Visible to the public Biblio

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2019-06-24
Oriero, E., Rahman, M. A..  2018.  Privacy Preserving Fine-Grained Data Distribution Aggregation for Smart Grid AMI Networks. MILCOM 2018 - 2018 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :1–9.

An advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows real-time fine-grained monitoring of the energy consumption data of individual consumers. Collected metering data can be used for a multitude of applications. For example, energy demand forecasting, based on the reported fine-grained consumption, can help manage the near future energy production. However, fine- grained metering data reporting can lead to privacy concerns. It is, therefore, imperative that the utility company receives the fine-grained data needed to perform the intended demand response service, without learning any sensitive information about individual consumers. In this paper, we propose an anonymous privacy preserving fine-grained data aggregation scheme for AMI networks. In this scheme, the utility company receives only the distribution of the energy consumption by the consumers at different time slots. We leverage a network tree topology structure in which each smart meter randomly reports its energy consumption data to its parent smart meter (according to the tree). The parent node updates the consumption distribution and forwards the data to the utility company. Our analysis results show that the proposed scheme can preserve the privacy and security of individual consumers while guaranteeing the demand response service.

2019-05-20
Caminha, J., Perkusich, A., Perkusich, M..  2018.  A smart middleware to detect on-off trust attacks in the Internet of Things. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1–2.

Security is a key concern in Internet of Things (IoT) designs. In a heterogeneous and complex environment, service providers and service requesters must trust each other. On-off attack is a sophisticated trust threat in which a malicious device can perform good and bad services randomly to avoid being rated as a low trust node. Some countermeasures demands prior level of trust knowing and time to classify a node behavior. In this paper, we introduce a Smart Middleware that automatically assesses the IoT resources trust, evaluating service providers attributes to protect against On-off attacks.

2019-05-01
Barrere, M., Hankin, C., Barboni, A., Zizzo, G., Boem, F., Maffeis, S., Parisini, T..  2018.  CPS-MT: A Real-Time Cyber-Physical System Monitoring Tool for Security Research. 2018 IEEE 24th International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA). :240–241.

Monitoring systems are essential to understand and control the behaviour of systems and networks. Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are particularly delicate under that perspective since they involve real-time constraints and physical phenomena that are not usually considered in common IT solutions. Therefore, there is a need for publicly available monitoring tools able to contemplate these aspects. In this poster/demo, we present our initiative, called CPS-MT, towards a versatile, real-time CPS monitoring tool, with a particular focus on security research. We first present its architecture and main components, followed by a MiniCPS-based case study. We also describe a performance analysis and preliminary results. During the demo, we will discuss CPS-MT's capabilities and limitations for security applications.

Li, J. H., Schafer, D., Whelihan, D., Lassini, S., Evancich, N., Kwak, K. J., Vai, M., Whitman, H..  2018.  Designing Secure and Resilient Embedded Avionics Systems. 2018 IEEE Cybersecurity Development (SecDev). :139–139.

Over the past decade, the reliance on Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to carry out critical missions has grown drastically. With an increased reliance on UAS as mission assets and the dependency of UAS on cyber resources, cyber security of UAS must be improved by adopting sound security principles and relevant technologies from the computing community. On the other hand, the traditional avionics community, being aware of the importance of cyber security, is looking at new architecture and designs that can accommodate both the traditional safety oriented principles as well as the cyber security principles and techniques. It is with the effective and timely convergence of these domains that a holistic approach and co-design can meet the unique requirements of modern systems and operations. In this paper, authors from both the cyber security and avionics domains describe our joint effort and insights obtained during the course of designing secure and resilient embedded avionics systems.

