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Rachmawati, Dian, Budiman, Mohammad Andri, Habibi, Wiro Tirta.  2021.  Three-Pass Protocol Scheme for Securing Image Files Using the Hill Cipher 3x3 Algorithm. 2021 International Conference on Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Business Analytics (DATABIA). :130–135.
There will be a fatal risk when the submitted file is stolen or altered by someone else during the file submission process. To maintain the security of sending files from sender to recipient, it is necessary to secure files. The science of maintaining the security of messages is called cryptography. The authors were interested in examining the Three Pass Protocol scheme in this study because it eliminated the necessity for sender and receiver to exchange keys during the operation of the Hill Cipher 3x3 algorithm. The Hill Cipher algorithm was chosen because the key has an inverse and matrix-shaped value. Then the key used must be checked whether it has a GCD (Greatest Common Divisor) grade 1 or not and will be shaped like matrix. System implementation using the Java programming language using Android Studio software. System testing is done by encrypting and decrypting files. System testing results illustrate that the process encryption and decryption by the sender is faster than the recipient, so the encryption and decryption time needed directly proportional; the larger the pixel size of the image on the image file used, the longer it takes.
Malhotra, Diksha, Srivastava, Shubham, Saini, Poonam, Singh, Awadhesh Kumar.  2021.  Blockchain Based Audit Trailing of XAI Decisions: Storing on IPFS and Ethereum Blockchain. 2021 International Conference on COMmunication Systems NETworkS (COMSNETS). :1–5.
Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) generates explanations which are used by regulators to audit the responsibility in case of any catastrophic failure. These explanations are currently stored in centralized systems. However, due to lack of security and traceability in centralized systems, the respective owner may temper the explanations for his convenience in order to avoid any penalty. Nowadays, Blockchain has emerged as one of the promising technologies that might overcome the security limitations. Hence, in this paper, we propose a novel Blockchain based framework for proof-of-authenticity pertaining to XAI decisions. The framework stores the explanations in InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) due to storage limitations of Ethereum Blockchain. Further, a Smart Contract is designed and deployed in order to supervise the storage and retrieval of explanations from Ethereum Blockchain. Furthermore, to induce cryptographic security in the network, an explanation's hash is calculated and stored in Blockchain too. Lastly, we perform the cost and security analysis of our proposed system.
Xiaojian, Zhang, Liandong, Chen, Jie, Fan, Xiangqun, Wang, Qi, Wang.  2021.  Power IoT Security Protection Architecture Based on Zero Trust Framework. 2021 IEEE 5th International Conference on Cryptography, Security and Privacy (CSP). :166–170.
The construction of the power Internet of Things has led various terminals to access the corporate network on a large scale. The internal and external business interaction and data exchange are more extensive. The current security protection system is based on border isolation protection. This is difficult to meet the needs of the power Internet of Things connection and open shared services. This paper studies the application scheme of the ``zero trust'' typical business scenario of the power Internet of Things with ``Continuous Identity Authentication and Dynamic Access Control'' as the core, and designs the power internet security protection architecture based on zero trust.
Rodigari, Simone, O'Shea, Donna, McCarthy, Pat, McCarry, Martin, McSweeney, Sean.  2021.  Performance Analysis of Zero-Trust Multi-Cloud. 2021 IEEE 14th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). :730–732.
Zero Trust security model permits to secure cloud native applications while encrypting all network communication, authenticating, and authorizing every request. The service mesh can enable Zero Trust using a side-car proxy without changes to the application code. To the best of our knowledge, no previous work has provided a performance analysis of Zero Trust in a multi-cloud environment. This paper proposes a multi-cloud framework and a testing workflow to analyse performance of the data plane under load and the impact on the control plane, when Zero Trust is enabled. The results of preliminary tests show that Istio has reduced latency variability in responding to sequential HTTP requests. Results also reveal that the overall CPU and memory usage can increase based on service mesh configuration and the cloud environment.
