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2021-09-16
Dessouky, Ghada, Frassetto, Tommaso, Jauernig, Patrick, Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza, Stapf, Emmanuel.  2020.  With Great Complexity Comes Great Vulnerability: From Stand-Alone Fixes to Reconfigurable Security. IEEE Security Privacy. 18:57–66.
The increasing complexity of modern computing devices has rendered security architectures vulnerable to recent side-channel and transient-execution attacks. We discuss the most relevant defenses as well as their drawbacks and how to overcome them for next-generation secure processor design.
Conference Name: IEEE Security Privacy
2021-08-31
Natarajan, K, Shaik, Vaheedbasha.  2020.  Transparent Data Encryption: Comparative Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Oracle Databases. 2020 Fifth International Conference on Research in Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (ICRCICN). :137—142.
This Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) can provide enormous benefits to the Relational Databases in the aspects of Data Security, Cryptographic Encryption, and Compliances. For every transaction, the stored data must be decrypted before applying the updates as well as should be encrypted before permanently storing back at the storage level. By adding this extra functionality to the database, the general thinking denotes that the Database (DB) going to hit some performance overhead at the CPU and storage level. However, The Oracle Corporation has adversely claimed that their latest Oracle DB version 19c TDE feature can provide significant improvement in the optimization of CPU and no overhead at the storage level for data processing. Impressively, it is true. the results of this paper prove too. Most interestingly the results also revealed about highly impacted components in the servers which are not yet disclosed in any of the previous research work. This paper completely concentrates on CPU, IO, and RAM performance analysis and identifying the bottlenecks along with possible solutions.
2021-08-17
Kurth, Michael, Gras, Ben, Andriesse, Dennis, Giuffrida, Cristiano, Bos, Herbert, Razavi, Kaveh.  2020.  NetCAT: Practical Cache Attacks from the Network. 2020 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :20—38.
Increased peripheral performance is causing strain on the memory subsystem of modern processors. For example, available DRAM throughput can no longer sustain the traffic of a modern network card. Scrambling to deliver the promised performance, instead of transferring peripheral data to and from DRAM, modern Intel processors perform I/O operations directly on the Last Level Cache (LLC). While Direct Cache Access (DCA) instead of Direct Memory Access (DMA) is a sensible performance optimization, it is unfortunately implemented without care for security, as the LLC is now shared between the CPU and all the attached devices, including the network card.In this paper, we reverse engineer the behavior of DCA, widely referred to as Data-Direct I/O (DDIO), on recent Intel processors and present its first security analysis. Based on our analysis, we present NetCAT, the first Network-based PRIME+PROBE Cache Attack on the processor's LLC of a remote machine. We show that NetCAT not only enables attacks in cooperative settings where an attacker can build a covert channel between a network client and a sandboxed server process (without network), but more worryingly, in general adversarial settings. In such settings, NetCAT can enable disclosure of network timing-based sensitive information. As an example, we show a keystroke timing attack on a victim SSH connection belonging to another client on the target server. Our results should caution processor vendors against unsupervised sharing of (additional) microarchitectural components with peripherals exposed to malicious input.
2021-07-27
Meadows, B., Edwards, N., Chang, S.-Y..  2020.  On-Chip Randomization for Memory Protection Against Hardware Supply Chain Attacks to DRAM. 2020 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :171—180.
Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) is widely used for data storage and, when a computer system is in operation, the DRAM can contain sensitive information such as passwords and cryptographic keys. Therefore, the DRAM is a prime target for hardware-based cryptanalytic attacks. These attacks can be performed in the supply chain to capture default key mechanisms enabling a later cyber attack or predisposition the system to remote effects. Two prominent attack classes against memory are the Cold Boot attack which recovers the data from the DRAM even after a supposed power-down and Rowhammer attack which violates memory integrity by influencing the stored bits to flip. In this paper, we propose an on-chip technique that obfuscates the memory addresses and data and provides a fast detect-response to defend against these hardware-based security attacks on DRAM. We advance the prior hardware security research by making two contributions. First, the key material is detected and erased before the Cold Boot attacker can extract the memory data. Second, our solution is on-chip and does not require nor depend on additional hardware or software which are open to additional supply chain attack vectors. We analyze the efficacy of our scheme through circuit simulation and compare the results to the previous mitigation approaches based on DRAM write operations. Our simulation and analysis results show that purging key information used for address and data randomization can be achieved much faster and with lower power than with typical DRAM write techniques used for sanitizing memory content. We demonstrate through circuit simulation of the key register design a technique that clears key information within 2.4ns which is faster by more than two orders magnitude compared to typical DRAM write operations for 180nm technology, and with a power consumption of 0.15 picoWatts.
2021-05-03
Luo, Lan, Zhang, Yue, Zou, Cliff, Shao, Xinhui, Ling, Zhen, Fu, Xinwen.  2020.  On Runtime Software Security of TrustZone-M Based IoT Devices. GLOBECOM 2020 - 2020 IEEE Global Communications Conference. :1–7.
Internet of Things (IoT) devices have been increasingly integrated into our daily life. However, such smart devices suffer a broad attack surface. Particularly, attacks targeting the device software at runtime are challenging to defend against if IoT devices use resource-constrained microcontrollers (MCUs). TrustZone-M, a TrustZone extension for MCUs, is an emerging security technique fortifying MCU based IoT devices. This paper presents the first security analysis of potential software security issues in TrustZone-M enabled MCUs. We explore the stack-based buffer overflow (BOF) attack for code injection, return-oriented programming (ROP) attack, heap-based BOF attack, format string attack, and attacks against Non-secure Callable (NSC) functions in the context of TrustZone-M. We validate these attacks using the Microchip SAM L11 MCU, which uses the ARM Cortex-M23 processor with the TrustZone-M technology. Strategies to mitigate these software attacks are also discussed.
2021-04-27
Beckwith, E., Thamilarasu, G..  2020.  BA-TLS: Blockchain Authentication for Transport Layer Security in Internet of Things. 2020 7th International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IOTSMS). :1—8.

