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Malvankar, A., Payne, J., Budhraja, K. K., Kundu, A., Chari, S., Mohania, M..  2019.  Malware Containment in Cloud. 2019 First IEEE International Conference on Trust, Privacy and Security in Intelligent Systems and Applications (TPS-ISA). :221—227.

Malware is pervasive and poses serious threats to normal operation of business processes in cloud. Cloud computing environments typically have hundreds of hosts that are connected to each other, often with high risk trust assumptions and/or protection mechanisms that are not difficult to break. Malware often exploits such weaknesses, as its immediate goal is often to spread itself to as many hosts as possible. Detecting this propagation is often difficult to address because the malware may reside in multiple components across the software or hardware stack. In this scenario, it is usually best to contain the malware to the smallest possible number of hosts, and it's also critical for system administration to resolve the issue in a timely manner. Furthermore, resolution often requires that several participants across different organizational teams scramble together to address the intrusion. In this vision paper, we define this problem in detail. We then present our vision of decentralized malware containment and the challenges and issues associated with this vision. The approach of containment involves detection and response using graph analytics coupled with a blockchain framework. We propose the use of a dominance frontier for profile nodes which must be involved in the containment process. Smart contracts are used to obtain consensus amongst the involved parties. The paper presents a basic implementation of this proposal. We have further discussed some open problems related to our vision.

Sun, Z., Du, P., Nakao, A., Zhong, L., Onishi, R..  2019.  Building Dynamic Mapping with CUPS for Next Generation Automotive Edge Computing. 2019 IEEE 8th International Conference on Cloud Networking (CloudNet). :1—6.

With the development of IoT and 5G networks, the demand for the next-generation intelligent transportation system has been growing at a rapid pace. Dynamic mapping has been considered one of the key technologies to reduce traffic accidents and congestion in the intelligent transportation system. However, as the number of vehicles keeps growing, a huge volume of mapping traffic may overload the central cloud, leading to serious performance degradation. In this paper, we propose and prototype a CUPS (control and user plane separation)-based edge computing architecture for the dynamic mapping and quantify its benefits by prototyping. There are a couple of merits of our proposal: (i) we can mitigate the overhead of the networks and central cloud because we only need to abstract and send global dynamic mapping information from the edge servers to the central cloud; (ii) we can reduce the response latency since the dynamic mapping traffic can be isolated from other data traffic by being generated and distributed from a local edge server that is deployed closer to the vehicles than the central server in cloud. The capabilities of our system have been quantified. The experimental results have shown our system achieves throughput improvement by more than four times, and response latency reduction by 67.8% compared to the conventional central cloud-based approach. Although these results are still obtained from the preliminary evaluations using our prototype system, we believe that our proposed architecture gives insight into how we utilize CUPS and edge computing to enable efficient dynamic mapping applications.

Xu, W., Peng, Y..  2018.  SharaBLE: A Software Framework for Shared Usage of BLE Devices over the Internet. 2018 IEEE 29th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC). :381—385.

With the development of Internet of Things, numerous IoT devices have been brought into our daily lives. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), due to the low energy consumption and generic service stack, has become one of the most popular wireless communication technologies for IoT. However, because of the short communication range and exclusive connection pattern, a BLE-equipped device can only be used by a single user near the device. To fully explore the benefits of BLE and make BLE-equipped devices truly accessible over the Internet as IoT devices, in this paper, we propose a cloud-based software framework that can enable multiple users to interact with various BLE IoT devices over the Internet. This framework includes an agent program, a suite of services hosting in cloud, and a set of RESTful APIs exposed to Internet users. Given the availability of this framework, the access to BLE devices can be extended from local to the Internet scale without any software or hardware changes to BLE devices, and more importantly, shared usage of remote BLE devices over the Internet is also made available.

Li, W., Guo, D., Li, K., Qi, H., Zhang, J..  2018.  iDaaS: Inter-Datacenter Network as a Service. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems. 29:1515—1529.

