. A user can use Secure QR Code (SQRC) technology to keep information secured and hidden. In this paper, we propose a novel SQRC system which will allow sharing authentic personal confidential information by means of QR code verification using RSA digital signature algorithm and also allow authorizing the information by means of QR code validation using RSA public key cryptographic algorithm. We implemented the proposed SQRC system and showed that the system is effective for sharing personal confidential information securely.
Jin, Yong, Tomoishi, Masahiko.  2019.  Encrypted QR Code Based Optical Challenge-Response Authentication by Mobile Devices for Mounting Concealed File System. 2019 IEEE 43rd Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 2:676–681.
Nowadays mobile devices have become the majority terminals used by people for social activities so that carrying business data and private information in them have become normal. Accordingly, the risk of data related cyber attacks has become one of the most critical security concerns. The main purpose of this work is to mitigate the risk of data breaches and damages caused by malware and the lost of mobile devices. In this paper, we propose an encrypted QR code based optical challenge-response authentication by mobile devices for mounting concealed file systems. The concealed file system is basically invisible to the users unless being successfully mounted. The proposed authentication scheme practically applies cryptography and QR code technologies to challenge-response scheme in order to secure the concealed file system. The key contribution of this work is to clarify a possibility of a mounting authentication scheme involving two mobile devices using a special optical communication way (QR code exchanges) which can be realizable without involving any network accesses. We implemented a prototype system and based on the preliminary feature evaluations results we confirmed that encrypted QR code based optical challenge-response is possible between a laptop and a smart phone and it can be applied to authentication for mounting concealed file systems.
Verma, Rajat Singh, Chandavarkar, B. R., Nazareth, Pradeep.  2019.  Mitigation of hard-coded credentials related attacks using QR code and secured web service for IoT. 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–5.
Hard-coded credentials such as clear text log-in id and password provided by the IoT manufacturers and unsecured ways of remotely accessing IoT devices are the major security concerns of industry and academia. Limited memory, power, and processing capabilities of IoT devices further worsen the situations in improving the security of IoT devices. In such scenarios, a lightweight security algorithm up to some extent can minimize the risk. This paper proposes one such approach using Quick Response (QR) code to mitigate hard-coded credentials related attacks such as Mirai malware, wreak havoc, etc. The QR code based approach provides non-clear text unpredictable login id and password. Further, this paper also proposes a secured way of remotely accessing IoT devices through modified https. The proposed algorithms are implemented and verified using Raspberry Pi 3 model B.
Abdolahi, Mahssa, Jiang, Hao, Kaminska, Bozena.  2019.  Robust data retrieval from high-security structural colour QR codes via histogram equalization and decorrelation stretching. 2019 IEEE 10th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :0340–0346.
In this work, robust readout of the data (232 English characters) stored in high-security structural colour QR codes, was achieved by using multiple image processing techniques, specifically, histogram equalization and decorrelation stretching. The decoded structural colour QR codes are generic diffractive RGB-pixelated periodic nanocones selectively activated by laser exposure to obtain the particular design of interest. The samples were imaged according to the criteria determined by the diffraction grating equation for the lighting and viewing angles given the red, green, and blue periodicities of the grating. However, illumination variations all through the samples, cross-module and cross-channel interference effects result in acquiring images with dissimilar lighting conditions which cannot be directly retrieved by the decoding script and need significant preprocessing. According to the intensity plots, even if the intensity values are very close (above 200) at some typical regions of the images with different lighting conditions, their inconsistencies (below 100) at the pixels of one representative region may lead to the requirement for using different methods for recovering the data from all red, green, and blue channels. In many cases, a successful data readout could be achieved by downscaling the images to 300-pixel dimensions (along with bilinear interpolation resampling), histogram equalization (HE), linear spatial low-pass mean filtering, and gamma function, each used either independently or with other complementary processes. The majority of images, however, could be fully decoded using decorrelation stretching (DS) either as a standalone or combinational process for obtaining a more distinctive colour definition.
Abedin, Zain Ul, Guan, Zhitao, Arif, Asad Ullah, Anwar, Usman.  2019.  An Advance Cryptographic Solutions in Cloud Computing Security. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computing, Mathematics and Engineering Technologies (iCoMET). :1–6.
