Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-04-09
Bhattacharya, M. P., Zavarsky, P., Butakov, S..  2020.  Enhancing the Security and Privacy of Self-Sovereign Identities on Hyperledger Indy Blockchain. 2020 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1—7.
Self-sovereign identities provide user autonomy and immutability to individual identities and full control to their identity owners. The immutability and control are possible by implementing identities in a decentralized manner on blockchains that are specially designed for identity operations such as Hyperledger Indy. As with any type of identity, self-sovereign identities too deal with Personally Identifiable Information (PII) of the identity holders and comes with the usual risks of privacy and security. This study examined certain scenarios of personal data disclosure via credential exchanges between such identities and risks of man-in-the-middle attacks in the blockchain based identity system Hyperledger Indy. On the basis of the findings, the paper proposes the following enhancements: 1) A novel attribute sensitivity score model for self-sovereign identity agents to ascertain the sensitivity of attributes shared in credential exchanges 2) A method of mitigating man-in-the-middle attacks between peer self-sovereign identities and 3) A novel quantitative model for determining a credential issuer's reputation based on the number of issued credentials in a window period, which is then utilized to calculate an overall confidence level score for the issuer.
2021-02-08
Jain, S., Sharma, S., Chandavarkar, B. R..  2020.  Mitigating Man-in-the-Middle Attack in Digital Signature. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–5.
We all are living in the digital era, where the maximum of the information is available online. The digital world has made the transfer of information easy and provides the basic needs of security like authentication, integrity, nonrepudiation, etc. But, with the improvement in security, cyber-attacks have also increased. Security researchers have provided many techniques to prevent these cyber-attacks; one is a Digital Signature (DS). The digital signature uses cryptographic key pairs (public and private) to provide the message's integrity and verify the sender's identity. The private key used in the digital signature is confidential; if attackers find it by using various techniques, then this can result in an attack. This paper presents a brief introduction about the digital signature and how it is vulnerable to a man-in-the-middle attack. Further, it discusses a technique to prevent this attack in the digital signature.
2020-12-28
Khatod, V., Manolova, A..  2020.  Effects of Man in the Middle (MITM) Attack on Bit Error Rate of Bluetooth System. 2020 Joint International Conference on Digital Arts, Media and Technology with ECTI Northern Section Conference on Electrical, Electronics, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering (ECTI DAMT NCON). :153—157.
The ad-hoc network formed by Bluetooth works on radio frequency links. The security aspect of Bluetooth has to be handled more carefully. The radio frequency waves have a characteristic that the waves can pierce the obstructions in the communication path, get rid of the requirement of line of sight between the communicating devices. We propose a software model of man-in-the-middle attack along with unauthorized and authorized transmitter and receiver. Advanced White Gaussian Noise channel is simulated in the designed architecture. The transmitter uses Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) modulation like in Bluetooth. The receiver uses GFSK demodulation. In order to validate the performance of the designed system, bit error rate (BER) measurements are taken with respect to different time intervals. We found that BER drops roughly 18% if hopping duration of 150 seconds is chosen. We propose that a Bluetooth system with hopping rate of 0.006 Hz is used instead of 10Hz.
2020-09-14
Chatterjee, Urbi, Govindan, Vidya, Sadhukhan, Rajat, Mukhopadhyay, Debdeep, Chakraborty, Rajat Subhra, Mahata, Debashis, Prabhu, Mukesh M..  2019.  Building PUF Based Authentication and Key Exchange Protocol for IoT Without Explicit CRPs in Verifier Database. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. 16:424–437.
Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) promise to be a critical hardware primitive to provide unique identities to billions of connected devices in Internet of Things (IoTs). In traditional authentication protocols a user presents a set of credentials with an accompanying proof such as password or digital certificate. However, IoTs need more evolved methods as these classical techniques suffer from the pressing problems of password dependency and inability to bind access requests to the “things” from which they originate. Additionally, the protocols need to be lightweight and heterogeneous. Although PUFs seem promising to develop such mechanism, it puts forward an open problem of how to develop such mechanism without needing to store the secret challenge-response pair (CRP) explicitly at the verifier end. In this paper, we develop an authentication and key exchange protocol by combining the ideas of Identity based Encryption (IBE), PUFs and Key-ed Hash Function to show that this combination can help to do away with this requirement. The security of the protocol is proved formally under the Session Key Security and the Universal Composability Framework. A prototype of the protocol has been implemented to realize a secured video surveillance camera using a combination of an Intel Edison board, with a Digilent Nexys-4 FPGA board consisting of an Artix-7 FPGA, together serving as the IoT node. We show, though the stand-alone video camera can be subjected to man-in-the-middle attack via IP-spoofing using standard network penetration tools, the camera augmented with the proposed protocol resists such attacks and it suits aptly in an IoT infrastructure making the protocol deployable for the industry.
2020-09-11
Arvind, S, Narayanan, V Anantha.  2019.  An Overview of Security in CoAP: Attack and Analysis. 2019 5th International Conference on Advanced Computing Communication Systems (ICACCS). :655—660.
Over the last decade, a technology called Internet of Things (IoT) has been evolving at a rapid pace. It enables the development of endless applications in view of availability of affordable components which provide smart ecosystems. The IoT devices are constrained devices which are connected to the internet and perform sensing tasks. Each device is identified by their unique address and also makes use of the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) as one of the main web transfer protocols. It is an application layer protocol which does not maintain secure channels to transfer information. For authentication and end-to-end security, Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) is one of the possible approaches to boost the security aspect of CoAP, in addition to which there are many suggested ways to protect the transmission of sensitive information. CoAP uses DTLS as a secure protocol and UDP as a transfer protocol. Therefore, the attacks on UDP or DTLS could be assigned as a CoAP attack. An attack on DTLS could possibly be launched in a single session and a strong authentication mechanism is needed. Man-In-The-Middle attack is one the peak security issues in CoAP as cited by Request For Comments(RFC) 7252, which encompasses attacks like Sniffing, Spoofing, Denial of Service (DoS), Hijacking, Cross-Protocol attacks and other attacks including Replay attacks and Relay attacks. In this work, a client-server architecture is setup, whose end devices communicate using CoAP. Also, a proxy system was installed across the client side to launch an active interception between the client and the server. The work will further be enhanced to provide solutions to mitigate these attacks.
2020-07-10
Yulianto, Arief Dwi, Sukarno, Parman, Warrdana, Aulia Arif, Makky, Muhammad Al.  2019.  Mitigation of Cryptojacking Attacks Using Taint Analysis. 2019 4th International Conference on Information Technology, Information Systems and Electrical Engineering (ICITISEE). :234—238.