Increasing number of Internet-scale applications, such as video streaming, incur huge amount of wide area traffic. Such traffic over the unreliable Internet without bandwidth guarantee suffers unpredictable network performance. This result, however, is unappealing to the application providers. Fortunately, Internet giants like Google and Microsoft are increasingly deploying their private wide area networks (WANs) to connect their global datacenters. Such high-speed private WANs are reliable, and can provide predictable network performance. In this paper, we propose a new type of service-inter-datacenter network as a service (iDaaS), where traditional application providers can reserve bandwidth from those Internet giants to guarantee their wide area traffic. Specifically, we design a bandwidth trading market among multiple iDaaS providers and application providers, and concentrate on the essential bandwidth pricing problem. The involved challenging issue is that the bandwidth price of each iDaaS provider is not only influenced by other iDaaS providers, but also affected by the application providers. To address this issue, we characterize the interaction between iDaaS providers and application providers using a Stackelberg game model, and analyze the existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium. We further present an efficient bandwidth pricing algorithm by blending the advantage of a geometrical Nash bargaining solution and the demand segmentation method. For comparison, we present two bandwidth reservation algorithms, where each iDaaS provider's bandwidth is reserved in a weighted fair manner and a max-min fair manner, respectively. Finally, we conduct comprehensive trace-driven experiments. The evaluation results show that our proposed algorithms not only ensure the revenue of iDaaS providers, but also provide bandwidth guarantee for application providers with lower bandwidth price per unit.

Yang, R., Ouyang, X., Chen, Y., Townend, P., Xu, J..  2018.  Intelligent Resource Scheduling at Scale: A Machine Learning Perspective. 2018 IEEE Symposium on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE). :132—141.

Resource scheduling in a computing system addresses the problem of packing tasks with multi-dimensional resource requirements and non-functional constraints. The exhibited heterogeneity of workload and server characteristics in Cloud-scale or Internet-scale systems is adding further complexity and new challenges to the problem. Compared with,,,, existing solutions based on ad-hoc heuristics, Machine Learning (ML) has the potential to improve further the efficiency of resource management in large-scale systems. In this paper we,,,, will describe and discuss how ML could be used to understand automatically both workloads and environments, and to help to cope with scheduling-related challenges such as consolidating co-located workloads, handling resource requests, guaranteeing application's QoSs, and mitigating tailed stragglers. We will introduce a generalized ML-based solution to large-scale resource scheduling and demonstrate its effectiveness through a case study that deals with performance-centric node classification and straggler mitigation. We believe that an MLbased method will help to achieve architectural optimization and efficiency improvement.

Zhang, Y., Deng, L., Chen, M., Wang, P..  2018.  Joint Bidding and Geographical Load Balancing for Datacenters: Is Uncertainty a Blessing or a Curse? IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking. 26:1049—1062.

We consider the scenario where a cloud service provider (CSP) operates multiple geo-distributed datacenters to provide Internet-scale service. Our objective is to minimize the total electricity and bandwidth cost by jointly optimizing electricity procurement from wholesale markets and geographical load balancing (GLB), i.e., dynamically routing workloads to locations with cheaper electricity. Under the ideal setting where exact values of market prices and workloads are given, this problem reduces to a simple linear programming and is easy to solve. However, under the realistic setting where only distributions of these variables are available, the problem unfolds into a non-convex infinite-dimensional one and is challenging to solve. One of our main contributions is to develop an algorithm that is proven to solve the challenging problem optimally, by exploring the full design space of strategic bidding. Trace-driven evaluations corroborate our theoretical results, demonstrate fast convergence of our algorithm, and show that it can reduce the cost for the CSP by up to 20% as compared with baseline alternatives. This paper highlights the intriguing role of uncertainty in workloads and market prices, measured by their variances. While uncertainty in workloads deteriorates the cost-saving performance of joint electricity procurement and GLB, counter-intuitively, uncertainty in market prices can be exploited to achieve a cost reduction even larger than the setting without price uncertainty.

Kathiravelu, P., Chiesa, M., Marcos, P., Canini, M., Veiga, L..  2018.  Moving Bits with a Fleet of Shared Virtual Routers. 2018 IFIP Networking Conference (IFIP Networking) and Workshops. :1—9.