Traditional security solutions that rely on public key infrastructure present scalability and transparency challenges when deployed in Internet of Things (IoT). In this paper, we develop a blockchain based authentication mechanism for IoT that can be integrated into the traditional transport layer security protocols such as Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS). Our proposed mechanism is an alternative to the traditional Certificate Authority (CA)-based Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) that relies on x.509 certificates. Specifically, the proposed solution enables the modified TLS/DTLS a viable option for resource constrained IoT devices where minimizing memory utilization is critical. Experiments show that blockchain based authentication can reduce dynamic memory usage by up to 20%, while only minimally increasing application image size and time of execution of the TLS/DTLS handshake.

Mane, Y. D., Khot, U. P..  2020.  A Systematic Way to Implement Private Tor Network with Trusted Middle Node. 2020 International Conference for Emerging Technology (INCET). :1—6.

Initially, legitimate users were working under a normal web browser to do all activities over the internet [1]. To get more secure service and to get protection against Bot activity, the legitimate users switched their activity from Normal web browser to low latency anonymous communication such as Tor Browser. The Traffic monitoring in Tor Network is difficult as the packets are traveling from source to destination in an encrypted fashion and the Tor network hides its identity from destination. But lately, even the illegitimate users such as attackers/criminals started their activity on the Tor browser. The secured Tor network makes the detection of Botnet more difficult. The existing tools for botnet detection became inefficient against Tor-based bots because of the features of the Tor browser. As the Tor Browser is highly secure and because of the ethical issues, doing practical experiments on it is not advisable which could affect the performance and functionality of the Tor browser. It may also affect the endanger users in situations where the failure of Tor's anonymity has severe consequences. So, in the proposed research work, Private Tor Networks (PTN) on physical or virtual machines with dedicated resources have been created along with Trusted Middle Node. The motivation behind the trusted middle node is to make the Private Tor network more efficient and to increase its performance.