2019-03-25
Refaat, S. S., Mohamed, A., Kakosimos, P..  2018.  Self-Healing control strategy; Challenges and opportunities for distribution systems in smart grid. 2018 IEEE 12th International Conference on Compatibility, Power Electronics and Power Engineering (CPE-POWERENG 2018). :1–6.
Implementation of self-healing control system in smart grid is a persisting challenge. Self-Healing control strategy is the important guarantee to implement the smart grid. In addition, it is the support of achieving the secure operation, improving the reliability and security of distribution grid, and realizing the smart distribution grid. Although self-healing control system concept is presented in smart grid context, but the complexity of distribution network structure recommended to choose advanced control and protection system using a self-healing, this system must be able to heal any disturbance in the distribution system of smart grid to improve efficiency, resiliency, continuity, and reliability of the smart grid. This review focuses mostly on the key technology of self-healing control, gives an insight into the role of self-healing in distribution system advantages, study challenges and opportunities in the prospect of utilities. The main contribution of this paper is demonstrating proposed architecture, control strategy for self-healing control system includes fault detection, fault localization, faulted area isolation, and power restoration in the electrical distribution system.
2019-03-22
Azzaz, M. S., Tanougast, C., Maali, A., Benssalah, M..  2018.  Hardware Implementation of Multi-Scroll Chaos Based Architecture for Securing Biometric Templates. 2018 International Conference on Smart Communications in Network Technologies (SaCoNeT). :227-231.

In spite of numerous advantages of biometrics-based personal authentication systems over traditional security systems based on token or knowledge, they are vulnerable to attacks that can decrease their security considerably. In this paper, we propose a new hardware solution to protect biometric templates such as fingerprint. The proposed scheme is based on chaotic N × N grid multi-scroll system and it is implemented on Xilinx FPGA. The hardware implementation is achieved by applying numerical solution methods in our study, we use EM (Euler Method). Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed scheme allows a low cost image encryption for embedded systems while still providing a good trade-off between performance and hardware resources. Indeed, security analysis performed to the our scheme, is strong against known different attacks, such as: brute force, statistical, differential, and entropy. Therefore, the proposed chaos-based multiscroll encryption algorithm is suitable for use in securing embedded biometric systems.

2019-03-18
Albarakati, A., Moussa, B., Debbabi, M., Youssef, A., Agba, B. L., Kassouf, M..  2018.  OpenStack-Based Evaluation Framework for Smart Grid Cyber Security. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–6.

The rapid evolution of the power grid into a smart one calls for innovative and compelling means to experiment with the upcoming expansions, and analyze their behavioral response under normal circumstances and when targeted by attacks. Such analysis is fundamental to setting up solid foundations for the smart grid. Smart grid Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) co-simulation environments serve as a key approach to answer questions on the systems components, functionality, security concerns along with analysis of the system outcome and expected behavior. In this paper, we introduce a HIL co-simulation framework capable of simulating the smart grid actions and responses to attacks targeting its power and communication components. Our testbed is equipped with a real-time power grid simulator, and an associated OpenStack-based communication network. Through the utilized communication network, we can emulate a multitude of attacks targeting the power system, and evaluating the grid response to those attacks. Moreover, we present different illustrative cyber attacks use cases, and analyze the smart grid behavior in the presence of those attacks.