Elumar, Eray Can, Sood, Mansi, Ya\u gan, Osman.  2021.  On the Connectivity and Giant Component Size of Random K-out Graphs Under Randomly Deleted Nodes. 2021 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :2572–2577.
Random K-out graphs, denoted \$$\backslash$mathbbH(n;K)\$, are generated by each of the \$n\$ nodes drawing \$K\$ out-edges towards \$K\$ distinct nodes selected uniformly at random, and then ignoring the orientation of the arcs. Recently, random K-out graphs have been used in applications as diverse as random (pairwise) key predistribution in ad-hoc networks, anonymous message routing in crypto-currency networks, and differentially-private federated averaging. In many applications, connectivity of the random K-out graph when some of its nodes are dishonest, have failed, or have been captured is of practical interest. We provide a comprehensive set of results on the connectivity and giant component size of \$$\backslash$mathbbH(n;K\_n,$\backslash$gamma\_n)\$, i.e., random K-out graph when \textsubscriptn of its nodes, selected uniformly at random, are deleted. First, we derive conditions for \textsubscriptn and \$n\$ that ensure, with high probability (whp), the connectivity of the remaining graph when the number of deleted nodes is \$$\backslash$gamma\_n=Ømega(n)\$ and \$$\backslash$gamma\_n=o(n)\$, respectively. Next, we derive conditions for \$$\backslash$mathbbH(n;K\_n, $\backslash$gamma\_n)\$ to have a giant component, i.e., a connected subgraph with \$Ømega(n)\$ nodes, whp. This is also done for different scalings of \textsubscriptn and upper bounds are provided for the number of nodes outside the giant component. Simulation results are presented to validate the usefulness of the results in the finite node regime.
Diamond, Benjamin E..  2021.  Many-out-of-Many Proofs and Applications to Anonymous Zether. 2021 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1800–1817.
Anonymous Zether, proposed by Bünz, Agrawal, Zamani, and Boneh (FC'20), is a private payment design whose wallets demand little bandwidth and need not remain online; this unique property makes it a compelling choice for resource-constrained devices. In this work, we describe an efficient construction of Anonymous Zether. Our protocol features proofs which grow only logarithmically in the size of the "anonymity sets" used, improving upon the linear growth attained by prior efforts. It also features competitive transaction sizes in practice (on the order of 3 kilobytes).Our central tool is a new family of extensions to Groth and Kohlweiss's one-out-of-many proofs (Eurocrypt 2015), which efficiently prove statements about many messages among a list of commitments. These extensions prove knowledge of a secret subset of a public list, and assert that the commitments in the subset satisfy certain properties (expressed as linear equations). Remarkably, our communication remains logarithmic; our computation increases only by a logarithmic multiplicative factor. This technique is likely to be of independent interest.We present an open-source, Ethereum-based implementation of our Anonymous Zether construction.
Hamouid, Khaled, Omar, Mawloud, Adi, Kamel.  2021.  A Privacy-Preserving Authentication Model Based on Anonymous Certificates in IoT. 2021 Wireless Days (WD). :1–6.
This paper proposes an anonymity based mechanism for providing privacy in IoT environment. Proposed scheme allows IoT entities to anonymously interacting and authenticating with each other, or even proving that they have trustworthy relationship without disclosing their identities. Authentication is based on an anonymous certificates mechanism where interacting IoT entities could unlinkably prove possession of a valid certificate without revealing any incorporated identity-related information, thereby preserving their privacy and thwarting tracking and profiling attacks. Through a security analysis, we demonstrate the reliability of our solution.
González, Christian El\'ıas Cruz, Romero, Francisco Javier Cuadros.  2021.  Security Issues of a Decentralized Blockchain-Based Messaging System. 2021 Congreso Internacional de Innovación y Tendencias En Ingenier\'ıa (CONIITI). :1–4.