Ritter, D..  2020.  Cost-efficient Integration Process Placement in Multiclouds. 2020 IEEE 24th International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference (EDOC). :115–124.
Integration as a service (INTaaS) is the centrepiece of current corporate, cloud and device integration processes. Thereby, compositions of integration patterns denote the required integration logic as integration processes, currently running in single-clouds. While multicloud settings gain importance, their promised freedom of selecting the best option for a specific problem is currently not realized as well as security constraints are handled in a cost-intensive manner for the INTaaS vendors, leading to security vs. costs goal conflicts.In this work, we propose a design-time placement for processes in multiclouds that is cost-optimal for the INTaaS vendors, and respects configurable security constraints of their customers. To make the solution tractable for larger, productive INTaaS processes, it is relaxed using local search heuristics. The approach is evaluated on real-world integration processes with respect to cost- and runtime-efficiency, and discusses interesting trade-offs.
Fuhry, B., Hirschoff, L., Koesnadi, S., Kerschbaum, F..  2020.  SeGShare: Secure Group File Sharing in the Cloud using Enclaves. 2020 50th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :476—488.
File sharing applications using cloud storage are increasingly popular for personal and business use. Due to data protection concerns, end-to-end encryption is often a desired feature of these applications. Many attempts at designing cryptographic solutions fail to be adopted due to missing relevant features. We present SeGShare, a new architecture for end-to-end encrypted, group-based file sharing using trusted execution environments (TEE), e.g., Intel SGX. SeGShare is the first solution to protect the confidentiality and integrity of all data and management files; enforce immediate permission and membership revocations; support deduplication; and mitigate rollback attacks. Next to authentication, authorization and file system management, our implementation features an optimized TLS layer that enables high throughput and low latency. The encryption overhead of our implementation is extremely small in computation and storage resources. Our enclave code comprises less than 8500 lines of code enabling efficient mitigation of common pitfalls in deploying code to TEEs.
2021-03-29
Mar, Z., Oo, K. K..  2020.  An Improvement of Apriori Mining Algorithm using Linked List Based Hash Table. 2020 International Conference on Advanced Information Technologies (ICAIT). :165–169.
Today, the huge amount of data was using in organizations around the world. This huge amount of data needs to process so that we can acquire useful information. Consequently, a number of industry enterprises discovered great information from shopper purchases found in any respect times. In data mining, the most important algorithms for find frequent item sets from large database is Apriori algorithm and discover the knowledge using the association rule. Apriori algorithm was wasted times for scanning the whole database and searching the frequent item sets and inefficient of memory requirement when large numbers of transactions are in consideration. The improved Apriori algorithm is adding and calculating third threshold may increase the overhead. So, in the aims of proposed research, Improved Apriori algorithm with LinkedList and hash tabled is used to mine frequent item sets from the transaction large amount of database. This method includes database is scanning with Improved Apriori algorithm and frequent 1-item sets counts with using the hash table. Then, in the linked list saved the next frequent item sets and scanning the database. The hash table used to produce the frequent 2-item sets Therefore, the database scans the only two times and necessary less processing time and memory space.
2021-03-01
Tran, Q. T., Tran, D. D., Doan, D., Nguyen, M. S..  2020.  An Approach of BLE Mesh Network For Smart Home Application. 2020 International Conference on Advanced Computing and Applications (ACOMP). :170–174.
Internet of Things (IoT) now has extremely wide applications in many areas of life such as urban management, environmental management, smart shopping, and smart home. Because of the wide range of application fields, the IoT infrastructures are built differently. To make an IoT system indoor with high efficiency and more convenience, a case study for smart home security using Bluetooth Mesh approach is introduced. By using Bluetooth Mesh technology in home security, the user can open the door everywhere inside their house. The system work in a flexible way since it can extend the working range of network. In addition, the system can monitor the state of both the lock and any node in network by using a gateway to transfer data to cloud and enable a website-based interface.
2021-01-25
Zhan, Z., Zhang, Z., Koutsoukos, X..  2020.  BitJabber: The World’s Fastest Electromagnetic Covert Channel. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :35—45.

An air-gapped computer is physically isolated from unsecured networks to guarantee effective protection against data exfiltration. Due to air gaps, unauthorized data transfer seems impossible over legitimate communication channels, but in reality many so-called physical covert channels can be constructed to allow data exfiltration across the air gaps. Most of such covert channels are very slow and often require certain strict conditions to work (e.g., no physical obstacles between the sender and the receiver). In this paper, we introduce a new physical covert channel named BitJabber that is extremely fast and strong enough to even penetrate concrete walls. We show that this covert channel can be easily created by an unprivileged sender running on a victim’s computer. Specifically, the sender constructs the channel by using only memory accesses to modulate the electromagnetic (EM) signals generated by the DRAM clock. While possessing a very high bandwidth (up to 300,000 bps), this new covert channel is also very reliable (less than 1% error rate). More importantly, this covert channel can enable data exfiltration from an air-gapped computer enclosed in a room with thick concrete walls up to 15 cm.

2020-12-01
Chen, S., Hu, W., Li, Z..  2019.  High Performance Data Encryption with AES Implementation on FPGA. 2019 IEEE 5th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :149—153.

