Visible to the public Biblio

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Reviriego, Pedro, Rottenstreich, Ori.  2020.  Pollution Attacks on Counting Bloom Filters for Black Box Adversaries. 2020 16th International Conference on Network and Service Management (CNSM). :1–7.
The wide adoption of Bloom filters makes their security an important issue to be addressed. For example, an attacker can increase their error rate through polluting and eventually saturating the filter by inserting elements that set to one a large number of positions in the filter. This is known as a pollution attack and requires that the attacker knows the hash functions used to construct the filter. Such information is not available in many practical settings and in addition a simple protection can be achieved through using a random salt in the hash functions. The same pollution attacks can also be done to counting Bloom filters that in addition to insertions and lookups support removals. This paper considers pollution attacks on counting Bloom filters. We describe two novel pollution attacks that do not require any knowledge of the counting Bloom filter implementation details and evaluate them. These methods show that a counting Bloom filter is vulnerable to pollution attacks even when the attacker has only access to the filter as a black box to perform insertions, removals, and lookups.
Chandavarkar, B. R., Gadagkar, Akhilraj V..  2020.  Mitigating Localization and Neighbour Spoofing Attacks in Underwater Sensor Networks. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—5.
The location information of a node is one of the essential attributes used in most underwater communication routing algorithms to identify a candidate forwarding node by any of the sources. The exact location information of a node exchanged with its neighbours' in plain text and the absence of node authentication results in some of the attacks such as Sybil attack, Blackhole attack, and Wormhole attack. Moreover, the severe consequence of these attacks is Denial of Service (DoS), poor network performance, reduced network lifetime, etc. This paper proposes an anti-Spoof (a-Spoof) algorithm for mitigating localization and neighbour spoofing attacks in UASN. a-Spoof uses three pre-shared symmetric keys to share the location. Additionally, location integrity provided through the hash function. Further, the performance of a-Spoof demonstrated through its implementation in UnetStack with reference to end-to-end packet delay and the number of hops.
Sikarwar, Himani, Nahar, Ankur, Das, Debasis.  2020.  LABVS: Lightweight Authentication and Batch Verification Scheme for Universal Internet of Vehicles (UIoV). 2020 IEEE 91st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Spring). :1—6.
With the rapid technological advancement of the universal internet of vehicles (UIoV), it becomes crucial to ensure safe and secure communication over the network, in an effort to achieve the implementation objective of UIoV effectively. A UIoV is characterized by highly dynamic topology, scalability, and thus vulnerable to various types of security and privacy attacks (i.e., replay attack, impersonation attack, man-in-middle attack, non-repudiation, and modification). Since the components of UIoV are constrained by numerous factors (e.g., low memory devices, low power), which makes UIoV highly susceptible. Therefore, existing schemes to address the privacy and security facets of UIoV exhibit an enormous scope of improvement in terms of time complexity and efficiency. This paper presents a lightweight authentication and batch verification scheme (LABVS) for UIoV using a bilinear map and cryptographic operations (i.e., one-way hash function, concatenation, XOR) to minimize the rate of message loss occurred due to delay in response time as in single message verification scheme. Subsequently, the scheme results in a high level of security and privacy. Moreover, the performance analysis substantiates that LABVS minimizes the computational delay and has better performance in the delay-sensitive network in terms of security and privacy as compared to the existing schemes.
Mehndiratta, Nishtha.  2020.  A Yoking-Proof and PUF-based Mutual Authentication Scheme for Cloud-aided Wearable Devices. 2020 IEEE International Conference for Innovation in Technology (INOCON). :1—4.

In today's world privacy is paramount in everyone's life. Alongside the growth of IoT (Internet of things), wearable devices are becoming widely popular for real-time user monitoring and wise service support. However, in contrast with the traditional short-range communications, these resource-scanty devices face various vulnerabilities and security threats during the course of interactions. Hence, designing a security solution for these devices while dealing with the limited communication and computation capabilities is a challenging task. In this work, PUF (Physical Unclonable Function) and lightweight cryptographic parameters are used together for performing two-way authentication between wearable devices and smartphone, while the simultaneous verification is performed by providing yoking-proofs to the Cloud Server. At the end, it is shown that the proposed scheme satisfies many security aspects and is flexible as well as lightweight.