This paper presents a decentralized messaging system based on blockchain technology. This system allows their users to securely send and receive digital messages in the network. Since the messages stored in a conventional blockchain could be easily read by everyone in the network, under the proposed approach these messages are previously encrypted using public-key cryptography, while the sender and recipient remain anonymous. The proposed system incorporates a browser-based user interface that enable their users to interact seamlessly in a peer-to-peer fashion.
Künnemann, Robert, Garg, Deepak, Backes, Michael.  2021.  Accountability in the Decentralised-Adversary Setting. 2021 IEEE 34th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :1–16.
A promising paradigm in protocol design is to hold parties accountable for misbehavior, instead of postulating that they are trustworthy. Recent approaches in defining this property, called accountability, characterized malicious behavior as a deviation from the protocol that causes a violation of the desired security property, but did so under the assumption that all deviating parties are controlled by a single, centralized adversary. In this work, we investigate the setting where multiple parties can deviate with or without coordination in a variant of the applied-π calculus.We first demonstrate that, under realistic assumptions, it is impossible to determine all misbehaving parties; however, we show that accountability can be relaxed to exclude causal dependencies that arise from the behavior of deviating parties, and not from the protocol as specified. We map out the design space for the relaxation, point out protocol classes separating these notions and define conditions under which we can guarantee fairness and completeness. Most importantly, we discover under which circumstances it is correct to consider accountability in the single-adversary setting, where this property can be verified with off-the-shelf protocol verification tools.
Singleton, Larry, Zhao, Rui, Siy, Harvey, Song, Myoungkyu.  2021.  FireBugs: Finding and Repairing Cryptography API Misuses in Mobile Applications. 2021 IEEE 45th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :1194–1201.
In this paper, we present FireBugs for Finding and Repairing Bugs based on security patterns. For the common misuse patterns of cryptography APIs (crypto APIs), we encode common cryptography rules into the pattern representations for bug detection and program repair regarding cryptography rule violations. In the evaluation, we conducted a case study to assess the bug detection capability by applying FireBugs to datasets mined from both open source and commercial projects. Also, we conducted a user study with professional software engineers at Mutual of Omaha Insurance Company to estimate the program repair capability. This evaluation showed that FireBugs can help professional engineers develop various cryptographic requirements in a resilient application.
Piccolboni, Luca, Guglielmo, Giuseppe Di, Carloni, Luca P., Sethumadhavan, Simha.  2021.  CRYLOGGER: Detecting Crypto Misuses Dynamically. 2021 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1972–1989.
Cryptographic (crypto) algorithms are the essential ingredients of all secure systems: crypto hash functions and encryption algorithms, for example, can guarantee properties such as integrity and confidentiality. Developers, however, can misuse the application programming interfaces (API) of such algorithms by using constant keys and weak passwords. This paper presents CRYLOGGER, the first open-source tool to detect crypto misuses dynamically. CRYLOGGER logs the parameters that are passed to the crypto APIs during the execution and checks their legitimacy offline by using a list of crypto rules. We compared CRYLOGGER with CryptoGuard, one of the most effective static tools to detect crypto misuses. We show that our tool complements the results of CryptoGuard, making the case for combining static and dynamic approaches. We analyzed 1780 popular Android apps downloaded from the Google Play Store to show that CRYLOGGER can detect crypto misuses on thousands of apps dynamically and automatically. We reverse-engineered 28 Android apps and confirmed the issues flagged by CRYLOGGER. We also disclosed the most critical vulnerabilities to app developers and collected their feedback.
Xu, Zhiwu, Hu, Xiongya, Tao, Yida, Qin, Shengchao.  2020.  Analyzing Cryptographic API Usages for Android Applications Using HMM and N-Gram. 2020 International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering (TASE). :153–160.