The steady decline of IP transit prices in the past two decades has helped fuel the growth of traffic demands in the Internet ecosystem. Despite the declining unit pricing, bandwidth costs remain significant due to ever-increasing scale and reach of the Internet, combined with the price disparity between the Internet's core hubs versus remote regions. In the meantime, cloud providers have been auctioning underutilized computing resources in their marketplace as spot instances for a much lower price, compared to their on-demand instances. This state of affairs has led the networking community to devote extensive efforts to cloud-assisted networks - the idea of offloading network functionality to cloud platforms, ultimately leading to more flexible and highly composable network service chains.We initiate a critical discussion on the economic and technological aspects of leveraging cloud-assisted networks for Internet-scale interconnections and data transfers. Namely, we investigate the prospect of constructing a large-scale virtualized network provider that does not own any fixed or dedicated resources and runs atop several spot instances. We construct a cloud-assisted overlay as a virtual network provider, by leveraging third-party cloud spot instances. We identify three use case scenarios where such approach will not only be economically and technologically viable but also provide performance benefits compared to current commercial offerings of connectivity and transit providers.

Sunny, S. M. N. A., Liu, X., Shahriar, M. R..  2018.  Remote Monitoring and Online Testing of Machine Tools for Fault Diagnosis and Maintenance Using MTComm in a Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Cloud. 2018 IEEE 11th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). :532—539.

Existing systems allow manufacturers to acquire factory floor data and perform analysis with cloud applications for machine health monitoring, product quality prediction, fault diagnosis and prognosis etc. However, they do not provide capabilities to perform testing of machine tools and associated components remotely, which is often crucial to identify causes of failure. This paper presents a fault diagnosis system in a cyber-physical manufacturing cloud (CPMC) that allows manufacturers to perform diagnosis and maintenance of manufacturing machine tools through remote monitoring and online testing using Machine Tool Communication (MTComm). MTComm is an Internet scale communication method that enables both monitoring and operation of heterogeneous machine tools through RESTful web services over the Internet. It allows manufacturers to perform testing operations from cloud applications at both machine and component level for regular maintenance and fault diagnosis. This paper describes different components of the system and their functionalities in CPMC and techniques used for anomaly detection and remote online testing using MTComm. It also presents the development of a prototype of the proposed system in a CPMC testbed. Experiments were conducted to evaluate its performance to diagnose faults and test machine tools remotely during various manufacturing scenarios. The results demonstrated excellent feasibility to detect anomaly during manufacturing operations and perform testing operations remotely from cloud applications using MTComm.

Shahriar, M. R., Sunny, S. M. N. A., Liu, X., Leu, M. C., Hu, L., Nguyen, N..  2018.  MTComm Based Virtualization and Integration of Physical Machine Operations with Digital-Twins in Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Cloud. 2018 5th IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud)/2018 4th IEEE International Conference on Edge Computing and Scalable Cloud (EdgeCom). :46—51.

Digital-Twins simulate physical world objects by creating 'as-is' virtual images in a cyberspace. In order to create a well synchronized digital-twin simulator in manufacturing, information and activities of a physical machine need to be virtualized. Many existing digital-twins stream read-only data of machine sensors and do not incorporate operations of manufacturing machines through Internet. In this paper, a new method of virtualization is proposed to integrate machining data and operations into the digital-twins using Internet scale machine tool communication method. A fully functional digital-twin is implemented in CPMC testbed using MTComm and several manufacturing application scenarios are developed to evaluate the proposed method and system. Performance analysis shows that it is capable of providing data-driven visual monitoring of a manufacturing process and performing manufacturing operations through digital twins over the Internet. Results of the experiments also shows that the MTComm based digital twins have an excellent efficiency.