2019-03-04
Han, C., Zhao, C., Zou, Z., Tang, H., You, J..  2018.  PATIP-TREE: An Efficient Method to Look up the Network Address Attribution Information. 2018 IEEE 20th International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 16th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 4th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :466–473.
The IP address attribution information includes the geographical information, the network routing information, the agency information, Internet Content Provider (ICP) information, etc. Nowadays, the attribution information is important to the network traffic engineering, which needs to be obtained in real time in network traffic analysis system. The existing proposed methods for IP address attribution information lookup cannot be employed in actual systems efficiently due to their low scalability or bad performance. They cannot address the backbone network's requirements for real-time IP address attribution information lookup, and most lookup methods do not support custom IP address attribution lookup. In response to these challenges, we propose a novel high-speed approach for IP address attribution information lookup. We first devise a data structure of IP address attribution information search tree (PATIP-TREE) to store custom IP address attribution information. Based on the PATIP-TREE, an effective algorithm for IP information lookup is proposed, which can support custom IP addresses attribution information lookup in real time. The experimental results show that our method outperforms the existing methods in terms of higher efficiency. Our approach also provides high scalability, which is suitable for many kinds network address such as IPv4 address, IPv6 address, named data networking address, etc.
2019-02-18
Wang, G., Wang, B., Wang, T., Nika, A., Zheng, H., Zhao, B. Y..  2018.  Ghost Riders: Sybil Attacks on Crowdsourced Mobile Mapping Services. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking. 26:1123–1136.
Real-time crowdsourced maps, such as Waze provide timely updates on traffic, congestion, accidents, and points of interest. In this paper, we demonstrate how lack of strong location authentication allows creation of software-based Sybil devices that expose crowdsourced map systems to a variety of security and privacy attacks. Our experiments show that a single Sybil device with limited resources can cause havoc on Waze, reporting false congestion and accidents and automatically rerouting user traffic. More importantly, we describe techniques to generate Sybil devices at scale, creating armies of virtual vehicles capable of remotely tracking precise movements for large user populations while avoiding detection. To defend against Sybil devices, we propose a new approach based on co-location edges, authenticated records that attest to the one-time physical co-location of a pair of devices. Over time, co-location edges combine to form large proximity graphs that attest to physical interactions between devices, allowing scalable detection of virtual vehicles. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach using large-scale simulations, and how they can be used to dramatically reduce the impact of the attacks. We have informed Waze/Google team of our research findings. Currently, we are in active collaboration with Waze team to improve the security and privacy of their system.
2019-02-13
Carpent, X., Tsudik, G., Rattanavipanon, N..  2018.  ERASMUS: Efficient remote attestation via self-measurement for unattended settings. 2018 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :1191–1194.
Remote attestation (RA) is a popular means of detecting malware in embedded and IoT devices. RA is usually realized as a protocol via which a trusted verifier measures software integrity of an untrusted remote device called prover. All prior RA techniques require on-demand operation. We identify two drawbacks of this approach in the context of unattended devices: First, it fails to detect mobile malware that enters and leaves the prover between successive RA instances. Second, it requires the prover to engage in a potentially expensive computation, which can negatively impact safety-critical or real-time devices. To this end, we introduce the concept of self-measurement whereby a prover periodically (and securely) measures and records its own software state. A verifier then collects and verifies these measurements. We demonstrate a concrete technique called ERASMUS, justify its features, and evaluate its performance. We show that ERASMUS is well-suited for safety-critical applications. We also define a new metric - Quality of Attestation (QoA).
2019-02-08
Sen, N., Dantu, R., Vempati, J., Thompson, M..  2018.  Performance Analysis of Elliptic Curves for Real-Time Video Encryption. 2018 National Cyber Summit (NCS). :64-71.

The use of real-time video streaming is increasing day-by-day, and its security has become a serious issue now. Video encryption is a challenging task because of its large frame size. Video encryption can be done with symmetric key as well as asymmetric key encryption. Among different asymmetric key encryption technique, ECC performs better than other algorithms like RSA in terms of smaller key size and faster encryption and decryption operation. In this work, we have analyzed the performance of 18 different ECC curves and suggested some suitable curves for real-time video encryption.

2019-01-31
Lyu, C., Pande, A., Zhang, Y., Gu, D., Mohapatra, P..  2018.  FastTrust: Fast and Anonymous Spatial-Temporal Trust for Connected Cars on Expressways. 2018 15th Annual IEEE International Conference on Sensing, Communication, and Networking (SECON). :1–9.

Connected cars have received massive attention in Intelligent Transportation System. Many potential services, especially safety-related ones, rely on spatial-temporal messages periodically broadcast by cars. Without a secure authentication algorithm, malicious cars may send out invalid spatial-temporal messages and then deny creating them. Meanwhile, a lot of private information may be disclosed from these spatial-temporal messages. Since cars move on expressways at high speed, any authentication must be performed in real-time to prevent crashes. In this paper, we propose a Fast and Anonymous Spatial-Temporal Trust (FastTrust) mechanism to ensure these properties. In contrast to most authentication protocols which rely on fixed infrastructures, FastTrust is distributed and mostly designed on symmetric-key cryptography and an entropy-based commitment, and is able to fast authenticate spatial-temporal messages. FastTrust also ensures the anonymity and unlinkability of spatial-temporal messages by developing a pseudonym-varying scheduling scheme on cars. We provide both analytical and simulation evaluations to show that FastTrust achieves the security and privacy properties. FastTrust is low-cost in terms of communication and computational resources, authenticating 20 times faster than existing Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm.