Cryptographically cloud computing may be an innovative safe cloud computing design. Cloud computing may be a huge size dispersed computing model that ambitious by the economy of the level. It integrates a group of inattentive virtualized animatedly scalable and managed possessions like computing control storage space platform and services. External end users will approach to resources over the net victimization fatal particularly mobile terminals, Cloud's architecture structures are advances in on-demand new trends. That are the belongings are animatedly assigned to a user per his request and hand over when the task is finished. So, this paper projected biometric coding to boost the confidentiality in Cloud computing for biometric knowledge. Also, this paper mentioned virtualization for Cloud computing also as statistics coding. Indeed, this paper overviewed the safety weaknesses of Cloud computing and the way biometric coding will improve the confidentiality in Cloud computing atmosphere. Excluding this confidentiality is increased in Cloud computing by victimization biometric coding for biometric knowledge. The novel approach of biometric coding is to reinforce the biometric knowledge confidentiality in Cloud computing. Implementation of identification mechanism can take the security of information and access management in the cloud to a higher level. This section discusses, however, a projected statistics system with relation to alternative recognition systems to date is a lot of advantageous and result oriented as a result of it does not work on presumptions: it's distinctive and provides quick and contact less authentication. Thus, this paper reviews the new discipline techniques accustomed to defend methodology encrypted info in passing remote cloud storage.
Hiller, Jens, Pennekamp, Jan, Dahlmanns, Markus, Henze, Martin, Panchenko, Andriy, Wehrle, Klaus.  2019.  Tailoring Onion Routing to the Internet of Things: Security and Privacy in Untrusted Environments. 2019 IEEE 27th International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP). :1–12.
An increasing number of IoT scenarios involve mobile, resource-constrained IoT devices that rely on untrusted networks for Internet connectivity. In such environments, attackers can derive sensitive private information of IoT device owners, e.g., daily routines or secret supply chain procedures, when sniffing on IoT communication and linking IoT devices and owner. Furthermore, untrusted networks do not provide IoT devices with any protection against attacks from the Internet. Anonymous communication using onion routing provides a well-proven mechanism to keep the relationship between communication partners secret and (optionally) protect against network attacks. However, the application of onion routing is challenged by protocol incompatibilities and demanding cryptographic processing on constrained IoT devices, rendering its use infeasible. To close this gap, we tailor onion routing to the IoT by bridging protocol incompatibilities and offloading expensive cryptographic processing to a router or web server of the IoT device owner. Thus, we realize resource-conserving access control and end-to-end security for IoT devices. To prove applicability, we deploy onion routing for the IoT within the well-established Tor network enabling IoT devices to leverage its resources to achieve the same grade of anonymity as readily available to traditional devices.
Tejendra, D.S., Varunkumar, C.R., Sriram, S.L., Sumathy, V., Thejeshwari, C.K..  2019.  A Novel Approach to reduce Vulnerability on Router by Zero vulnerability Encrypted password in Router (ZERO) Mechanism. 2019 3rd International Conference on Computing and Communications Technologies (ICCCT). :163–167.
As technology is developing exponentially and the world is moving towards automation, the resources have to be transferred through the internet which requires routers to connect networks and forward bundles (information). Due to the vulnerability of routers the data and resources have been hacked. The vulnerability of routers is due to minimum authentication to the network shared, some technical attacks on routers, leaking of passwords to others, single passwords. Based on the study, the solution is to maximize authentication of the router by embedding an application that monitors the user entry based on MAC address of the device, the password is frequently changed and that encrypted password is sent to a user and notifies the admin about the changes. Thus, these routers provide high-level security to the forward data through the internet.
Lee, Hyungyu, Pyo, Changwoo, Lee, Gyungho.  2019.  Dynamic reencryption of return addresses. IET Information Security. 13:76–85.
The authors present dynamic reencryption of return addresses to mitigate their leakage. The authors' method enforces programs to save return addresses as encrypted and renew the encryption states with fresh keys before or after vulnerable operations. When a function returns, it should restore the return address from its encryption using the most recent key not to cause a crash. Under the protection of their method, return addresses and keys may leak, but the disclosed bits become garbage because keys govern all return addresses through encryption, while changing before control-flow proceeds into a vulnerable region. As a result, it becomes probabilistically infeasible to build exploits for intercepting control-flow by using leaked return addresses or keys. They implemented the proposed method as an extension of the LLVM compiler that inserts reencryption code where necessary. They also have confirmed its effectiveness against information leak attacks carried out in the early stage of blind return-oriented programming (BROP). The performance overhead ranges below 11.6% for processor-intensive programs and 4.12% or less for web servers.
Xiao-Mei, Liu, Yong, Qian.  2019.  Research on LED lightweight cryptographic algorithm based on RFID tag of Internet of things. 2019 IEEE 8th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). :1717–1720.