Cryptojacking (also called malicious cryptocurrency mining or cryptomining) is a new threat model using CPU resources covertly “mining” a cryptocurrency in the browser. The impact is a surge in CPU Usage and slows the system performance. In this research, in-browsercryptojacking mitigation has been built as an extension in Google Chrome using Taint analysis method. The method used in this research is attack modeling with abuse case using the Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attack as a testing for mitigation. The proposed model is designed so that users will be notified if a cryptojacking attack occurs. Hence, the user is able to check the script characteristics that run on the website background. The results of this research show that the taint analysis is a promising method to mitigate cryptojacking attacks. From 100 random sample websites, the taint analysis method can detect 19 websites that are infcted by cryptojacking.

2020-03-23
Al-Adhami, Ayad H., Ambroze, Marcel, Stengel, Ingo, Tomlinson, Martin.  2019.  An Effencient Improvement of RFID Authentication Protocol Using Hash Function ZKP. 2019 2nd Scientific Conference of Computer Sciences (SCCS). :87–92.
The applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been rapidly developed to be used in different fields that require automatic identification of objects and managing information. The advantage of employing RFID systems is to facilitate automatic identification of objects from distance without any interaction with tagged objects and without using a line of sight as compared with barcode. However, security and privacy constitute a challenge to RFID system as RFID systems use the wireless communication. Many researchers have introduced elliptical curve cryptographic (ECC) solutions to the security and privacy in RFID system as an ideal cryptosystem to be implemented with RFID technology. However, most of these solutions do not have provide adequate protection. Moreover, in terms of integrity and confidentiality level, most of these authentication protocols still vulnerable to some of security and privacy attacks. Based on these facts, this paper proposes a mutual authentication protocol that aims at enhancing an existing RFID authentication protocol that suffers from tracking attack and man-in-the-middle attack (MITM). The enhancement is accomplished by improving the security and privacy level against MITM, tracking attack and other related attacks. The proposed protocol is dependent on use the elliptical curve version of Schnorr identification protocol in combination with Keccak hash function. This combination leads to enhance the confidentiality and integrity level of the RFID authentication system and increase the privacy protection.
2020-02-10
Arnaldy, Defiana, Perdana, Audhika Rahmat.  2019.  Implementation and Analysis of Penetration Techniques Using the Man-In-The-Middle Attack. 2019 2nd International Conference of Computer and Informatics Engineering (IC2IE). :188–192.