Blake, M. Brian, Helal, A., Mei, H..  2019.  Guest Editor's Introduction: Special Section on Services and Software Engineering Towards Internetware. IEEE Transactions on Services Computing. 12:4–5.
The six papers in this special section focuses on services and software computing. Services computing provides a foundation to build software systems and applications over the Internet as well as emerging hybrid networked platforms motivated by it. Due to the open, dynamic, and evolving nature of the Internet, new features were born with these Internet-scale and service-based software systems. Such systems should be situation- aware, adaptable, and able to evolve to effectively deal with rapid changes of user requirements and runtime contexts. These emerging software systems enable and require novel methods in conducting software requirement, design, deployment, operation, and maintenance beyond existing services computing technologies. New programming and lifecycle paradigms accommodating such Internet- scale and service-based software systems, referred to as Internetware, are inevitable. The goal of this special section is to present the innovative solutions and challenging technical issues, so as to explore various potential pathways towards Internet-scale and service-based software systems.
Hilt, V., Sparks, K..  2019.  Future edge clouds. Bell Labs Technical Journal. 24:1–17.
Widespread deployment of centralized clouds has changed the way internet services are developed, deployed and operated. Centralized clouds have substantially extended the market opportunities for online services, enabled new entities to create and operate internet-scale services, and changed the way traditional companies run their operations. However, there are types of services that are unsuitable for today's centralized clouds such as highly interactive virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR) applications, high-resolution gaming, virtualized RAN, mass IoT data processing and industrial robot control. They can be broadly categorized as either latency-sensitive network functions, latency-sensitive applications, and/or high-bandwidth services. What these basic functions have in common is the need for a more distributed cloud infrastructure—an infrastructure we call edge clouds. In this paper, we examine the evolution of clouds, and edge clouds especially, and look at the developing market for edge clouds and what developments are required in networking, hardware and software to support them.
Zhou, K., Sun, S., Wang, H., Huang, P., He, X., Lan, R., Li, W., Liu, W., Yang, T..  2019.  Improving Cache Performance for Large-Scale Photo Stores via Heuristic Prefetching Scheme. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems. 30:2033–2045.
Photo service providers are facing critical challenges of dealing with the huge amount of photo storage, typically in a magnitude of billions of photos, while ensuring national-wide or world-wide satisfactory user experiences. Distributed photo caching architecture is widely deployed to meet high performance expectations, where efficient still mysterious caching policies play essential roles. In this work, we present a comprehensive study on internet-scale photo caching algorithms in the case of QQPhoto from Tencent Inc., the largest social network service company in China. We unveil that even advanced cache algorithms can only perform at a similar level as simple baseline algorithms and there still exists a large performance gap between these cache algorithms and the theoretically optimal algorithm due to the complicated access behaviors in such a large multi-tenant environment. We then expound the reasons behind this phenomenon via extensively investigating the characteristics of QQPhoto workloads. Finally, in order to realistically further improve QQPhoto cache efficiency, we propose to incorporate a prefetcher in the cache stack based on the observed immediacy feature that is unique to the QQPhoto workload. The prefetcher proactively prefetches selected photos into cache before they are requested for the first time to eliminate compulsory misses and promote hit ratios. Our extensive evaluation results show that with appropriate prefetching we improve the cache hit ratio by up to 7.4 percent, while reducing the average access latency by 6.9 percent at a marginal cost of 4.14 percent backend network traffic compared to the original system that performs no prefetching.
Cheng, D., Zhou, X., Ding, Z., Wang, Y., Ji, M..  2019.  Heterogeneity Aware Workload Management in Distributed Sustainable Datacenters. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems. 30:375–387.
The tremendous growth of cloud computing and large-scale data analytics highlight the importance of reducing datacenter power consumption and environmental impact of brown energy. While many Internet service operators have at least partially powered their datacenters by green energy, it is challenging to effectively utilize green energy due to the intermittency of renewable sources, such as solar or wind. We find that the geographical diversity of internet-scale services can be carefully scheduled to improve the efficiency of applying green energy in datacenters. In this paper, we propose a holistic heterogeneity-aware cloud workload management approach, sCloud, that aims to maximize the system goodput in distributed self-sustainable datacenters. sCloud adaptively places the transactional workload to distributed datacenters, allocates the available resource to heterogeneous workloads in each datacenter, and migrates batch jobs across datacenters, while taking into account the green power availability and QoS requirements. We formulate the transactional workload placement as a constrained optimization problem that can be solved by nonlinear programming. Then, we propose a batch job migration algorithm to further improve the system goodput when the green power supply varies widely at different locations. Finally, we extend sCloud by integrating a flexible batch job manager to dynamically control the job execution progress without violating the deadlines. We have implemented sCloud in a university cloud testbed with real-world weather conditions and workload traces. Experimental results demonstrate sCloud can achieve near-to-optimal system performance while being resilient to dynamic power availability. sCloud with the flexible batch job management approach outperforms a heterogeneity-oblivious approach by 37 percent in improving system goodput and 33 percent in reducing QoS violations.