A recent research shows that 88 % of Android applications that use cryptographic APIs make at least one mistake. For this reason, several tools have been proposed to detect crypto API misuses, such as CryptoLint, CMA, and CogniCryptSAsT. However, these tools depend heavily on manually designed rules, which require much cryptographic knowledge and could be error-prone. In this paper, we propose an approach based on probabilistic models, namely, hidden Markov model and n-gram model, to analyzing crypto API usages in Android applications. The difficulty lies in that crypto APIs are sensitive to not only API orders, but also their arguments. To address this, we have created a dataset consisting of crypto API sequences with arguments, wherein symbolic execution is performed. Finally, we have also conducted some experiments on our models, which shows that ( i) our models are effective in capturing the usages, detecting and locating the misuses; (ii) our models perform better than the ones without symbolic execution, especially in misuse detection; and (iii) compared with CogniCryptSAsT, our models can detect several new misuses.
Sharma, Nisha, Sharma, Manish, Sharma, Durga Prasad.  2020.  A Trust Based Scheme for Spotting Malicious Node of Wormhole in Dynamic Source Routing Protocol. 2020 Fourth International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :1232–1237.
The exceptional attributes of impromptu network of being framework less, self-composed and unconstrained make the task more challenging to secure it. In mobile Ad-hoc network nodes reliant on one another for transmitting information, that make MANET helpless against different sorts of security attacks. These security attacks can be arranged as Passive and Active attacks. Wormhole is an Active attack and considered generally risky as it can make significant harm routing. Various secure routing mechanism has been created are based on cryptography mechanism, need pre-organized structure, centralized authority, or need external hardware, etc. These components are unreasonable due to restricted accessible assets in MANET. In this paper, we are proposing an effective trust-based mechanism based on the concept of Node to Node packet delay for the detection of the malevolent node of wormhole. The trust value of each node is calculated by observing the packet transaction among adjacent nodes and later this trust value is used for identification of malevolent node. Based on the trust values, further routing decisions and selecting a secured route can be perform.
Aitchison, Callum, Buckle, Roman, Ch'ng, Alvin, Clarke, Christian, Malley, Jacob, Halak, Basel.  2020.  On the Integration of Physically Unclonable Functions into ARM TrustZone Security Technology. 2020 European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD). :1–4.
As Internet of Things (IoT) devices are increasingly used in industry and become further integrated into our daily lives the security of such devices is of paramount concern. Ensuring that the large amount of information that these devices collect is protected and only accessible to authenticated users is a critical requirement of the industry. One potentially inexpensive way to improve device security utilises a Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) to generate a unique random response per device. This random response can be generated in such a way that it can be regenerated reliably and repeatably allowing the response to be considered a signature for each device. This signature could then be used for authentication or key generation purposes, improving trust in IoT devices. The advantage of a PUF based system is that the response does not need to be stored in nonvolatile memory as it is regenerated on demand, hardening the system against physical attacks. With SoC FPGAs being inexpensive and widely available there is potential for their use in both industrial and consumer applications as an additional layer of hardware security. In this paper we investigate and implement a Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) based around a PUF solely implemented in the FPGA fabric on a Xilinx Zynq-7000 SoC FPGA. The PUF response is used to seed a generic entropy maximisation function or Pseudorandom Number Generator (PRNG) with a system controller capable of encrypting data to be useful only to the device. This system interacts with a software platform running in the ARM TrustZone on the ARM Cortex core in the SoC, which handles requests between user programs and the FPGA. The proposed PUF-based security module can generate unique random keys able to pass all NIST tests and protects against physical attacks on buses and nonvolatile memories. These improvements are achieved at a cost of fewer than half the resources on the Zynq-7000 SoC FPGA.
Gayatri, R, Gayatri, Yendamury.  2020.  Detection of Trojan Based DoS Attacks on RSA Cryptosystem Using Hybrid Supervised Learning Models. 2020 Third International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT). :1–5.