This research conducted a security evaluation website with Penetration Testing terms. This Penetration testing is performed using the Man-In-The-Middle Attack method. This method is still widely used by hackers who are not responsible for performing Sniffing, which used for tapping from a targeted computer that aims to search for sensitive data. This research uses some penetration testing techniques, namely SQL Injection, XSS (Cross-site Scripting), and Brute Force Attack. Penetration testing in this study was conducted to determine the security hole (vulnerability), so the company will know about their weakness in their system. The result is 85% success for the penetration testing that finds the vulnerability on the website.

2019-08-26
Gupta, D. S., Biswas, G. P., Nandan, R..  2018.  Security weakness of a lattice-based key exchange protocol. 2018 4th International Conference on Recent Advances in Information Technology (RAIT). :1–5.

A key exchange protocol is an important primitive in the field of information and network security and is used to exchange a common secret key among various parties. A number of key exchange protocols exist in the literature and most of them are based on the Diffie-Hellman (DH) problem. But, these DH type protocols cannot resist to the modern computing technologies like quantum computing, grid computing etc. Therefore, a more powerful non-DH type key exchange protocol is required which could resist the quantum and exponential attacks. In the year 2013, Lei and Liao, thus proposed a lattice-based key exchange protocol. Their protocol was related to the NTRU-ENCRYPT and NTRU-SIGN and so, was referred as NTRU-KE. In this paper, we identify that NTRU-KE lacks the authentication mechanism and suffers from the man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack. This attack may lead to the forging the authenticated users and exchanging the wrong key.

2019-05-20
Ma, Y., Ning, H..  2018.  The improvement of wireless LAN security authentication mechanism based on Kerberos. 2018 International Conference on Electronics Technology (ICET). :392–397.

In order to solve the problem of vulnerable password guessing attacks caused by dictionary attacks, replay attacks in the authentication process, and man-in-the-middle attacks in the existing wireless local area network in terms of security authentication, we make some improvements to the 802.1X / EAP authentication protocol based on the study of the current IEEE802.11i security protocol with high security. After introducing the idea of Kerberos protocol authentication and applying the idea in the authentication process of 802.1X / EAP, a new protocol of Kerberos extensible authentication protocol (KEAP) is proposed. Firstly, the protocol introduces an asymmetric key encryption method, uses public key encryption during data transmission, and the receiver uses the corresponding private key for decryption. With unidirectional characteristics and high security, the encryption can avoid password guessing attacks caused by dictionary attacks as much as possible. Secondly, aiming at the problem that the request message sent from the client to the authentication server is vulnerable to replay attacks, the protocol uses a combination of the message sequence number and the random number, and the message serial number is added to the request message sent from the client to the authentication server. And establish a list database for storing message serial number and random number in the authentication server. After receiving a transfer message, the serial number and the random number are extracted and compared with the values in the list database to distinguish whether it is a retransmission message. Finally, the protocol introduces a keychain mechanism and uses an irreversible Hash function to encrypt the final authentication result, thereby effectively solving the man-in-the-middle attack by the pretender. The experiment uses the OPNET 14.5 simulation platform to model the KEAP protocol and simulate simulation attacks, and compares it with the current more common EAP-TLS authentication protocol. Experimental results show that the average traffic of the KEAP protocol is at least 14.74% higher than the EAP-TLS authentication protocol, and the average bit error rate is reduced by at least 24.00%.

2018-07-18
Mohsin, J. K., Han, Liangxiu, Hammoudeh, Mohammad, Hegarty, Rob.  2017.  Two Factor Vs Multi-factor, an Authentication Battle in Mobile Cloud Computing Environments. Proceedings of the International Conference on Future Networks and Distributed Systems. :39:1–39:10.