Xu, Y., Chen, H., Zhao, Y., Zhang, W., Shen, Q., Zhang, X., Ma, Z..  2019.  Neural Adaptive Transport Framework for Internet-scale Interactive Media Streaming Services. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting (BMSB). :1–6.
Network dynamics, such as bandwidth fluctuation and unexpected latency, hurt users' quality of experience (QoE) greatly for media services over the Internet. In this work, we propose a neural adaptive transport (NAT) framework to tackle the network dynamics for Internet-scale interactive media services. The entire NAT system has three major components: a learning based cloud overlay routing (COR) scheme for the best delivery path to bypass the network bottlenecks while offering the minimal end-to-end latency simultaneously; a residual neural network based collaborative video processing (CVP) system to trade the computational capability at client-end for QoE improvement via learned resolution scaling; and a deep reinforcement learning (DRL) based adaptive real-time streaming (ARS) strategy to select the appropriate video bitrate for maximal QoE. We have demonstrated that COR could improve the user satisfaction from 5% to 43%, CVP could reduce the bandwidth consumption more than 30% at the same quality, and DRL-based ARS can maintain the smooth streaming with \textbackslashtextless; 50% QoE improvement, respectively.
Alruwaythi, M., Kambampaty, K., Nygard, K..  2018.  User Behavior Trust Modeling in Cloud Security. 2018 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :1336–1339.
Evaluating user behavior in cloud computing infrastructure is important for both Cloud Users and Cloud Service Providers. The service providers must ensure the safety of users who access the cloud. User behavior can be modeled and employed to help assess trust and play a role in ensuring authenticity and safety of the user. In this paper, we propose a User Behavior Trust Model based on Fuzzy Logic (UBTMFL). In this model, we develop user history patterns and compare them current user behavior. The outcome of the comparison is sent to a trust computation center to calculate a user trust value. This model considers three types of trust: direct, history and comprehensive. Simulation results are included.
Sreekumari, P..  2018.  Privacy-Preserving Keyword Search Schemes over Encrypted Cloud Data: An Extensive Analysis. 2018 IEEE 4th International Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE International Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :114–120.
Big Data has rapidly developed into a hot research topic in many areas that attracts attention from academia and industry around the world. Many organization demands efficient solution to store, process, analyze and search huge amount of information. With the rapid development of cloud computing, organization prefers cloud storage services to reduce the overhead of storing data locally. However, the security and privacy of big data in cloud computing is a major source of concern. One of the positive ways of protecting data is encrypting it before outsourcing to remote servers, but the encrypted significant amounts of cloud data brings difficulties for the remote servers to perform any keyword search functions without leaking information. Various privacy-preserving keyword search (PPKS) schemes have been proposed to mitigate the privacy issue of big data encrypted on cloud storage. This paper presents an extensive analysis of the existing PPKS techniques in terms of verifiability, efficiency and data privacy. Through this analysis, we present some valuable directions for future work.
Koo, J., Kim, Y., Lee, S..  2019.  Security Requirements for Cloud-based C4I Security Architecture. 2019 International Conference on Platform Technology and Service (PlatCon). :1—4.
With the development of cloud computing technology, developed countries including the U.S. are performing the efficiency of national defense and public sector, national innovation, and construction of the infrastructure for cloud computing environment through the policies that apply cloud computing. Korea Military is also considering that apply the cloud computing technology into its national defense command control system. However, only existing security requirements for national defense information system cannot solve the problem related security vulnerabilities of cloud computing. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to design the secure security architecture of national defense command control system considering security requirements related to cloud computing. This study analyze the security requirements needed when the U.S. military apply the cloud computing system. It also analyze existing security requirements for Korea national defense information system and security requirements for cloud computing system and draw the security requirements needed to Korea national defense information system based on cloud computing.
Moghaddam, F. F., Wieder, P., Yahyapour, R., Khodadadi, T..  2018.  A Reliable Ring Analysis Engine for Establishment of Multi-Level Security Management in Clouds. 2018 41st International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). :1—5.
Security and Privacy challenges are the most obstacles for the advancement of cloud computing and the erosion of trust boundaries already happening in organizations is amplified and accelerated by this emerging technology. Policy Management Frameworks are the most proper solutions to create dedicated security levels based on the sensitivity of resources and according to the mapping process between requirements cloud customers and capabilities of service providers. The most concerning issue in these frameworks is the rate of perfect matches between capabilities and requirements. In this paper, a reliable ring analysis engine has been introduced to efficiently map the security requirements of cloud customers to the capabilities of service provider and to enhance the rate of perfect matches between them for establishment of different security levels in clouds. In the suggested model a structural index has been introduced to receive the requirement and efficiently map them to the most proper security mechanism of the service provider. Our results show that this index-based engine enhances the rate of perfect matches considerably and decreases the detected conflicts in syntactic and semantic analysis.
Hossain, M. S., Ramli, M. R., Lee, J. M., Kim, D.-S..  2019.  Fog Radio Access Networks in Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) and Load Balancing Technology. 2019 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :750—754.