Nowadays big data has getting more and more attention in both the academic and the industrial research. With the development of big data, people pay more attention to data security. A significant feature of big data is the large size of the data. In order to improve the encryption speed of the large size of data, this paper uses the deep pipeline and full expansion technology to implement the AES encryption algorithm on FPGA. Achieved throughput of 31.30 Gbps with a minimum latency of 0.134 us. This design can quickly encrypt large amounts of data and provide technical support for the development of big data.

2020-11-30
Guan, L., Lin, J., Ma, Z., Luo, B., Xia, L., Jing, J..  2018.  Copker: A Cryptographic Engine Against Cold-Boot Attacks. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. 15:742–754.
Cryptosystems are essential for computer and communication security, e.g., RSA or ECDSA in PGP Email clients and AES in full disk encryption. In practice, the cryptographic keys are loaded and stored in RAM as plain-text, and therefore vulnerable to cold-boot attacks exploiting the remanence effect of RAM chips to directly read memory data. To tackle this problem, we propose Copker, a cryptographic engine that implements asymmetric cryptosystems entirely within the CPU, without storing any plain-text sensitive data in RAM. Copker supports the popular asymmetric cryptosystems (i.e., RSA and ECDSA), and deterministic random bit generators (DRBGs) used in ECDSA signing. In its active mode, Copker stores kilobytes of sensitive data, including the private key, the DRBG seed and intermediate states, only in on-chip CPU caches (and registers). Decryption/signing operations are performed without storing any sensitive information in RAM. In the suspend mode, Copker stores symmetrically-encrypted private keys and DRBG seeds in memory, while employs existing solutions to keep the key-encryption key securely in CPU registers. Hence, Copker releases the system resources in the suspend mode. We implement Copker with the support of multiple private keys. With security analyses and intensive experiments, we demonstrate that Copker provides cryptographic services that are secure against cold-boot attacks and introduce reasonable overhead.
2020-10-30
Xu, Lai, Yu, Rongwei, Wang, Lina, Liu, Weijie.  2019.  Memway: in-memorywaylaying acceleration for practical rowhammer attacks against binaries. Tsinghua Science and Technology. 24:535—545.

The Rowhammer bug is a novel micro-architectural security threat, enabling powerful privilege-escalation attacks on various mainstream platforms. It works by actively flipping bits in Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) cells with unprivileged instructions. In order to set up Rowhammer against binaries in the Linux page cache, the Waylaying algorithm has previously been proposed. The Waylaying method stealthily relocates binaries onto exploitable physical addresses without exhausting system memory. However, the proof-of-concept Waylaying algorithm can be easily detected during page cache eviction because of its high disk I/O overhead and long running time. This paper proposes the more advanced Memway algorithm, which improves on Waylaying in terms of both I/O overhead and speed. Running time and disk I/O overhead are reduced by 90% by utilizing Linux tmpfs and inmemory swapping to manage eviction files. Furthermore, by combining Memway with the unprivileged posix fadvise API, the binary relocation step is made 100 times faster. Equipped with our Memway+fadvise relocation scheme, we demonstrate practical Rowhammer attacks that take only 15-200 minutes to covertly relocate a victim binary, and less than 3 seconds to flip the target instruction bit.

2020-10-06
Yousefzadeh, Saba, Basharkhah, Katayoon, Nosrati, Nooshin, Sadeghi, Rezgar, Raik, Jaan, Jenihhin, Maksim, Navabi, Zainalabedin.  2019.  An Accelerator-based Architecture Utilizing an Efficient Memory Link for Modern Computational Requirements. 2019 IEEE East-West Design Test Symposium (EWDTS). :1—6.

Hardware implementation of many of today's applications such as those in automotive, telecommunication, bio, and security, require heavy repeated computations, and concurrency in the execution of these computations. These requirements are not easily satisfied by existing embedded systems. This paper proposes an embedded system architecture that is enhanced by an array of accelerators, and a bussing system that enables concurrency in operation of accelerators. This architecture is statically configurable to configure it for performing a specific application. The embedded system architecture and architecture of the configurable accelerators are discussed in this paper. A case study examines an automotive application running on our proposed system.

Bartan, Burak, Pilanci, Mert.  2019.  Straggler Resilient Serverless Computing Based on Polar Codes. 2019 57th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing (Allerton). :276—283.