Mobile devices offer a convenient way of accessing our digital lives and many of those devices hold sensitive data that needs protecting. Mobile and wireless communications networks, combined with cloud computing as Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC), have emerged as a new way to provide a rich computational environment for mobile users, and business opportunities for cloud providers and network operators. It is the convenience of the cloud service and the ability to sync across multiple platforms/devices that has become the attraction to cloud computing. However, privacy, security and trust issues may still be a barrier that impedes the adoption of MCC by some undecided potential users. Those users still need to be convinced of the security of mobile devices, wireless networks and cloud computing. This paper is the result of a comprehensive review of one typical secure measure-authentication methodology research, spanning a period of five years from 2012–2017. MCC capabilities for sharing distributed resources is discussed. Authentication in MCC is divided in to two categories and the advantages of one category over its counterpart are presented, in the process of attempting to identify the most secure authentication scheme.

2018-05-16
Fattahi, J., Mejri, M., Ziadia, M., Ghayoula, E., Samoud, O., Pricop, E..  2017.  Cryptographic protocol for multipart missions involving two independent and distributed decision levels in a military context. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). :1127–1132.

In several critical military missions, more than one decision level are involved. These decision levels are often independent and distributed, and sensitive pieces of information making up the military mission must be kept hidden from one level to another even if all of the decision levels cooperate to accomplish the same task. Usually, a mission is negotiated through insecure networks such as the Internet using cryptographic protocols. In such protocols, few security properties have to be ensured. However, designing a secure cryptographic protocol that ensures several properties at once is a very challenging task. In this paper, we propose a new secure protocol for multipart military missions that involve two independent and distributed decision levels having different security levels. We show that it ensures the secrecy, authentication, and non-repudiation properties. In addition, we show that it resists against man-in-the-middle attacks.

2018-03-19
Ge, H., Yue, D., p Xie, X., Deng, S., Zhang, Y..  2017.  Analysis of Cyber Physical Systems Security via Networked Attacks. 2017 36th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :4266–4272.

In this paper, cyber physical system is analyzed from security perspective. A double closed-loop security control structure and algorithm with defense functions is proposed. From this structure, the features of several cyber attacks are considered respectively. By this structure, the models of information disclosure, denial-of-service (DoS) and Man-in-the-Middle Attack (MITM) are proposed. According to each kind attack, different models are obtained and analyzed, then reduce to the unified models. Based on this, system security conditions are obtained, and a defense scenario with detail algorithm is design to illustrate the implementation of this program.

2017-11-03
Beevi, L. S., Merlin, G., MoganaPriya, G..  2016.  Security and privacy for smart grid using scalable key management. 2016 International Conference on Electrical, Electronics, and Optimization Techniques (ICEEOT). :4716–4721.

This paper focuses on the issues of secure key management for smart grid. With the present key management schemes, it will not yield security for deployment in smart grid. A novel key management scheme is proposed in this paper which merges elliptic curve public key technique and symmetric key technique. Based on the Needham-Schroeder authentication protocol, symmetric key scheme works. Well known threats like replay attack and man-in-the-middle attack can be successfully abolished using Smart Grid. The benefits of the proposed system are fault-tolerance, accessibility, Strong security, scalability and Efficiency.

2015-05-06
Alshammari, H., Elleithy, K., Almgren, K., Albelwi, S..  2014.  Group signature entanglement in e-voting system. Systems, Applications and Technology Conference (LISAT), 2014 IEEE Long Island. :1-4.

In any security system, there are many security issues that are related to either the sender or the receiver of the message. Quantum computing has proven to be a plausible approach to solving many security issues such as eavesdropping, replay attack and man-in-the-middle attack. In the e-voting system, one of these issues has been solved, namely, the integrity of the data (ballot). In this paper, we propose a scheme that solves the problem of repudiation that could occur when the voter denies the value of the ballot either for cheating purposes or for a real change in the value by a third party. By using an entanglement concept between two parties randomly, the person who is going to verify the ballots will create the entangled state and keep it in a database to use it in the future for the purpose of the non-repudiation of any of these two voters.