In recent years, with the rapid development of Internet of things, RFID tags have been widely used, in due to the chip used in radio frequency identification (RFID) tags is more demanding for resources, which also brings a great threat to the safety performance of cryptographic algorithms in differential power analysis (DPA). For this purpose, it is necessary to study the LED lightweight cryptography algorithm of RFID tags in the Internet of things, so as to explore a lightweight and secure cryptographic algorithm which can be applied to RFID Tags. In this paper, through the combination of Piccolo cryptographic algorithm and the new DPA protection technology threshold, we propose a LED lightweight cryptographic algorithm which can be applied to the RFID tag of the Internet of things. With the help of improve d exhaustive search and Boolean expression reconstruction, the two methods share the implementation of the S -box and the InvS-box, thereby effectively solves the burr threat problem of the S-box and the InvS-box in the sharing implementation process, the security performance of the algorithm is evaluated by the DPA attack of FPGA. The results show that the algorithm can achieve lightweight and security performance at the same time, can effectively meet the light and security requirements of RFID tag chip of Internet of things for cryptographic algorithms.
Tian, Mengfan, Qi, Junpeng, Ma, Rui.  2019.  UHF RFID Information Security Transmission Technology and Application Based on Domestic Cryptographic Algorithm. 2019 6th International Conference on Behavioral, Economic and Socio-Cultural Computing (BESC). :1–4.
With the continuous development of the Internet of Things, intelligent manufacturing has gradually entered the application stage, which urgently needs to solve the problem of information transmission security. In order to realize data security with transmission encryption, the UHF RFID tag based on domestic cryptographic algorithm SM7 is proposed. By writing the anti-counterfeiting authentication identification code when the tag leaves the factory, verifying the identification code when the tag is issued, and using the authentication code of the tag to participate in the sectoral key dispersion, the purpose of data security protection is achieved. Through this scheme, the security of tag information and transmission is guaranteed, and a new idea is provided for the follow-up large-scale extension of intelligent manufacturing.
Arul, Tolga, Anagnostopoulos, Nikolaos Athanasios, Katzenbeisser, Stefan.  2019.  Privacy Usability of IPTV Recommender Systems. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1–2.
IPTV is capable of providing recommendations for upcoming TV programs based on consumer feedback. With the increasing popularity and performance of recommender systems, risks of user privacy breach emerge. Although several works about privacy-preserving designs of recommender systems exist in the literature, a detailed analysis of the current state-of-the-art regarding privacy as well as an investigation of the usability aspects of such systems, so far, have not received consideration. In this paper, we survey current approaches for recommender systems by studying their privacy and usability properties in the context of IPTV.
Naik, Nitin, Jenkins, Paul, Savage, Nick.  2019.  A Ransomware Detection Method Using Fuzzy Hashing for Mitigating the Risk of Occlusion of Information Systems. 2019 International Symposium on Systems Engineering (ISSE). :1–6.
Today, a significant threat to organisational information systems is ransomware that can completely occlude the information system by denying access to its data. To reduce this exposure and damage from ransomware attacks, organisations are obliged to concentrate explicitly on the threat of ransomware, alongside their malware prevention strategy. In attempting to prevent the escalation of ransomware attacks, it is important to account for their polymorphic behaviour and dispersion of inexhaustible versions. However, a number of ransomware samples possess similarity as they are created by similar groups of threat actors. A particular threat actor or group often adopts similar practices or codebase to create unlimited versions of their ransomware. As a result of these common traits and codebase, it is probable that new or unknown ransomware variants can be detected based on a comparison with their originating or existing samples. Therefore, this paper presents a detection method for ransomware by employing a similarity preserving hashing method called fuzzy hashing. This detection method is applied on the collected WannaCry or WannaCryptor ransomware corpus utilising three fuzzy hashing methods SSDEEP, SDHASH and mvHASH-B to evaluate the similarity detection success rate by each method. Moreover, their fuzzy similarity scores are utilised to cluster the collected ransomware corpus and its results are compared to determine the relative accuracy of the selected fuzzy hashing methods.
Naik, Nitin, Jenkins, Paul, Gillett, Jonathan, Mouratidis, Haralambos, Naik, Kshirasagar, Song, Jingping.  2019.  Lockout-Tagout Ransomware: A Detection Method for Ransomware using Fuzzy Hashing and Clustering. 2019 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). :641–648.
