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Pradeeksha, A. Shirley, Sathyapriya, S. Sridevi.  2020.  Design and Implementation of DNA Based Cryptographic Algorithm. 2020 5th International Conference on Devices, Circuits and Systems (ICDCS). :299–302.
The intensity of DNA figuring will reinforce the current security on frameworks by opening up another probability of a half and half cryptographic framework. Here, we are exhibiting the DNA S-box for actualizing cryptographic algorithm. The DNA based S-Box is designed using vivado software and implemented using Artix-7 device. The main aim is to design the DNA based S-box to increase the security. Also pipelining and parallelism techniques are to be implement in future to increase the speed.
Roy, Mousomi, Chakraborty, Shouvik, Mali, Kalyani, Mitra, Sourav, Mondal, Ishita, Dawn, Rabidipto, Das, Dona, Chatterjee, Sankhadeep.  2019.  A Dual Layer Image Encryption using Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification and DNA Encryption. 2019 International Conference on Opto-Electronics and Applied Optics (Optronix). :1–4.
Unauthorized access of the data is one of the major threat for the real world digital data communication. Digital images are one of the most vital subset of the digital data. Several important and sensitive information is conveyed through digital images. Hence, digital image security is one of the foremost interest of the researchers. Cryptographic algorithms Biological sequences are often used to encrypt data due to their inherent features. DNA encryption is one of the widely used method used for data security which is based on the properties of the biological sequences. To protect the images from unwanted accesses, a new two stage method is proposed in this work. DNA Encryption and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Amplification is used to enhance the security. The proposed method is evaluated using different standard parameters that shows the efficiency of the algorithm.
Vikram, A., Kalaivani, S., Gopinath, G..  2019.  A Novel Encryption Algorithm based on DNA Cryptography. 2019 International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :1004–1009.
The process of information security entails securing the information by transferring it through the networks preventing the data from attacks. This way of securing the information is known as cryptography. The perspective of converting the plain-text into non-understandable format is known as cryptography that could be possible using certain cryptography algorithms. The security could not be offered by the conventional cryptographic algorithms that lacks in their security for the huge amount of growing data, which could be easily broken by the intruders for their malicious activities. This gives rise to the new cryptographic algorithm known as DNA computing that could strengthen the information security, which does not provide any intruders to get authorized to confidential data. The proposed DNA symmetric cryptography enhances information security. The results reveal that encryption process carried out on plain-text is highly secured.
Sadkhan, Sattar B., Yaseen, Basim S..  2019.  Hybrid Method to Implement a Parallel Search of the Cryptosystem Keys. 2019 International Conference on Advanced Science and Engineering (ICOASE). :204–207.

The current paper proposes a method to combine the theoretical concepts of the parallel processing created by the DNA computing and GA environments, with the effectiveness novel mechanism of the distinction and discover of the cryptosystem keys. Three-level contributions to the current work, the first is the adoption of a final key sequence mechanism by the principle of interconnected sequence parts, the second to exploit the principle of the parallel that provides GA in the search for the counter value of the sequences of the challenge to the mechanism of the discrimination, the third, the most important and broadening the breaking of the cipher, is the harmony of the principle of the parallelism that has found via the DNA computing to discover the basic encryption key. The proposed method constructs a combined set of files includes binary sequences produced from substitution of the guess attributes of the binary equations system of the cryptosystem, as well as generating files that include all the prospects of the DNA strands for all successive cipher characters, the way to process these files to be obtained from the first character file, where extract a key sequence of each sequence from mentioned file and processed with the binary sequences that mentioned the counter produced from GA. The aim of the paper is exploitation and implementation the theoretical principles of the parallelism that providing via biological environment with the new sequences recognition mechanism in the cryptanalysis.

Li, Yongnan, Xiao, Limin.  2019.  Parallel DNA Computing Model of Point-Doubling in Conic Curves Cryptosystem over Finite Field GF(2ˆn). 2019 IEEE 21st International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 17th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 5th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :1564-1571.

DNA cryptography becomes a burgeoning new area of study along with the fast-developing of DNA computing and modern cryptography. Point-doubling, point-addition and point-multiplication are three fundamental point-operations to construct encryption protocols in some cryptosystem over mathematical curves such as elliptic curves and conic curves. This paper proposes a DNA computing model to calculate point-doubling in conic curves cryptosystem over finite held GF(2n). By decomposing and rearranging the computing steps of point-doubling, the assembly process could be fulfilled by using 8 different types of computation tiles performing different functions with 1097 encoding ways. This model could also figure out point-multiplication if its coefficient is 2k. The assembly time complexity is 2kn+n-k-1, and the space complexity is k2n2+kn2-k2n.

Sadkhan, Sattar B., Yaseen, Basim S..  2018.  A DNA-Sticker Algorithm for Cryptanalysis LFSRs and NLFSRs Based Stream Cipher. 2018 International Conference on Advanced Science and Engineering (ICOASE). :301-305.
In this paper, We propose DNA sticker model based algorithm, a computability model, which is a simulation of the parallel computations using the Molecular computing as in Adelman's DNA computing experiment, it demonstrates how to use a sticker-based model to design a simple DNA-based algorithm for attacking a linear and a non-linear feedback shift register (FSR) based stream cipher. The algorithm first construct the TEST TUBE contains all overall solution space of memory complexes for the cipher and initials of registers via the sticker-based model. Then, with biological operations, separate and combine, we remove those which encode illegal plain and key stream from the TEST TUBE of memory complexes, the decision based on verifying a key stream bit this bit represented by output of LFSRs equation. The model anticipates two basic groups of single stranded DNA molecules in its representation one of a genetic bases and second of a bit string, It invests parallel search into the space of solutions through the possibilities of DNA computing and makes use of the method of cryptanalysis of algebraic code as a decision technique to accept the solution or not, and their operations are repeated until one solution or limited group of solutions is reached. The main advantages of the suggested algorithm are limited number of cipher characters, and finding one exact solution The present work concentrates on showing the applicability of DNA computing concepts as a powerful tool in breaking cryptographic systems.
Aparna, H., Bhoomija, Faustina, Devi, R. Santhiya, Thenmozhi, K., Amirtharajan, Rengarajan, Praveenkumar, Padmapriya.  2019.  Image Encryption Based on Quantum-Assisted DNA Coded System. 2019 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1-4.