Privacy and security have become the most important aspects in any sphere of technology today from embedded systems to VLS I circuits. One such an attack compromising the privacy, security and trust of a networked control system by making them vulnerable to unauthorized access is the Hardware Trojan Horses. Even cryptographic algorithms whose purpose is to safeguard information are susceptible to these Trojan attacks. This paper discusses hybrid supervised machine learning models that predict with great accuracy whether the RSA asymmetric cryptosystem implemented in Atmel XMega microcontroller is Trojan-free (Golden) or Trojan-infected by analyzing the power profiles of the golden algorithm and trojan-infected algorithm. The power profiles are obtained using the ChipWhisperer Lite Board. The features selected from the power profiles are used to create datasets for the proposed hybrid models and train the proposed models using the 70/30 rule. The proposed hybrid models can be concluded that it has an accuracy of more than 88% irrespective of the Trojan types and size of the datasets.
Vinarskii, Evgenii, Demakov, Alexey, Kamkin, Alexander, Yevtushenko, Nina.  2020.  Verifying cryptographic protocols by Tamarin Prover. 2020 Ivannikov Memorial Workshop (IVMEM). :69–75.
Cryptographic protocols are utilized for establishing a secure session between “honest” agents which communicate strictly according to the protocol rules as well as for ensuring the authenticated and confidential transmission of messages. The specification of a cryptographic protocol is usually presented as a set of requirements for the sequences of transmitted messages including the format of such messages. Note that protocol can describe several execution scenarios. All these requirements lead to a huge formal specification for a real cryptographic protocol and therefore, it is difficult to verify the security of the whole cryptographic protocol at once. In this paper, to overcome this problem, we suggest verifying the protocol security for its fragments. Namely, we verify the security properties for a special set of so-called traces of the cryptographic protocol. Intuitively, a trace of the cryptographic protocol is a sequence of computations, value checks, and transmissions on the sides of “honest” agents permitted by the protocol. In order to choose such set of traces, we introduce an Adversary model and the notion of a similarity relation for traces. We then verify the security properties of selected traces with Tamarin Prover. Experimental results for the EAP and Noise protocols clearly show that this approach can be promising for automatic verification of large protocols.
Hassan, Mehmood, Sultan, Aiman, Awan, Ali Afzal, Tahir, Shahzaib, Ihsan, Imran.  2020.  An Enhanced and Secure Multiserver-based User Authentication Protocol. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ICCWS). :1–6.
The extensive use of the internet and web-based applications spot the multiserver authentication as a significant component. The users can get their services after authenticating with the service provider by using similar registration records. Various protocol schemes are developed for multiserver authentication, but the existing schemes are not secure and often lead towards various vulnerabilities and different security issues. Recently, Zhao et al. put forward a proposal for smart card and user's password-based authentication protocol for the multiserver environment and showed that their proposed protocol is efficient and secure against various security attacks. This paper points out that Zhao et al.'s authentication scheme is susceptive to traceability as well as anonymity attacks. Thus, it is not feasible for the multiserver environment. Furthermore, in their scheme, it is observed that a user while authenticating does not send any information with any mention of specific server identity. Therefore, this paper proposes an enhanced, efficient and secure user authentication scheme for use in any multiserver environment. The formal security analysis and verification of the protocol is performed using state-of-the-art tool “ProVerif” yielding that the proposed scheme provides higher levels of security.
Reshikeshan, Sree Subiksha M., Illindala, Mahesh S..  2020.  Systematically Encoded Polynomial Codes to Detect and Mitigate High-Status-Number Attacks in Inter-Substation GOOSE Communications. 2020 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting. :1–7.
Inter-substation Generic Object Oriented Substation Events (GOOSE) communications that are used for critical protection functions have several cyber-security vulnerabilities. GOOSE messages are directly mapped to the Layer 2 Ethernet without network and transport layer headers that provide data encapsulation. The high-status-number attack is a malicious attack on GOOSE messages that allows hackers to completely take over intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) subscribing to GOOSE communications. The status-number parameter of GOOSE messages, stNum is tampered with in these attacks. Given the strict delivery time requirement of 3 ms for GOOSE messaging, it is infeasible to encrypt the GOOSE payload. This work proposes to secure the sensitive stNum parameter of the GOOSE payload using systematically encoded polynomial codes. Exploiting linear codes allows for the security features to be encoded in linear time, in contrast to complex hashing algorithms. At the subscribing IED, the security feature is used to verify that the stNum parameter has not been tampered with during transmission in the insecure medium. The decoding and verification using syndrome computation at the subscriber IED is also accomplished in linear time.