Yu, Chen, Chen, Liquan, Lu, Tianyu.  2020.  A Direct Anonymous Attestation Scheme Based on Mimic Defense Mechanism. 2020 International Conference on Internet of Things and Intelligent Applications (ITIA). :1—5.

Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication is a essential subset of the Internet of Things (IoT). Secure access to communication network systems by M2M devices requires the support of a secure and efficient anonymous authentication protocol. The Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA) scheme in Trustworthy Computing is a verified security protocol. However, the existing defense system uses a static architecture. The “mimic defense” strategy is characterized by active defense, which is not effective against continuous detection and attack by the attacker. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a Mimic-DAA scheme that incorporates mimic defense to establish an active defense scheme. Multiple heterogeneous and redundant actuators are used to form a DAA verifier and optimization is scheduled so that the behavior of the DAA verifier unpredictable by analysis. The Mimic-DAA proposed in this paper is capable of forming a security mechanism for active defense. The Mimic-DAA scheme effectively safeguard the unpredictability, anonymity, security and system-wide security of M2M communication networks. In comparison with existing DAA schemes, the scheme proposed in this paper improves the safety while maintaining the computational complexity.

Wu, Shanglun, Yuan, Yujie, Kar, Pushpendu.  2020.  Lightweight Verification and Fine-grained Access Control in Named Data Networking Based on Schnorr Signature and Hash Functions. 2020 IEEE 20th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT). :1561–1566.
Named Data Networking (NDN) is a new kind of architecture for future Internet, which is exactly satisfied with the rapidly increasing mobile requirement and information-depended applications that dominate today's Internet. However, the current verification-data accessed system is not safe enough to prevent data leakage because no strongly method to resist any device or user to access it. We bring up a lightweight verification based on hash functions and a fine-grained access control based on Schnorr Signature to address the issue seamlessly. The proposed scheme is scalable and protect data confidentiality in a NDN network.
Dorri, A., Jurdak, R..  2020.  Tree-Chain: A Fast Lightweight Consensus Algorithm for IoT Applications. 2020 IEEE 45th Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN). :369–372.
Blockchain has received tremendous attention in non-monetary applications including the Internet of Things (IoT) due to its salient features including decentralization, security, auditability, and anonymity. Most conventional blockchains rely on computationally expensive validator selection and consensus algorithms, have limited throughput, and high transaction delays. In this paper, we propose tree-chain a scalable fast blockchain instantiation that introduces two levels of randomization among the validators: i) transaction level where the validator of each transaction is selected randomly based on the most significant characters of the hash function output (known as consensus code), and ii) blockchain level where validator is randomly allocated to a particular consensus code based on the hash of their public key. Tree-chain introduces parallel chain branches where each validator commits the corresponding transactions in a unique ledger.
Salim, M. N., Hutahaean, I. W., Susanti, B. H..  2020.  Fixed Point Attack on Lin et al.’s Modified Hash Function Scheme based on SMALLPRESENT-[8] Algorithm. 2020 International Conference on ICT for Smart Society (ICISS). CFP2013V-ART:1–7.
Lin et al.'s scheme is a hash function Message Authentication Codes (MAC) block cipher based scheme that's composed of the compression function. Fixed point messages have been found on SMALLPRESENT-[s] algorithm. The vulnerability of block cipher algorithm against fixed point attacks can affect the vulnerability of block cipher based hash function schemes. This paper applies fixed point attack against Lin et al.'s modified scheme based on SMALLPRESENT-[8] algorithm. Fixed point attack was done using fixed point message from SMALLPRESENT-[8] algorithm which used as Initial Value (IV) on the scheme branch. The attack result shows that eight fixed point messages are successfully discovered on the B1 branch. The fixed point messages discovery on B1 and B2 branches form 18 fixed point messages on Lin et al.'s modified scheme with different IVs and keys. The discovery of fixed point messages shows that Lin et al.'s modified scheme is vulnerable to fixed point attack.
Feng, G., Zhang, C., Si, Y., Lang, L..  2020.  An Encryption and Decryption Algorithm Based on Random Dynamic Hash and Bits Scrambling. 2020 International Conference on Communications, Information System and Computer Engineering (CISCE). :317–320.
This paper proposes a stream cipher algorithm. Its main principle is conducting the binary random dynamic hash with the help of key. At the same time of calculating the hash mapping address of plaintext, change the value of plaintext through bits scrambling, and then map it to the ciphertext space. This encryption method has strong randomness, and the design of hash functions and bits scrambling is flexible and diverse, which can constitute a set of encryption and decryption methods. After testing, the code evenness of the ciphertext obtained using this method is higher than that of the traditional method under some extreme conditions..
Brazhnikov, S..  2020.  A Hardware Implementation of the SHA2 Hash Algorithms Using CMOS 28nm Technology. 2020 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :1784–1786.
This article presents a hardware implementation review of a popular family of hash algorithms: Secure Hash Algorithm 2 (SHA2). It presents various schematic solutions and their assessments for 28 nm CMOS technology. Using this paper we can estimate the expected performance of the hardware hash accelerator based on the IC.
Ahmed, H. M., Jassim, R. W..  2020.  Distributed Transform Encoder to Improve Diffie-Hellman Protocol for Big Message Security. 2020 3rd International Conference on Engineering Technology and its Applications (IICETA). :84—88.