2018-12-10
Oyekanlu, E..  2018.  Distributed Osmotic Computing Approach to Implementation of Explainable Predictive Deep Learning at Industrial IoT Network Edges with Real-Time Adaptive Wavelet Graphs. 2018 IEEE First International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Engineering (AIKE). :179–188.
Challenges associated with developing analytics solutions at the edge of large scale Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) networks close to where data is being generated in most cases involves developing analytics solutions from ground up. However, this approach increases IoT development costs and system complexities, delay time to market, and ultimately lowers competitive advantages associated with delivering next-generation IoT designs. To overcome these challenges, existing, widely available, hardware can be utilized to successfully participate in distributed edge computing for IIoT systems. In this paper, an osmotic computing approach is used to illustrate how distributed osmotic computing and existing low-cost hardware may be utilized to solve complex, compute-intensive Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) deep learning problem from the edge, through the fog, to the network cloud layer of IIoT systems. At the edge layer, the C28x digital signal processor (DSP), an existing low-cost, embedded, real-time DSP that has very wide deployment and integration in several IoT industries is used as a case study for constructing real-time graph-based Coiflet wavelets that could be used for several analytic applications including deep learning pre-processing applications at the edge and fog layers of IIoT networks. Our implementation is the first known application of the fixed-point C28x DSP to construct Coiflet wavelets. Coiflet Wavelets are constructed in the form of an osmotic microservice, using embedded low-level machine language to program the C28x at the network edge. With the graph-based approach, it is shown that an entire Coiflet wavelet distribution could be generated from only one wavelet stored in the C28x based edge device, and this could lead to significant savings in memory at the edge of IoT networks. Pearson correlation coefficient is used to select an edge generated Coiflet wavelet and the selected wavelet is used at the fog layer for pre-processing and denoising IIoT data to improve data quality for fog layer based deep learning application. Parameters for implementing deep learning at the fog layer using LSTM networks have been determined in the cloud. For XAI, communication network noise is shown to have significant impact on results of predictive deep learning at IIoT network fog layer.
Lobato, A. G. P., Lopez, M. A., Sanz, I. J., Cárdenas, A. A., Duarte, O. C. M. B., Pujolle, G..  2018.  An Adaptive Real-Time Architecture for Zero-Day Threat Detection. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.

Attackers create new threats and constantly change their behavior to mislead security systems. In this paper, we propose an adaptive threat detection architecture that trains its detection models in real time. The major contributions of the proposed architecture are: i) gather data about zero-day attacks and attacker behavior using honeypots in the network; ii) process data in real time and achieve high processing throughput through detection schemes implemented with stream processing technology; iii) use of two real datasets to evaluate our detection schemes, the first from a major network operator in Brazil and the other created in our lab; iv) design and development of adaptive detection schemes including both online trained supervised classification schemes that update their parameters in real time and learn zero-day threats from the honeypots, and online trained unsupervised anomaly detection schemes that model legitimate user behavior and adapt to changes. The performance evaluation results show that proposed architecture maintains an excellent trade-off between threat detection and false positive rates and achieves high classification accuracy of more than 90%, even with legitimate behavior changes and zero-day threats.