Ding, Lei, Wang, Shida, Wan, Renzhuo, Zhou, Guopeng.  2020.  Securing core information sharing and exchange by blockchain for cooperative system. 2020 IEEE 9th Data Driven Control and Learning Systems Conference (DDCLS). :579–583.
The privacy protection and information security are two crucial issues for future advanced artificial intelligence devices, especially for cooperative system with rich core data exchange which may offer opportunities for attackers to fake interaction messages. To combat such threat, great efforts have been made by introducing trust mechanism in initiative or passive way. Furthermore, blockchain and distributed ledger technology provide a decentralized and peer-to-peer network, which has great potential application for multi-agent system, such as IoTs and robots. It eliminates third-party interference and data in the blockchain are stored in an encrypted way permanently and anti-destroys. In this paper, a methodology of blockchain is proposed and designed for advanced cooperative system with artificial intelligence to protect privacy and sensitive data exchange between multi-agents. The validation procedure is performed in laboratory by a three-level computing networks of Raspberry Pi 3B+, NVIDIA Jetson Tx2 and local computing server for a robot system with four manipulators and four binocular cameras in peer computing nodes by Go language.
Khalid, Fatima, Masood, Ammar.  2020.  Hardware-Assisted Isolation Technologies: Security Architecture and Vulnerability Analysis. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ICCWS). :1–8.
Hardware-assisted isolation technology provide a Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) for the Trusted Computing Base (TCB) of a system. Since there is no standardization for such systems, many technologies using different approaches have been implemented over time. Before selecting or implementing a TEE, it is essential to understand the security architecture, features and analyze the technologies with respect to the new security vulnerabilities (i.e. Micro-architectural class of vulnerabilities). These technologies can be divided into two main types: 1) Isolation by software virtualization and 2) Isolation by hardware. In this paper, we discuss technology implementation of each type i.e. Intel SGX and ARM TrustZone for type-1; Intel ME and AMD Secure Processor for type-2. We also cover the vulnerability analysis against each technology with respect to the latest discovered attacks. This would enable a user to precisely appreciate the security capabilities of each technology.
Weber, Iaçanã, Marchezan, Geaninne, Caimi, Luciano, Marcon, César, Moraes, Fernando G..  2020.  Open-Source NoC-Based Many-Core for Evaluating Hardware Trojan Detection Methods. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–5.
In many-cores based on Network-on-Chip (NoC), several applications execute simultaneously, sharing computation, communication and memory resources. This resource sharing leads to security and trust problems. Hardware Trojans (HTs) may steal sensitive information, degrade system performance, and in extreme cases, induce physical damages. Methods available in the literature to prevent attacks include firewalls, denial-of-service detection, dedicated routing algorithms, cryptography, task migration, and secure zones. The goal of this paper is to add an HT in an NoC, able to execute three types of attacks: packet duplication, block applications, and misrouting. The paper qualitatively evaluates the attacks' effect against methods available in the literature, and its effects showed in an NoC-based many-core. The resulting system is an open-source NoC-based many-core for researchers to evaluate new methods against HT attacks.