Man in the middle Attack (MIMA) problem of Diffie-Hellman key exchange (D-H) protocol, has led to introduce the Hash Diffie-Hellman key exchange (H-D-H) protocol. Which was cracked by applying the brute force attack (BFA) results of hash function. For this paper, a system will be suggested that focusses on an improved key exchange (D-H) protocol, and distributed transform encoder (DTE). That system utilized for enhanced (D-H) protocol algorithm when (D-H) is applied for generating the keys used for encrypting data of long messages. Hash256, with two secret keys and one public key are used for D-H protocol improvements. Finally, DTE where applied, this cryptosystem led to increase the efficiency of data transfer security with strengthening the shared secret key code. Also, it has removed the important problems such as MITM and BFA, as compared to the previous work.

Romano, A., Zheng, Y., Wang, W..  2020.  MinerRay: Semantics-Aware Analysis for Ever-Evolving Cryptojacking Detection. 2020 35th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE). :1129—1140.
Recent advances in web technology have made in-browser crypto-mining a viable funding model. However, these services have been abused to launch large-scale cryptojacking attacks to secretly mine cryptocurrency in browsers. To detect them, various signature-based or runtime feature-based methods have been proposed. However, they can be imprecise or easily circumvented. To this end, we propose MinerRay, a generic scheme to detect malicious in-browser cryptominers. Instead of leveraging unreliable external patterns, MinerRay infers the essence of cryptomining behaviors that differentiate mining from common browser activities in both WebAssembly and JavaScript contexts. Additionally, to detect stealthy mining activities without user consents, MinerRay checks if the miner can only be instantiated from user actions. MinerRay was evaluated on over 1 million websites. It detected cryptominers on 901 websites, where 885 secretly start mining without user consent. Besides, we compared MinerRay with five state-of-the-art signature-based or behavior-based cryptominer detectors (MineSweeper, CMTracker, Outguard, No Coin, and minerBlock). We observed that emerging miners with new signatures or new services were detected by MinerRay but missed by others. The results show that our proposed technique is effective and robust in detecting evolving cryptominers, yielding more true positives, and fewer errors.
Tizio, G. Di, Ngo, C. Nam.  2020.  Are You a Favorite Target For Cryptojacking? A Case-Control Study On The Cryptojacking Ecosystem 2020 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :515—520.
Illicitly hijacking visitors' computational resources for mining cryptocurrency via compromised websites is a consolidated activity.Previous works mainly focused on large-scale analysis of the cryptojacking ecosystem, technical means to detect browser-based mining as well as economic incentives of cryptojacking. So far, no one has studied if certain technical characteristics of a website can increase (decrease) the likelihood of being compromised for cryptojacking campaigns.In this paper, we propose to address this unanswered question by conducting a case-control study with cryptojacking websites obtained crawling the web using Minesweeper. Our preliminary analysis shows some association for certain website characteristics, however, the results obtained are not statistically significant. Thus, more data must be collected and further analysis must be conducted to obtain a better insight into the impact of these relations.
Wang, H., Yao, G., Wang, B..  2020.  A Quantum Concurrent Signature Scheme Based on the Quantum Finite Automata Signature Scheme. 2020 IEEE 14th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :125–129.