2018-11-19
Gupta, A., Johnson, J., Alahi, A., Fei-Fei, L..  2017.  Characterizing and Improving Stability in Neural Style Transfer. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV). :4087–4096.
Recent progress in style transfer on images has focused on improving the quality of stylized images and speed of methods. However, real-time methods are highly unstable resulting in visible flickering when applied to videos. In this work we characterize the instability of these methods by examining the solution set of the style transfer objective. We show that the trace of the Gram matrix representing style is inversely related to the stability of the method. Then, we present a recurrent convolutional network for real-time video style transfer which incorporates a temporal consistency loss and overcomes the instability of prior methods. Our networks can be applied at any resolution, do not require optical flow at test time, and produce high quality, temporally consistent stylized videos in real-time.
Huang, X., Belongie, S..  2017.  Arbitrary Style Transfer in Real-Time with Adaptive Instance Normalization. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV). :1510–1519.
Gatys et al. recently introduced a neural algorithm that renders a content image in the style of another image, achieving so-called style transfer. However, their framework requires a slow iterative optimization process, which limits its practical application. Fast approximations with feed-forward neural networks have been proposed to speed up neural style transfer. Unfortunately, the speed improvement comes at a cost: the network is usually tied to a fixed set of styles and cannot adapt to arbitrary new styles. In this paper, we present a simple yet effective approach that for the first time enables arbitrary style transfer in real-time. At the heart of our method is a novel adaptive instance normalization (AdaIN) layer that aligns the mean and variance of the content features with those of the style features. Our method achieves speed comparable to the fastest existing approach, without the restriction to a pre-defined set of styles. In addition, our approach allows flexible user controls such as content-style trade-off, style interpolation, color & spatial controls, all using a single feed-forward neural network.
Huang, H., Wang, H., Luo, W., Ma, L., Jiang, W., Zhu, X., Li, Z., Liu, W..  2017.  Real-Time Neural Style Transfer for Videos. 2017 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). :7044–7052.
Recent research endeavors have shown the potential of using feed-forward convolutional neural networks to accomplish fast style transfer for images. In this work, we take one step further to explore the possibility of exploiting a feed-forward network to perform style transfer for videos and simultaneously maintain temporal consistency among stylized video frames. Our feed-forward network is trained by enforcing the outputs of consecutive frames to be both well stylized and temporally consistent. More specifically, a hybrid loss is proposed to capitalize on the content information of input frames, the style information of a given style image, and the temporal information of consecutive frames. To calculate the temporal loss during the training stage, a novel two-frame synergic training mechanism is proposed. Compared with directly applying an existing image style transfer method to videos, our proposed method employs the trained network to yield temporally consistent stylized videos which are much more visually pleasant. In contrast to the prior video style transfer method which relies on time-consuming optimization on the fly, our method runs in real time while generating competitive visual results.
2018-11-14
Wu, Q., Zhao, W..  2018.  Machine Learning Based Human Activity Detection in a Privacy-Aware Compliance Tracking System. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Electro/Information Technology (EIT). :0673–0676.
In this paper, we report our work on using machine learning techniques to predict back bending activity based on field data acquired in a local nursing home. The data are recorded by a privacy-aware compliance tracking system (PACTS). The objective of PACTS is to detect back-bending activities and issue real-time alerts to the participant when she bends her back excessively, which we hope could help the participant form good habits of using proper body mechanics when performing lifting/pulling tasks. We show that our algorithms can differentiate nursing staffs baseline and high-level bending activities by using human skeleton data without any expert rules.
2018-09-12
Domínguez, A., Carballo, P. P., Núñez, A..  2017.  Programmable SoC platform for deep packet inspection using enhanced Boyer-Moore algorithm. 2017 12th International Symposium on Reconfigurable Communication-centric Systems-on-Chip (ReCoSoC). :1–8.

This paper describes the work done to design a SoC platform for real-time on-line pattern search in TCP packets for Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) applications. The platform is based on a Xilinx Zynq programmable SoC and includes an accelerator that implements a pattern search engine that extends the original Boyer-Moore algorithm with timing and logical rules, that produces a very complex set of rules. Also, the platform implements different modes of operation, including SIMD and MISD parallelism, which can be configured on-line. The platform is scalable depending of the analysis requirement up to 8 Gbps. High-Level synthesis and platform based design methodologies have been used to reduce the time to market of the completed system.

Özer, E., İskefiyeli, M..  2017.  Detection of DDoS attack via deep packet analysis in real time systems. 2017 International Conference on Computer Science and Engineering (UBMK). :1137–1140.

One of the biggest problems of today's internet technologies is cyber attacks. In this paper whether DDoS attacks will be determined by deep packet inspection. Initially packets are captured by listening of network traffic. Packet filtering was achieved at desired number and type. These packets are recorded to database to be analyzed, daily values and average values are compared by known attack patterns and will be determined whether a DDoS attack attempts in real time systems.

Renukadevi, B., Raja, S. D. M..  2017.  Deep packet inspection Management application in SDN. 2017 2nd International Conference on Computing and Communications Technologies (ICCCT). :256–259.

DPI Management application which resides on the north-bound of SDN architecture is to analyze the application signature data from the network. The data being read and analyzed are of format JSON for effective data representation and flows provisioned from North-bound application is also of JSON format. The data analytic engine analyzes the data stored in the non-relational data base and provides the information about real-time applications used by the network users. Allows the operator to provision flows dynamically with the data from the network to allow/block flows and also to boost the bandwidth. The DPI Management application allows decoupling of application with the controller; thus providing the facility to run it in any hyper-visor within network. Able to publish SNMP trap notifications to the network operators with application threshold and flow provisioning behavior. Data purging from non-relational database at frequent intervals to remove the obsolete analyzed data.