Ransomware attacks are a prevalent cybersecurity threat to every user and enterprise today. This is attributed to their polymorphic behaviour and dispersion of inexhaustible versions due to the same ransomware family or threat actor. A certain ransomware family or threat actor repeatedly utilises nearly the same style or codebase to create a vast number of ransomware versions. Therefore, it is essential for users and enterprises to keep well-informed about this threat landscape and adopt proactive prevention strategies to minimise its spread and affects. This requires a technique to detect ransomware samples to determine the similarity and link with the known ransomware family or threat actor. Therefore, this paper presents a detection method for ransomware by employing a combination of a similarity preserving hashing method called fuzzy hashing and a clustering method. This detection method is applied on the collected WannaCry/WannaCryptor ransomware samples utilising a range of fuzzy hashing and clustering methods. The clustering results of various clustering methods are evaluated through the use of the internal evaluation indexes to determine the accuracy and consistency of their clustering results, thus the effective combination of fuzzy hashing and clustering method as applied to the particular ransomware corpus. The proposed detection method is a static analysis method, which requires fewer computational overheads and performs rapid comparative analysis with respect to other static analysis methods.
Naik, Nitin, Jenkins, Paul, Savage, Nick, Yang, Longzhi.  2019.  Cyberthreat Hunting - Part 1: Triaging Ransomware using Fuzzy Hashing, Import Hashing and YARA Rules. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE). :1–6.
Ransomware is currently one of the most significant cyberthreats to both national infrastructure and the individual, often requiring severe treatment as an antidote. Triaging ran-somware based on its similarity with well-known ransomware samples is an imperative preliminary step in preventing a ransomware pandemic. Selecting the most appropriate triaging method can improve the precision of further static and dynamic analysis in addition to saving significant t ime a nd e ffort. Currently, the most popular and proven triaging methods are fuzzy hashing, import hashing and YARA rules, which can ascertain whether, or to what degree, two ransomware samples are similar to each other. However, the mechanisms of these three methods are quite different and their comparative assessment is difficult. Therefore, this paper presents an evaluation of these three methods for triaging the four most pertinent ransomware categories WannaCry, Locky, Cerber and CryptoWall. It evaluates their triaging performance and run-time system performance, highlighting the limitations of each method.
Park, Jungmin, Cho, Seongjoon, Lim, Taejin, Bhunia, Swarup, Tehranipoor, Mark.  2019.  SCR-QRNG: Side-Channel Resistant Design using Quantum Random Number Generator. 2019 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD). :1–8.
Random number generators play a pivotal role in generating security primitives, e.g., encryption keys, nonces, initial vectors, and random masking for side-channel countermeasures. A quantum entropy source based on radioactive isotope decay can be exploited to generate random numbers with sufficient entropy. If a deterministic random bit generator (DRBG) is combined for post-processing, throughput of the quantum random number generator (QRNG) can be improved. However, general DRBGs are susceptible to side-channel attacks. In this paper, we propose a framework called SCR-QRNG framework, which offers Side-Channel Resistant primitives using QRNG. The QRNG provides sources of randomness for modulating the clock frequency of a DRBG to obfuscate side-channel leakages, and to generate unbiased random numbers for security primitives. The QRNG has robustness against power side-channel attacks and is in compliance with NIST SP 800-22/90B and BSI AIS 31. We fabricate a quantum entropy chip, and implement a PCB module for a random frequency clock generator and a side-channel resistant QRNG on an FPGA.
Hayashi, Masahito.  2019.  Semi-Finite Length Analysis for Secure Random Number Generation. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :952–956.
To discuss secure key generation from imperfect random numbers, we address the secure key generation length. There are several studies for its asymptotic expansion up to the order √n or log n. However, these expansions have errors of the order o(√n) or o(log n), which does not go to zero asymptotically. To resolve this problem, we derive the asymptotic expansion up to the constant order for upper and lower bounds of these optimal values. While the expansions of upper and lower bonds do not match, they clarify the ranges of these optimal values, whose errors go to zero asymptotically.
Aguilar, Eryn, Dancel, Jevis, Mamaud, Deysaree, Pirosch, Dorothy, Tavacoli, Farin, Zhan, Felix, Pearce, Robbie, Novack, Margaret, Keehu, Hokunani, Lowe, Benjamin et al..  2019.  Highly Parallel Seedless Random Number Generation from Arbitrary Thread Schedule Reconstruction. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Knowledge (ICBK). :1–8.
Security is a universal concern across a multitude of sectors involved in the transfer and storage of computerized data. In the realm of cryptography, random number generators (RNGs) are integral to the creation of encryption keys that protect private data, and the production of uniform probability outcomes is a revenue source for certain enterprises (most notably the casino industry). Arbitrary thread schedule reconstruction of compare-and-swap operations is used to generate input traces for the Blum-Elias algorithm as a method for constructing random sequences, provided the compare-and-swap operations avoid cache locality. Threads accessing shared memory at the memory controller is a true random source which can be polled indirectly through our algorithm with unlimited parallelism. A theoretical and experimental analysis of the observation and reconstruction algorithm are considered. The quality of the random number generator is experimentally analyzed using two standard test suites, DieHarder and ENT, on three data sets.