The recent trend of military is to combined Internet of Things (IoT) knowledge to their field for enhancing the impact in battlefield. That's why Internet of battlefield (IoBT) is our concern. This paper discusses how Fog Radio Access Network(F-RAN) can provide support for local computing in Industrial IoT and IoBT. F-RAN can play a vital role because of IoT devices are becoming popular and the fifth generation (5G) communication is also an emerging issue with ultra-low latency, energy consumption, bandwidth efficiency and wide range of coverage area. To overcome the disadvantages of cloud radio access networks (C-RAN) F-RAN can be introduced where a large number of F-RAN nodes can take part in joint distributed computing and content sharing scheme. The F-RAN in IoBT is effective for enhancing the computing ability with fog computing and edge computing at the network edge. Since the computing capability of the fog equipment are weak, to overcome the difficulties of fog computing in IoBT this paper illustrates some challenging issues and solutions to improve battlefield efficiency. Therefore, the distributed computing load balancing problem of the F-RAN is researched. The simulation result indicates that the load balancing strategy has better performance for F-RAN architecture in the battlefield.

Yu, J., Ding, F., Zhao, X., Wang, Y..  2018.  An Resilient Cloud Architecture for Mission Assurance. 2018 IEEE 4th Information Technology and Mechatronics Engineering Conference (ITOEC). :343–346.
In view of the demand for the continuous guarantee capability of the information system in the diversified task and the complex cyber threat environment, a dual loop architecture of the resilient cloud environment for mission assurance is proposed. Firstly, general technical architecture of cloud environment is briefly introduced. Drawing on the idea of software definition, a resilient dual loop architecture based on "perception analysis planning adjustment" is constructed. Then, the core mission assurance system deployment mechanism is designed using the idea of distributed control. Finally, the core mission assurance system is designed in detail, which is consisted of six functional modules, including mission and environment awareness network, intelligent anomaly analysis and prediction, mission and resource situation generation, mission and resource planning, adaptive optimization and adjustment. The design of the dual loop architecture of the resilient cloud environment for mission assurance will further enhance the fast adaptability of the information system in the complex cyber physical environment.
Geeta, C. M., Rashmi, B. N., Raju, R. G. Shreyas, Raghavendra, S., Buyya, R., Venugopal, K. R., Iyengar, S. S., Patnaik, L. M..  2019.  EAODBT: Efficient Auditing for Outsourced Database with Token Enforced Cloud Storage. 2019 IEEE International WIE Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (WIECON-ECE). :1–4.
Database outsourcing is one of the important utilities in cloud computing in which the Information Proprietor (IP) transfers the database administration to the Cloud Service Provider (CSP) in order to minimize the administration cost and preservation expenses of the database. Inspite of its immense profit, it undergoes few security issues such as privacy of deployed database and provability of search results. In the recent past, few of the studies have been carried out on provability of search results of Outsourced Database (ODB) that affords correctness and completeness of search results. But in the existing schemes, since there is flow of data between the Information Proprietor and the clients frequently, huge communication cost prevails at the Information Proprietor side. To address this challenge, in this paper we propose Efficient Auditing for Outsourced Database with Token Enforced Cloud Storage (EAODBT). The proposed scheme reduces the large communication cost prevailing at the Information Proprietor side and achieves correctness and completeness of search results even if the mischievous CSP knowingly sends a null set. Experimental analysis show that the proposed scheme has totally reduced the huge communication cost prevailing between Information Proprietor and clients, and simultaneously achieves the correctness and completeness of search results.
Shen, N., Yeh, J., Chen, C., Chen, Y., Zhang, Y..  2019.  Ensuring Query Completeness in Outsourced Database Using Order-Preserving Encryption. 2019 IEEE Intl Conf on Parallel Distributed Processing with Applications, Big Data Cloud Computing, Sustainable Computing Communications, Social Computing Networking (ISPA/BDCloud/SocialCom/SustainCom). :776–783.