Weintraub, E..  2017.  Estimating Target Distribution in security assessment models. 2017 IEEE 2nd International Verification and Security Workshop (IVSW). :82–87.
Organizations are exposed to various cyber-attacks. When a component is exploited, the overall computed damage is impacted by the number of components the network includes. This work is focuses on estimating the Target Distribution characteristic of an attacked network. According existing security assessment models, Target Distribution is assessed by using ordinal values based on users' intuitive knowledge. This work is aimed at defining a formula which enables measuring quantitatively the attacked components' distribution. The proposed formula is based on the real-time configuration of the system. Using the proposed measure, firms can quantify damages, allocate appropriate budgets to actual real risks and build their configuration while taking in consideration the risks impacted by components' distribution. The formula is demonstrated as part of a security continuous monitoring system.
2018-06-11
Cai, Y., Huang, H., Cai, H., Qi, Y..  2017.  A K-nearest neighbor locally search regression algorithm for short-term traffic flow forecasting. 2017 9th International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control (ICMIC). :624–629.

Accurate short-term traffic flow forecasting is of great significance for real-time traffic control, guidance and management. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) model is a classic data-driven method which is relatively effective yet simple to implement for short-term traffic flow forecasting. For conventional prediction mechanism of k-NN model, the k nearest neighbors' outputs weighted by similarities between the current traffic flow vector and historical traffic flow vectors is directly used to generate prediction values, so that the prediction results are always not ideal. It is observed that there are always some outliers in k nearest neighbors' outputs, which may have a bad influences on the prediction value, and the local similarities between current traffic flow and historical traffic flows at the current sampling period should have a greater relevant to the prediction value. In this paper, we focus on improving the prediction mechanism of k-NN model and proposed a k-nearest neighbor locally search regression algorithm (k-LSR). The k-LSR algorithm can use locally search strategy to search for optimal nearest neighbors' outputs and use optimal nearest neighbors' outputs weighted by local similarities to forecast short-term traffic flow so as to improve the prediction mechanism of k-NN model. The proposed algorithm is tested on the actual data and compared with other algorithms in performance. We use the root mean squared error (RMSE) as the evaluation indicator. The comparison results show that the k-LSR algorithm is more successful than the k-NN and k-nearest neighbor locally weighted regression algorithm (k-LWR) in forecasting short-term traffic flow, and which prove the superiority and good practicability of the proposed algorithm.

2018-06-07
Zenger, C. T., Pietersz, M., Rex, A., Brauer, J., Dressler, F. P., Baiker, C., Theis, D., Paar, C..  2017.  Implementing a real-time capable WPLS testbed for independent performance and security analyses. 2017 51st Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers. :9–13.
As demonstrated recently, Wireless Physical Layer Security (WPLS) has the potential to offer substantial advantages for key management for small resource-constrained and, therefore, low-cost IoT-devices, e.g., the widely applied 8-bit MCU 8051. In this paper, we present a WPLS testbed implementation for independent performance and security evaluations. The testbed is based on off-the-shelf hardware and utilizes the IEEE 802.15.4 communication standard for key extraction and secret key rate estimation in real-time. The testbed can include generically multiple transceivers to simulate legitimate parties or eavesdropper. We believe with the testbed we provide a first step to make experimental-based WPLS research results comparable. As an example, we present evaluation results of several test cases we performed, while for further information we refer to https://pls.rub.de.
2018-05-24
Sallam, A., Bertino, E..  2017.  Detection of Temporal Insider Threats to Relational Databases. 2017 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Collaboration and Internet Computing (CIC). :406–415.

The mitigation of insider threats against databases is a challenging problem as insiders often have legitimate access privileges to sensitive data. Therefore, conventional security mechanisms, such as authentication and access control, may be insufficient for the protection of databases against insider threats and need to be complemented with techniques that support real-time detection of access anomalies. The existing real-time anomaly detection techniques consider anomalies in references to the database entities and the amounts of accessed data. However, they are unable to track the access frequencies. According to recent security reports, an increase in the access frequency by an insider is an indicator of a potential data misuse and may be the result of malicious intents for stealing or corrupting the data. In this paper, we propose techniques for tracking users' access frequencies and detecting anomalous related activities in real-time. We present detailed algorithms for constructing accurate profiles that describe the access patterns of the database users and for matching subsequent accesses by these users to the profiles. Our methods report and log mismatches as anomalies that may need further investigation. We evaluated our techniques on the OLTP-Benchmark. The results of the evaluation indicate that our techniques are very effective in the detection of anomalies.