When using digital signatures, we need to deal with the problem of fairness of information exchange. To solve this problem, Chen, etc. introduced a new conception which is named concurrent signatures in Eurocrypt'04. Using concurrent signatures scheme, two entities in the scheme can generate two ambiguous signatures until one of the entities releases additional information which is called keystone. After the keystone is released, the two ambiguous signatures will be bound to their real signers at the same time. In order to provide a method to solve the fairness problem of quantum digital signatures, we propose a new quantum concurrent signature scheme. The scheme we proposed does not use a trusted third party in a quantum computing environment, and has such advantages as no need to conduct complex quantum operations and easy to implement by a quantum circuit. Quantum concurrent signature improves the theory of quantum cryptography, and it also provides broad prospects for the specific applications of quantum cryptography.
Härer, Felix, Fill, Hans-Georg.  2019.  Decentralized Attestation of Conceptual Models Using the Ethereum Blockchain. 2019 IEEE 21st Conference on Business Informatics (CBI). 01:104–113.
Decentralized attestation methods for blockchains are currently being discussed and standardized for use cases such as certification, identity and existence proofs. In a blockchain-based attestation, a claim made about the existence of information can be cryptographically verified publicly and transparently. In this paper we explore the attestation of models through globally unique identifiers as a first step towards decentralized applications based on models. As a proof-of-concept we describe a prototypical implementation of a software connector for the ADOxx metamodeling platform. The connector allows for (a.) the creation of claims bound to the identity of an Ethereum account and (b.) their verification on the blockchain by anyone at a later point in time. For evaluating the practical applicability, we demonstrate the application on the Ethereum network and measure and evaluate limiting factors related to transaction cost and confirmation times.
Keleman, Levon, Matić, Danijel, Popović, Miroslav, Kaštelan, Ivan.  2019.  Secure firmware update in embedded systems. 2019 IEEE 9th International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE-Berlin). :16–19.
Great numbers of embedded devices are performing safety critical operations, which means it is very important to keep them operating without interference. Update is the weak point that could be exploited by potential attackers to gain access to the system, sabotage it or to simply steal someone else's intellectual property. This paper presents an implementation of secure update process for embedded systems which prevents man-in-the-middle attacks. By using a combination of hash functions, symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms it demonstrates how to achieve integrity, authenticity and confidentiality of the update package that is sent to the target hardware. It covers implementation starting from key exchange, next explaining update package encryption process and then decryption on the target hardware. It does not go into a detail about specific encryption algorithms that could be used. It presents a generalized model for secure update that could be adjusted to specific needs.
Latif, M. Kamran, Jacinto, H S., Daoud, Luka, Rafla, Nader.  2018.  Optimization of a Quantum-Secure Sponge-Based Hash Message Authentication Protocol. 2018 IEEE 61st International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :984—987.

Hash message authentication is a fundamental building block of many networking security protocols such as SSL, TLS, FTP, and even HTTPS. The sponge-based SHA-3 hashing algorithm is the most recently developed hashing function as a result of a NIST competition to find a new hashing standard after SHA-1 and SHA-2 were found to have collisions, and thus were considered broken. We used Xilinx High-Level Synthesis to develop an optimized and pipelined version of the post-quantum-secure SHA-3 hash message authentication code (HMAC) which is capable of computing a HMAC every 280 clock-cycles with an overall throughput of 604 Mbps. We cover the general security of sponge functions in both a classical and quantum computing standpoint for hash functions, and offer a general architecture for HMAC computation when sponge functions are used.