Nowadays database outsourcing has become business owners' preferred option and they are benefiting from its flexibility, reliability, and low cost. However, because database service providers cannot always be fully trusted and data owners will no longer have a direct control over their own data, how to make the outsourced data secure becomes a hot research topic. From the data integrity protection aspect, the client wants to make sure the data returned is correct, complete, and up-to-date. Previous research work in literature put more efforts on data correctness, while data completeness is still a challenging problem to solve. There are some existing works that tried to protect the completeness of data. Unfortunately, these solutions were considered not fully solving the problem because of their high communication or computation overhead. The implementations and limitations of existing works will be further discussed in this paper. From the data confidentiality protection aspect, order-preserving encryption (OPE) is a widely used encryption scheme in protecting data confidentiality. It allows the client to perform range queries and some other operations such as GROUP BY and ORDER BY over the OPE encrypted data. Therefore, it is worthy to develop a solution that allows user to verify the query completeness for an OPE encrypted database so that both data confidentiality and completeness are both protected. Inspired by this motivation, we propose a new data completeness protecting scheme by inserting fake tuples into databases. Both the real and fake tuples are OPE encrypted and thus the cloud server cannot distinguish among them. While our new scheme is much more efficient than all existing approaches, the level of security protection remains the same.
Roisum, H., Urizar, L., Yeh, J., Salisbury, K., Magette, M..  2019.  Completeness Integrity Protection for Outsourced Databases Using Semantic Fake Data. 2019 4th International Conference on Communication and Information Systems (ICCIS). :222–228.
As cloud storage and computing gains popularity, data entrusted to the cloud has the potential to be exposed to more people and thus more vulnerable to attacks. It is important to develop mechanisms to protect data privacy and integrity so that clients can safely outsource their data to the cloud. We present a method for ensuring data completeness which is one facet of the data integrity problem. Our approach converts a standard database to a Completeness Protected Database (CPDB) by inserting some semantic fake data before outsourcing it to the cloud. These fake data are initially produced using our generating function which uses Order Preserving Encryption, which allows the user to be able to regenerate these fake data and match them to fake data returned from a range query to check for completeness. The CPDB is innovative in the following ways: (1) fake data is deterministically generated but is semantically indistinguishable from other existing data; (2) since fake data is generated by deterministic functions, data owners do not need to locally store the fake data that have been inserted, instead they can re-generate fake data using the functions; (3) no costly data encryption/signature is used in our scheme compared to previous work which encrypt/sign the entire database.
Pflanzner, T., Feher, Z., Kertesz, A..  2019.  A Crawling Approach to Facilitate Open IoT Data Archiving and Reuse. 2019 Sixth International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IOTSMS). :235–242.
Several cloud providers have started to offer specific data management services by responding to the new trend called the Internet of Things (IoT). In recent years, we have already seen that cloud computing has managed to serve IoT needs for data retrieval, processing and visualization transparent for the user side. IoT-Cloud systems for smart cities and smart regions can be very complex, therefore their design and analysis should be supported by means of simulation. Nevertheless, the models used in simulation environments should be as close as to the real world utilization to provide reliable results. To facilitate such simulations, in earlier works we proposed an IoT trace archiving service called SUMMON that can be used to gather real world datasets, and to reuse them for simulation experiments. In this paper we provide an extension to SUMMON with an automated web crawling service that gathers IoT and sensor data from publicly available websites. We introduce the architecture and operation of this approach, and exemplify it utilization with three use cases. The provided archiving solution can be used by simulators to perform realistic evaluations.
[Anonymous].  2018.  Cloud-based Labs and Programming Assignments in Networking and Cybersecurity Courses. 2018 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE). :1—9.

This is a full paper for innovate practice. Building a private cloud or using a public cloud is now feasible at many institutions. This paper presents the innovative design of cloudbased labs and programming assignments for a networking course and a cybersecurity course, and our experiences of innovatively using the private cloud at our institution to support these learning activities. It is shown by the instructor's observations and student survey data that our approach benefits learning and teaching. This approach makes it possible and secure to develop some learning activities that otherwise would not be allowed on physical servers. It enables the instructor to support students' desire of developing programs in their preferred programming languages. It allows students to debug and test their programs on the same platform to be used by the instructor for testing and grading. The instructor does not need to spend extra time administrating the computing environments. A majority (88% or more) of the students agree that working on those learning activities in the private cloud not only helps them achieve the course learning objectives, but also prepares them for their future careers.