We propose a serverless computing mechanism for distributed computation based on polar codes. Serverless computing is an emerging cloud based computation model that lets users run their functions on the cloud without provisioning or managing servers. Our proposed approach is a hybrid computing framework that carries out computationally expensive tasks such as linear algebraic operations involving large-scale data using serverless computing and does the rest of the processing locally. We address the limitations and reliability issues of serverless platforms such as straggling workers using coding theory, drawing ideas from recent literature on coded computation. The proposed mechanism uses polar codes to ensure straggler-resilience in a computationally effective manner. We provide extensive evidence showing polar codes outperform other coding methods. We have designed a sequential decoder specifically for polar codes in erasure channels with full-precision input and outputs. In addition, we have extended the proposed method to the matrix multiplication case where both matrices being multiplied are coded. The proposed coded computation scheme is implemented for AWS Lambda. Experiment results are presented where the performance of the proposed coded computation technique is tested in optimization via gradient descent. Finally, we introduce the idea of partial polarization which reduces the computational burden of encoding and decoding at the expense of straggler-resilience.

2020-07-27
Gorodnichev, Mikhail G., Kochupalov, Alexander E., Gematudinov, Rinat A..  2018.  Asynchronous Rendering of Texts in iOS Applications. 2018 IEEE International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT QM IS). :643–645.
This article is devoted to new asynchronous methods for rendering text information in mobile applications for iOS operating system.
2020-06-26
Padmashree, M G, Arunalatha, J S, Venugopal, K R.  2019.  HSSM: High Speed Split Multiplier for Elliptic Curve Cryptography in IoT. 2019 Fifteenth International Conference on Information Processing (ICINPRO). :1—5.

Security of data in the Internet of Things (IoT) deals with Encryption to provide a stable secure system. The IoT device possess a constrained Main Memory and Secondary Memory that mandates the use of Elliptic Curve Cryptographic (ECC) scheme. The Scalar Multiplication has a great impact on the ECC implementations in reducing the Computation and Space Complexity, thereby enhancing the performance of an IoT System providing high Security and Privacy. The proposed High Speed Split Multiplier (HSSM) for ECC in IoT is a lightweight Multiplication technique that uses Split Multiplication with Pseudo-Mersenne Prime Number and Montgomery Curve to withstand the Power Analysis Attack. The proposed algorithm reduces the Computation Time and the Space Complexity of the Cryptographic operations in terms of Clock cycles and RAM when compared with Liu et al.,’s multiplication algorithms [1].

M, Raviraja Holla, D, Suma.  2019.  Memory Efficient High-Performance Rotational Image Encryption. 2019 International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :60—64.

Image encryption is an essential part of a Visual Cryptography. Existing traditional sequential encryption techniques are infeasible to real-time applications. High-performance reformulations of such methods are increasingly growing over the last decade. These reformulations proved better performances over their sequential counterparts. A rotational encryption scheme encrypts the images in such a way that the decryption is possible with the rotated encrypted images. A parallel rotational encryption technique makes use of a high-performance device. But it less-leverages the optimizations offered by them. We propose a rotational image encryption technique which makes use of memory coalescing provided by the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). The proposed scheme achieves improved global memory utilization and increased efficiency.

2020-06-03
Qawasmeh, Ethar, Al-Saleh, Mohammed I., Al-Sharif, Ziad A..  2019.  Towards a Generic Approach for Memory Forensics. 2019 Sixth HCT Information Technology Trends (ITT). :094—098.

The era of information technology has, unfortunately, contributed to the tremendous rise in the number of criminal activities. However, digital artifacts can be utilized in convicting cybercriminal and exposing their activities. The digital forensics science concerns about all aspects related to cybercrimes. It seeks digital evidence by following standard methodologies to be admitted in court rooms. This paper concerns about memory forensics for the unique artifacts it holds. Memory contains information about the current state of systems and applications. Moreover, an application's data explains how a criminal has been interacting the application just before the memory is acquired. Memory forensics at the application level is currently random and cumbersome. Targeting specific applications is what forensic researchers and practitioner are currently striving to provide. This paper suggests a general solution to investigate any application. Our solution aims to utilize an application's data structures and variables' information in the investigation process. This is because an application's data has to be stored and retrieved in the means of variables. Data structures and variables' information can be generated by compilers for debugging purposes. We show that an application's information is a valuable resource to the investigator.

2020-04-06
Chin, Paul, Cao, Yuan, Zhao, Xiaojin, Zhang, Leilei, Zhang, Fan.  2019.  Locking Secret Data in the Vault Leveraging Fuzzy PUFs. 2019 Asian Hardware Oriented Security and Trust Symposium (AsianHOST). :1–6.