Zhang, Suman, Qin, Cai, Wang, Chaowei, Wang, Weidong, Zhang, Yinghai.  2018.  Slot Assignment Algorithm Based on Hash Function for Multi-target RFID System. 2018 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :583—587.

Multi-tag identification technique has been applied widely in the RFID system to increase flexibility of the system. However, it also brings serious tags collision issues, which demands the efficient anti-collision schemes. In this paper, we propose a Multi-target tags assignment slots algorithm based on Hash function (MTSH) for efficient multi-tag identification. The proposed algorithm can estimate the number of tags and dynamically adjust the frame length. Specifically, according to the number of tags, the proposed algorithm is composed of two cases. when the number of tags is small, a hash function is constructed to map the tags into corresponding slots. When the number of tags is large, the tags are grouped and randomly mapped into slots. During the tag identification, tags will be paired with a certain matching rate and then some tags will exit to improve the efficiency of the system. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional anti-collision algorithms in terms of the system throughput, stability and identification efficiency.

De Guzman, Froilan E., Gerardo, Bobby D., Medina, Ruji P..  2018.  Enhanced Secure Hash Algorithm-512 based on Quadratic Function. 2018 IEEE 10th International Conference on Humanoid, Nanotechnology, Information Technology,Communication and Control, Environment and Management (HNICEM). :1—6.

This paper attempts to introduce the enhanced SHA-1 algorithm which features a simple quadratic function that will control the selection of primitive function and constant used per round of SHA-1. The message digest for this enhancement is designed for 512 hashed value that will answer the possible occurrence of hash collisions. Moreover, this features the architecture of 8 registers of A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H which consists of 64 bits out of the total 512 bits. The testing of frequency for Q15 and Q0 will prove that the selection of primitive function and the constant used are not equally distributed. Implementation of extended bits for hash message will provide additional resources for dictionary attacks and the extension of its hash outputs will provide an extended time for providing a permutation of 512 hash bits.

Al Kobaisi, Ali, Wocjan, Pawel.  2018.  Supervised Max Hashing for Similarity Image Retrieval. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA). :359—365.

The storage efficiency of hash codes and their application in the fast approximate nearest neighbor search, along with the explosion in the size of available labeled image datasets caused an intensive interest in developing learning based hash algorithms recently. In this paper, we present a learning based hash algorithm that utilize ordinal information of feature vectors. We have proposed a novel mathematically differentiable approximation of argmax function for this hash algorithm. It has enabled seamless integration of hash function with deep neural network architecture which can exploit the rich feature vectors generated by convolutional neural networks. We have also proposed a loss function for the case that the hash code is not binary and its entries are digits of arbitrary k-ary base. The resultant model comprised of feature vector generation and hashing layer is amenable to end-to-end training using gradient descent methods. In contrast to the majority of current hashing algorithms that are either not learning based or use hand-crafted feature vectors as input, simultaneous training of the components of our system results in better optimization. Extensive evaluations on NUS-WIDE, CIFAR-10 and MIRFlickr benchmarks show that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-art and classical data agnostic, unsupervised and supervised hashing methods by 2.6% to 19.8% mean average precision under various settings.