Information security is winding up noticeably more vital in information stockpiling and transmission. Images are generally utilised for various purposes. As a result, the protection of image from the unauthorised client is critical. Established encryption techniques are not ready to give a secure framework. To defeat this, image encryption is finished through DNA encoding which is additionally included with confused 1D and 2D logistic maps. The key communication is done through the quantum channel using the BB84 protocol. To recover the encrypted image DNA decoding is performed. Since DNA encryption is invertible, decoding can be effectively done through DNA subtraction. It decreases the complexity and furthermore gives more strength when contrasted with traditional encryption plans. The enhanced strength of the framework is measured utilising measurements like NPCR, UACI, Correlation and Entropy.

Akiwate, Bahubali, Parthiban, Latha.  2018.  A Dynamic DNA for Key-Based Cryptography. 2018 International Conference on Computational Techniques, Electronics and Mechanical Systems (CTEMS). :223-227.

A dynamic DNA for key-based Cryptography that encrypt and decrypt plain text characters, text file, image file and audio file using DNA sequences. Cryptography is always taken as the secure way while transforming the confidential information over the network such as LAN, Internet. But over the time, the traditional cryptographic approaches are been replaced with more effective cryptographic systems such as Quantum Cryptography, Biometric Cryptography, Geographical Cryptography and DNA Cryptography. This approach accepts the DNA sequences as the input to generate the key that going to provide two stages of data security.

Biswas, M. R., Alam, K. M. R., Akber, A., Morimoto, Y..  2017.  A DNA Cryptographic Technique Based on Dynamic DNA Encoding and Asymmetric Cryptosystem. 2017 4th International Conference on Networking, Systems and Security (NSysS). :1–8.

This paper proposes a new DNA cryptographic technique based on dynamic DNA encoding and asymmetric cryptosystem to increase the level of secrecy of data. The key idea is: to split the plaintext into fixed sized chunks, to encrypt each chunk using asymmetric cryptosystem and finally to merge the ciphertext of each chunk using dynamic DNA encoding. To generate chunks, characters of the plaintext are transformed into their equivalent ASCII values and split it into finite values. Now to encrypt each chunk, asymmetric cryptosystem is applied and the ciphertext is transformed into its equivalent binary value. Then this binary value is converted into DNA bases. Finally to merge each chunk, sufficient random strings are generated. Here to settle the required number of random strings, dynamic DNA encoding is exploited which is generated using Fibonacci series. Thus the use of finite chunks, asymmetric cryptosystem, random strings and dynamic DNA encoding increases the level of security of data. To evaluate the encryption-decryption time requirement, an empirical analysis is performed employing RSA, ElGamal and Paillier cryptosystems. The proposed technique is suitable for any use of cryptography.

Fasila, K. A..  2017.  Automated DNA encryption algorithm based on UNICODE and colors. 2017 Second International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Technologies (ICECCT). :1–4.

Cellular Automata based computing paradigm is an efficient platform for modeling complicated computational problems. This can be used for various applications in the field of Cryptography. In this paper, it is used for generating a DNA cryptography based encryption algorithm. The encoded message in binary format is encrypted to cipher colors with the help of a simple algorithm based on the principles of DNA cryptography and cellular automata. The message will be in compressed form using XOR operator. Since cellular automata and DNA cryptographic principles are exploited, high level of parallelism, reversibility, uniformity etc. can be achieved.

Radhika, K. R., Nalini, M. K..  2017.  Biometric Image Encryption Using DNA Sequences and Chaotic Systems. 2017 International Conference on Recent Advances in Electronics and Communication Technology (ICRAECT). :164–168.

Emerging communication technologies in distributed network systems require transfer of biometric digital images with high security. Network security is identified by the changes in system behavior which is either Dynamic or Deterministic. Performance computation is complex in dynamic system where cryptographic techniques are not highly suitable. Chaotic theory solves complex problems of nonlinear deterministic system. Several chaotic methods are combined to get hyper chaotic system for more security. Chaotic theory along with DNA sequence enhances security of biometric image encryption. Implementation proves the encrypted image is highly chaotic and resistant to various attacks.

Chouhan, D.S., Mahajan, R.P..  2014.  An architectural framework for encryption amp; generation of digital signature using DNA cryptography. Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), 2014 International Conference on. :743-748.

As most of the modern encryption algorithms are broken fully/partially, the world of information security looks in new directions to protect the data it transmits. The concept of using DNA computing in the fields of cryptography has been identified as a possible technology that may bring forward a new hope for hybrid and unbreakable algorithms. Currently, several DNA computing algorithms are proposed for cryptography, cryptanalysis and steganography problems, and they are proven to be very powerful in these areas. This paper gives an architectural framework for encryption & Generation of digital signature using DNA Cryptography. To analyze the performance; the original plaintext size and the key size; together with the encryption and decryption time are examined also the experiments on plaintext with different contents are performed to test the robustness of the program.