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are considered as an attractive low-cost security anchor. The unique features of PUFs are dependent on the Nanoscale variations introduced during the manufacturing variations. Most PUFs exhibit an unreliability problem due to aging and inherent sensitivity to the environmental conditions. As a remedy to the reliability issue, helper data algorithms are used in practice. A helper data algorithm generates and stores the helper data in the enrollment phase in a secure environment. The generated helper data are used then for error correction, which can transform the unique feature of PUFs into a reproducible key. The key can be used to encrypt secret data in the security scheme. In contrast, this work shows that the fuzzy PUFs can be used to secret important data directly by an error-tolerant protocol without the enrollment phase and error-correction algorithm. In our proposal, the secret data is locked in a vault leveraging the unique fuzzy pattern of PUF. Although the noise exists, the data can then be released only by this unique PUF. The evaluation was performed on the most prominent intrinsic PUF - DRAM PUF. The test results demonstrate that our proposal can reach an acceptable reconstruction rate in various environment. Finally, the security analysis of the new proposal is discussed.

2020-03-23
Korenda, Ashwija Reddy, Afghah, Fatemeh, Cambou, Bertrand, Philabaum, Christopher.  2019.  A Proof of Concept SRAM-based Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) Key Generation Mechanism for IoT Devices. 2019 16th Annual IEEE International Conference on Sensing, Communication, and Networking (SECON). :1–8.
This paper provides a proof of concept for using SRAM based Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) to generate private keys for IoT devices. PUFs are utilized, as there is inadequate protection for secret keys stored in the memory of the IoT devices. We utilize a custom-made Arduino mega shield to extract the fingerprint from SRAM chip on demand. We utilize the concepts of ternary states to exclude the cells which are easily prone to flip, allowing us to extract stable bits from the fingerprint of the SRAM. Using the custom-made software for our SRAM device, we can control the error rate of the PUF to achieve an adjustable memory-based PUF for key generation. We utilize several fuzzy extractor techniques based on using different error correction coding methods to generate secret keys from the SRAM PUF, and study the trade-off between the false authentication rate and false rejection rate of the PUF.
2020-03-02
Alioto, Massimo, Taneja, Sachin.  2019.  Enabling Ubiquitous Hardware Security via Energy-Efficient Primitives and Systems : (Invited Paper). 2019 IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC). :1–8.
Security down to hardware (HW) has become a fundamental requirement in highly-connected and ubiquitously deployed systems, as a result of the recent discovery of a wide range of vulnerabilities in commercial devices, as well as the affordability of several attacks that were traditionally considered unlikely. HW security is now a fundamental requirement in view of the massive attack surface that they expose, and the substantial power penalty entailed by solutions at higher levels of abstraction.In large-scale networks of connected devices, attacks need to be counteracted at low cost down to individual nodes, which need to be identified or authenticated securely, and protect confidentiality and integrity of the data that is sensed, stored, processed and wirelessly exchanged. In many security-sensitive applications, physical attacks against individual chips need to be counteracted to truly enable an end-to-end chain of trust from nodes to cloud and actuation (i.e., always-on security). These requirements have motivated the on-going global research and development effort to assure hardware security at low cost and power penalty down to low-end devices (i.e., ubiquitous security).This paper provides a fresh overview of the fundamentals, the design requirements and the state of the art in primitives for HW security. Challenges and future directions are discussed using recent silicon demonstrations as case studies.
2020-02-26
Kuo, Man-Hsuan, Hu, Chun-Ming, Lee, Kuen-Jong.  2019.  Time-Related Hardware Trojan Attacks on Processor Cores. 2019 IEEE International Test Conference in Asia (ITC-Asia). :43–48.

Real-time clock circuits are widely used in modern electronic systems to provide time information to the systems at the beginning of the system power-on. In this paper, we present two types of Hardware Trojan designs that employ the time information as the trigger conditions. One is a real-time based Trojan, which will attack a system at some specific realworld time. The other is a relative-time based Trojan, which will be triggered when a specific time period passes after the system is powered on. In either case when a Trojan is triggered its payload may corrupt the system or leakage internal information to the outside world. Experimental results show that the extra power consumption, area overhead and delay time are all quite small and thus the detection of the Trojans is difficult by using traditional side-channel detection methods.