Chugunkov, Ilya V., Ivanov, Michael A., Kliuchnikova, Bogdana V..  2019.  Hash Functions are Based on Three-Dimensional Stochastic Transformations. 2019 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :202–205.
The methods are based on injecting unpredictability into means and objects of protection are called stochastic methods of information security. The effective protection can be done only by using stochastic methods against an active opponent. The effectiveness of stochastic protection methods is defined by the quality of the used pseudo-random number generators and hash functions. The proposed hashing algorithm DOZENHASH is based on the using of 3D stochastic transformations of DOZEN family. The principal feature of the algorithm is that all input and output data blocks as well as intermediate results of calculations are represented as three-dimensional array of bytes with 4 bytes in each dimension. Thus, the resulting transformation has a high degree of parallelism at the level of elementary operations, in other words, it is focused on the implementation using heterogeneous supercomputer technologies.
Sun, Wenhua, Wang, Xiaojuan, Jin, Lei.  2019.  An Efficient Hash-Tree-Based Algorithm in Mining Sequential Patterns with Topology Constraint. 2019 IEEE 21st International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 17th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 5th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :2782–2789.
Warnings happen a lot in real transmission networks. These warnings can affect people's lives. It is significant to analyze the alarm association rules in the network. Many algorithms can help solve this problem but not considering the actual physical significance. Therefore, in this study, we mine the association rules in warning weblogs based on a sequential mining algorithm (GSP) with topology structure. We define a topology constraint from network physical connection data. Under the topology constraint, network nodes have topology relation if they are directly connected or have a common adjacency node. In addition, due to the large amount of data, we implement the hash-tree search method to improve the mining efficiency. The theoretical solution is feasible and the simulation results verify our method. In simulation, the topology constraint improves the accuracy for 86%-96% and decreases the run time greatly at the same time. The hash-tree based mining results show that hash tree efficiency improvements are in 3-30% while the number of patterns remains unchanged. In conclusion, using our method can mine association rules efficiently and accurately in warning weblogs.
Fang, Bo, Hua, Zhongyun, Huang, Hejiao.  2019.  Locality-Sensitive Hashing Scheme Based on Heap Sort of Hash Bucket. 2019 14th International Conference on Computer Science Education (ICCSE). :5–10.
Nearest neighbor search (NNS) is one of the current popular research directions, which widely used in machine learning, pattern recognition, image detection and so on. In the low dimension data, based on tree search method can get good results. But when the data dimension goes up, that will produce a curse of dimensional. The proposed Locality-Sensitive Hashing algorithm (LSH) greatly improves the efficiency of nearest neighbor query for high dimensional data. But the algorithm relies on the building a large number of hash table, which makes the space complexity very high. C2LSH based on dynamic collision improves the disadvantage of LSH, but its disadvantage is that it needs to detect the collision times of a large number of data points which Increased query time. Therefore, Based on LSH algorithm, later researchers put forward many improved algorithms, but still not ideal.In this paper, we put forward Locality-Sensitive Hashing Scheme Based on Heap Sort of Hash Bucket (HSLSH) algorithm aiming at the shortcomings of LSH and C2LSH. Its main idea is to take advantage of the efficiency of heapsort in massive data sorting to improve the efficiency of nearest neighbor query. It only needs to rely on a small number of hash functions can not only overcome the shortcoming of LSH need to build a large number of hash table, and avoids defects of C2LSH. Experiments show that our algorithm is more than 20% better than C2LSH in query accuracy and 40% percent lower in query time.
De Guzman, Froilan E., Gerardo, Bobby D., Medina, Ruji P..  2019.  Implementation of Enhanced Secure Hash Algorithm Towards a Secured Web Portal. 2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Computer and Communication Systems (ICCCS). :189–192.
In this paper, the application of the enhanced secure hash algorithm-512 is implemented on web applications specifically in password hashing. In addition to the enhancement of hash function, hill cipher is included for the salt generation to increase the complexity of generating hash tables that may be used as an attack on the algorithm. The testing of same passwords saved on the database is used to create hash collisions that will result to salt generation to produce a new hash message. The matrix encryption key provides five matrices to be selected upon based on the length of concatenated username, password, and concatenated characters from the username. In this process, same password will result to a different hash message that will to make it more secured from future attacks.
Xuebing, Wang, Na, Qin, Yantao, Liu.  2019.  A Secure Network Coding System Against Wiretap Attacks. 2019 34rd Youth Academic Annual Conference of Chinese Association of Automation (YAC). :62—67.

Cyber security is a vital performance metric for networks. Wiretap attacks belong to passive attacks. It commonly exists in wired or wireless networks, where an eavesdropper steals useful information by wiretapping messages being shipped on network links. It seriously damages the confidentiality of communications. This paper proposed a secure network coding system architecture against wiretap attacks. It combines and collaborates network coding with cryptography technology. Some illustrating examples are given to show how to build such a system and prove its defense is much stronger than a system with a single defender, either network coding or cryptography. Moreover, the system is characterized by flexibility, simplicity, and easy to set up. Finally, it could be used for both deterministic and random network coding system.