Manning, Derek, Li, Peilong, Wu, Xiaoban, Luo, Yan, Zhang, Tong, Li, Weigang.  2020.  ACETA: Accelerating Encrypted Traffic Analytics on Network Edge. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Applying machine learning techniques to detect malicious encrypted network traffic has become a challenging research topic. Traditional approaches based on studying network patterns fail to operate on encrypted data, especially without compromising the integrity of encryption. In addition, the requirement of rendering network-wide intelligent protection in a timely manner further exacerbates the problem. In this paper, we propose to leverage ×86 multicore platforms provisioned at enterprises' network edge with the software accelerators to design an encrypted traffic analytics (ETA) system with accelerated speed. Specifically, we explore a suite of data features and machine learning models with an open dataset. Then we show that by using Intel DAAL and OpenVINO libraries in model training and inference, we are able to reduce the training and inference time by a maximum order of 31× and 46× respectively while retaining the model accuracy.
Cheng, Xiuzhen, Chellappan, Sriram, Cheng, Wei, Sahin, Gokhan.  2020.  Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Section on Network Science for High-Confidence Cyber-Physical Systems. IEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering. 7:764–765.
The papers in this special section focus on network science for high confidence cyber-physical systems (CPS) Here CPS refers to the engineered systems that can seamlessly integrate the physical world with the cyber world via advanced computation and communication capabilities. To enable high-confidence CPS for achieving better benefits as well as supporting emerging applications, network science-based theories and methodologies are needed to cope with the ever-growing complexity of smart CPS, to predict the system behaviors, and to model the deep inter-dependencies among CPS and the natural world. The major objective of this special section is to exploit various network science techniques such as modeling, analysis, mining, visualization, and optimization to advance the science of supporting high-confidence CPS for greater assurances of security, safety, scalability, efficiency, and reliability. These papers bring a timely and important research topic. The challenges and opportunities of applying network science approaches to high-confidence CPS are profound and far-reaching.
Conference Name: IEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering
Ayoub, Ahmed A., Aagaard, Mark D..  2020.  Application-Specific Instruction Set Architecture for an Ultralight Hardware Security Module. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :69–79.
Due to the rapid growth of using Internet of Things (IoT) devices in the daily life, the need to achieve an acceptable level of security and privacy according to the real security risks for these devices is rising. Security risks may include privacy threats like gaining sensitive information from a device, and authentication problems from counterfeit or cloned devices. It becomes more challenging to add strong security features to extremely constrained devices compared to battery operated devices that have more computational and storage capabilities. We propose a novel application specific instruction-set architecture that allows flexibility on many design levels and achieves the required security level for the Electronic Product Code (EPC) passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag device. Our solution moves a major design effort from hardware to software, which largely reduces the final unit cost. The proposed architecture can be implemented with 4,662 gate equivalent units (GEs) for 65 nm CMOS technology excluding the memory and the cryptographic units. The synthesis results fulfill the requirements of extremely constrained devices and allow the inclusion of cryptographic units into the datapath of the proposed application-specific instruction set processor (ASIP).
Yoon, JinYi, Lee, HyungJune.  2020.  PUFGAN: Embracing a Self-Adversarial Agent for Building a Defensible Edge Security Architecture. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :904–913.
In the era of edge computing and Artificial Intelligence (AI), securing billions of edge devices within a network against intelligent attacks is crucial. We propose PUFGAN, an innovative machine learning attack-proof security architecture, by embedding a self-adversarial agent within a device fingerprint- based security primitive, public PUF (PPUF) known for its strong fingerprint-driven cryptography. The self-adversarial agent is implemented using Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). The agent attempts to self-attack the system based on two GAN variants, vanilla GAN and conditional GAN. By turning the attacking quality through generating realistic secret keys used in the PPUF primitive into system vulnerability, the security architecture is able to monitor its internal vulnerability. If the vulnerability level reaches at a specific value, PUFGAN allows the system to restructure its underlying security primitive via feedback to the PPUF hardware, maintaining security entropy at as high a level as possible. We evaluated PUFGAN on three different machine environments: Google Colab, a desktop PC, and a Raspberry Pi 2, using a real-world PPUF dataset. Extensive experiments demonstrated that even a strong device fingerprint security primitive can become vulnerable, necessitating active restructuring of the current primitive, making the system resilient against extreme attacking environments.